The Space Shuttle

Report
THE SPACE SHUTTLE – EARLY DREAMS
HANS MARK
(FORMER DIRECTOR OF THE NASA-AMES RESEARCH CENTER, 1969
TO 1977; DEPUTY ADMINISTRATOR OF NASA, 1981-1984)
UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS AT AUSTIN
AIAA NEW HORIZONS FORUM
ORLANDO, FLORIDA
JANUARY 4, 2011
THE VISION OF SPACE ACTIVITIES IN 1952
• THE COLLIER’S MAGAZINE ARTICLES
- A SERIES OF ARTICLES, “MAN WILL CONQUER SPACE SOON” ARE
PUBLISHED IN THE MAGAZINE BETWEEN 1952 AND 1954
- THE PRINCIPAL AUTHORS ARE WERNHER von BRAUN AND PROFESSORS
JOSEPH KAPLAN OF UCLA AND FRED WHIPPLE OF HARVARD
• SPACE STATION AS A STAGING BASE
- EXPLORATION OF THE MOON AND MARS ARE ULTIMATE OBJECTIVES
- THE NAME “SHUTTLE” CAME NATURALLY BECAUSE THE VEHICLE WAS
INTENDED TO SHUTTLE PEOPLE AND EQUIPMENT BACK AND FORTH
FROM EARTH TO THE SPACE STATION
The Space Station as originally conceived
would eventually lead to the large Space
Base shown to the left. The ring shaped
base would rotate on its axis to provide
artificial gravity for the people living and
working on the Space Base.
The Reusable Space Shuttle
The “Vision” was the Space Shuttle and the
Space Base
THE POST APOLLO PROGRAM
• THE INITIAL FOCUS OF POST APOLLO EFFORTS IS THE USE OF APOLLO
HARDWARE AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF COOPERATIVE INTERNATIONAL
PROGRAMS
- SKYLAB
- APOLLO-SOYUZ
• LONGER TERM PLANS ARE FORMULATED BY THREE GROUPS
- THE SPACE TASK GROUP CHAIRED BY V.P. SPIRO AGNEW ADVOCATES
AN ALL OUT PROGRAM TO PUT PEOPLE ON MARS
- THE PRESIDENT’S SCIENCE ADVISORY COMMITTEE ADVOCATES
REDUCING EMPHASIS ON MANNED SPACE FLIGHT AND HIGHER
PRIORITY TO SCIENTIFIC EXPLORATION WITH ROBOTIC SPACECRAFT
THE POST APOLLO PROGRAM (CONT’D)
- THE MANAGEMENT COUNCIL OF THE OFFICE OF MANNED SPACE
FLIGHT (OMSF) HEADED BY NASA ASSOCIATE ADMINISTRATOR,
GEORGE MUELLER, HAS OTHER IDEAS
- THE PRIORITY OF THE MANAGEMENT COUNCIL IS THE
“DEVELOPMENT OF CAPABILITY” IN SPACE
- THE REGULAR MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL ARE DRS. ROBERT
GILRUTH, DIRECTOR OF THE MANNED SPACECRAFT CENTER;
WERNHER von BRAUN, DIRECTOR OF THE GEORGE C. MARSHALL
SPACE FLIGHT CENTER AND KURT DEBUS, DIRECTOR OF THE
KENNEDY SPACE CENTER
- SEVERAL OTHERS ARE ADDED BY INVITATION INCLUDING THE DIRECTOR
OF THE GODDARD SPACE FLIGHT CENTER, DR. JOHN CLARK; THE
DIRECTOR OF THE JET PROPULSION LABORATORY, DR. WILLIAM
PICKERING AND DR. CHRISTOPHER KRAFT, THE DEPUTY DIRECTOR OF
THE MANNED SPACECRAFT CENTER
THE POST APOLLO PROGRAM (CONT’D)
- H.M. IS ALSO INVITED UPON HIS APPOINTMENT AS DIRECTOR OF THE
NASA-AMES RESEARCH CENTER IN FEBRUARY 1969. NECESSARY
PEOPLE AND FACILITIES, WIND TUNNELS AND FLIGHT SIMULATORS ARE
LOCATED AT AMES
- DRS. von BRAUN AND GILRUTH DOMINATE DISCUSSIONS IN THE
MANAGEMENT COUNCIL
• AT THE URGING OF WERNHER von BRAUN THE OMSF MANAGEMENT
COUNCIL CALLS FOR THE “CREATION OF CAPABILITY” TO PERFORM
BOTH MANNED EARTH ORBITING AND SOLAR SYSTEM EXPLORATION
MISSIONS
- THE CAPABILITY WOULD CONSIST OF A PERMANENTLY OCCUPIED
SPACE STATION IN EARTH ORBIT AND A “SPACE SHUTTLE” TO MOVE
PEOPLE AND CARGO FROM EARTH TO EARTH ORBIT
THE MANAGEMENT COUNCIL OF THE OMSF
Dr. George Mueller
Dr. Robert Gilruth
Dr. Wernher von Braun
Dr. Kurt Debus
This photograph was taken in April 1972 following a sailing race on San
Francisco Bay. Wernher von Braun and I shared a passion for sailing.
THE POST APOLLO PROGRAM (CONT’D)
- THE COUNCIL RECOMMENDS THE CONSTRUCTION OF A SPACE
STATION WITH THE SPACE SHUTTLE AS THE LONG RANGE POST
APOLLO SPACE PROGRAM
- NASA ADMINISTRATOR, THOMAS PAINE, ACCEPTS THE
RECOMMENDATION AND PREPARES TO PERSUADE PRESIDENT
NIXON
THE “CREATION OF CAPABILITY” IN SPACE
• THE SPACE STATION/SPACE SHUTTLE PROPOSAL
- BASIC CONCEPTS FOR SPACE SHUTTLE AND SPACE STATION STUDIED
IN DETAIL AT THE LANGLEY MEMORIAL AERONAUTICAL LABORATORY
OF THE NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS (NACA)
IN THE LATE 1930’s AND THE 1940’s
- THE COLLIER’S ARTICLES WERE BASED ON THIS WORK
• IMPLEMENTATION OF IDEAS PROPOSED BY THE OMSF MANAGEMENT
COUNCIL IN 1969 AND EARLY 1970
- THE SPACE SHUTTLE WOULD BE A FULLY REUSABLE TWO STAGE
LAUNCH VEHICLE WITH REUSABLE BOOSTERS AND ORBITERS
- THE SPACE STATION WOULD BE A LARGE PERMANENTLY OCCUPIED
FACILITY IN EARTH ORBIT
- THE COST ESTIMATE WAS TWENTY FOUR BILLION DOLLARS OVER TEN
YEARS – ROUGHLY THE SAME AS THE APOLLO PROGRAM, 1962-1974
THE “CREATION OF CAPABILITY” IN SPACE (CONT’D)
• LATE IN 1969 DRS. ROBERT GILRUTH AND MAX FAGET OF THE MANNED
SPACE CRAFT CENTER VISIT THE NASA-AMES RESEARCH CENTER
- DISCUSSION OF FULLY REUSABLE SPACE SHUTTLE BY MAX FAGET, THE
PRINCIPAL NASA SPACECRAFT DESIGNER
- H.M. AND AMES COLLEAGUES IMPRESSED BY TECHNICAL AND
PROGRAMMATIC ARGUMENTS
- PRINCIPAL TECHNICAL CHALLENGES WERE THE SHUTTLE MAIN ENGINE
AND THE REUSABLE SURFACE INSULATORS (RSIs)
• NASA ADMINISTRATOR THOMAS PAINE FORMALLY PROPOSES THE
SPACE STATION/SHUTTLE PROGRAM TO THE NIXON ADMINISTRATION
IN SUMMER OF 1970
- THE PROPOSAL IS REJECTED BECAUSE OF COST
- PAINE IS TOLD THAT TWELVE BILLION MIGHT BE AVAILABLE FOR THE
NASA POST APOLLO PROGRAM
Maxime Faget
THE ORIGINAL FULLY REUSABLE SPACE SHUTTLE
THE ORIGINAL FULLY REUSABLE SPACE SHUTTLE (CONT’D)
THE NASA-AMES RESEARCH CENTER
FSAA
Orbiter in Wind Tunnel
Testing of Space Shuttle Tile
Dr. Thomas Paine
NASA Deputy Administrator
January 1968-March 1969
Administrator
March 1969-September 1970
Mr. Dale Myers
Associate Administrator OMSF
1970-1974
THE “CREATION OF CAPABILITY” IN SPACE (CONT’D)
- PAINE RESIGNS IN SEPTEMBER 1970
- DR. GEORGE M. LOW, NASA DEPUTY ADMINISTRATOR BECOMES
ACTING ADMINISTRATOR
• THE CRITICAL CHOICE BETWEEN THE SPACE SHUTTLE AND THE SPACE
STATION
- GEORGE LOW ASKS THE QUESTION: NASA CAN ONLY EXPECT ABOUT
HALF OF WHAT APOLLO PROGRAM RECEIVED FOR NEW PROJECT
OVER THE NEXT TEN YEARS – TWELVE BILLION DOLLARS
- NASA CANNOT DO THE SPACE SHUTTLE AND THE SPACE STATION AT
SAME TIME WITH THESE RESOURCES. WHICH ONE IS FIRST?
- GEORGE LOW INITIATES A STUDY TO HELP REACH THAT DECISION
THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE SPACE SHUTTLE
• DR. JAMES C. FLETCHER BECOMES NASA ADMINISTRATOR APRIL 27, 1971
- FLETCHER IS PRESIDENT OF THE UNIVERSITY OF UTAH BUT HAS A
TECHNICAL AND INDUSTRIAL AEROSPACE BACKGROUND
- THE DECISION IS REACHED TO DEVELOP THE SPACE SHUTTLE BEFORE
THE SPACE STATION
- THE SHUTTLE IS MORE TECHNICALLY DIFFICULT TO PRODUCE
- THE SPACE SHUTTLE IS THE PACING ITEM IN THE NEW SPACE PROGRAM
SO IT DETERMINES THE SCHEDULE
• ADMINISTRATOR FLETCHER TAKES THE SPACE SHUTTLE PROGRAM TO
PRESIDENT NIXON IN THE SUMMER OF 1971
- THE PROPOSAL IS ILL TIMED BECAUSE OF A FINANCIAL CRISIS IN 1971
- ADMINISTRATOR FLETCHER IS TOLD TO DEVELOP THE SPACE SHUTTLE
FOR ABOUT SIX BILLION DOLLARS
- HE DEVELOPS A PLAN FOR THE “STAGE-AND-A-HALF” CONFIGURATION
OF THE SPACE SHUTTLE
Dr. George M. Low
NASA Deputy Administrator
December 1969-June 1976
Acting Administrator
September 1970-April 1971
Dr. James C. Fletcher
NASA Administrator
April 1971-May 1977
THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE SPACE SHUTTLE (CONT’D)
• AIR FORCE INTEREST IN THE SPACE SHUTTLE
- SECRETARY OF THE AIR FORCE DR. ROBERT SEAMANS AND DIRECTOR
OF DEFENSE RESEARCH AND ENGINEERING, DR. JOHN FOSTER EXPRESS
AN INTEREST IN THE SPACE SHUTTLE AS A LAUNCH SYSTEM FOR
MILITARY PAYLOADS
• A NEW CONFIGURATION OF THE SPACE SHUTTLE IS DEVELOPED THAT
CAN MEET MILITARY AND CIVILIAN REQUIREMENTS
- THE NEW STAGE AND A HALF CONFIGURATION IS PROPOSED. THE
CONCEPT OF FULL REUSABILITY IS ABANDONED AND IS REPLACED BY
SOLID ROCKETS AND AN EXTERNAL FUEL TANK
- THE ORBITER REMAINS REUSABLE BUT ITS SIZE IS INCREASED TO
CARRY LARGE SATELLITES.
-THE STRAIGHT WING CONFIGURATION IS CHANGED TO A DELTA WING
TO PROVIDE A CROSS RANGE SO THAT THE ORBITER CAN TAKE OFF
AND RETURN TO THE LAUNCH SITE AFTER ONE ORBIT
THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE SPACE SHUTTLE (CONT’D)
• THE DELTA WING CONFIGURATION REQUIRED A REVISION OF THE ORIGINAL
OPERATION CONCEPT OF THE FULLY REUSABLE SYSTEM
- THE DRAG OF THE DELTA WING IS LOWER THAN THE STRAIGHT WING AT
SUPERSONIC SPEEDS
- THE AUXILIARY ENGINES ON THE STRAIGHT WING VERSION WERE NOT
POWERFUL ENOUGH TO PROVIDE THE THRUST NECESSARY FOR THE
DELTA WING
- TO DESIGN THE NEW SHUTTLE “LIFTING” BODY TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPED
IN THE ’60s AND ‘70s EMPLOYED. AREA OF THE DELTA WING IS SMALL SO
THE FUSELAGE OF THE VEHICLE PROVIDES MUCH OF THE LIFT
The Northrop M2F2 that was
conceived by staff at NASA-Ames
Left to Right: Air Force X-24A,
NASA M2F2 and the NASA HL-10
developed by NASA-Langley
THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE SPACE SHUTTLE (CONT’D)
• THE SPACE SHUTTLE PROGRAM IS APPROVED BY PRESIDENT NIXON ON
JANUARY 5, 1972
- THE OVERALL CONTRACT TO BUILD THE SHUTTLE IS GIVEN TO ROCKWELL
CORPORATION
- THE FIRST FLIGHT IS SCHEDULED FOR 1979
- EVENTUALLY THE POLICY WILL BE THAT ALL U.S. COMMERCIAL AND
GOVERNMENT PAYLOADS WILL BE CARRIED BY THE SHUTTLE
• APPROVAL BASED ON LAUNCH RATE OF FIFTY PER YEAR
- KLAUS HEISS OF MATHEMATICA, INC. BRIEFS ALL CENTER DIRECTORS
AND THEIR SENIOR STAFF
- THERE IS GREAT CONCERN AT AMES ABOUT THIS OPTIMISM BECAUSE IT
WOULD REQUIRE MORE THAN DOUBLING OF FUNDING FOR ALL SPACE
ACTIVITIES BY NASA AND THE MILITARY AND COMMERCIAL SECTORS. (IN
1973, 23 SPACE LAUNCHES OF ALL TYPES WERE CONDUCTED.)
- THERE WAS NO RESPONSE TO THESE CONCERNS
THE SPACE SHUTTLE STAGE- AND-A-HALF CONFIGURATION
NASA Administrator, James Fletcher and President Nixon on January 5, 1972
at the Nixon residence in San Clemente, California
THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE SPACE SHUTTLE (CONT’D)
• ALL NASA CENTER DIRECTORS ARE ASKED TO SUBMIT A LETTER PROVIDING A
JUDGMENT OF THE READINESS OF TECHNOLOGY FOR EMBARKING ON THE
SPACE SHUTTLE PROGRAM
- LETTER FROM H.M. AT AMES DATED FEB. 15, 1972: SELECTED QUOTES:
1.) “ In the area of aerodynamics there seem to be no major technical problems.”
This statement based on more than 10,000 hours of wind tunnel testing from
1960 to 1970
2.) “In the field of handling qualities, terminal guidance and the landing problem
we expect that our flight simulators will play a major role. Although there are
very significant differences between current jet transports and the space
shuttle vehicle (primarily unpowered flight with the associated higher
approach speeds) aircraft guidance and control technology in its current state
can be used for landing the space shuttle vehicle on specially constructed
runways.” This statement said that “dead stick” landing from Earth orbit could
be accomplished.
3.) “In the field of thermal protection it is our view that the shuttle orbiter can be
flown using presently available ablator heat shield technology. There are some
problems dealing with the bonding of the ablator to the metal panels and
particularly with the inspection of the bonds to determine that they are
indeed secure after manufacture. However, we do not believe this is an
THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE SPACE SHUTTLE (CONT’D)
insuperable difficulty and we expect that ablating heat shields can be made to
work on the shuttle orbiter vehicle. It should be recognized of course that the
use of ablators means that the orbiters are not reusable in the general sense of
the term. We believe therefore that in addition to the development of an ablator
system we immediately undertake development of a thermal protection system
using reusable surface insulators (RSIs). The state of technology for RSIs is not
ready in our view at the present time. However, there is a good possibility that if
a concentrated effort is made the RSI technology will be ready for use when the
aerodynamic problems of the orbiter vehicle are solved.” This statement was
based on a 1979 first launch date. Because of delays in the shuttle main engine
program, the RSIs were ready for the first flight in April 1981.
- Conclusion
“It is our considered opinion that there is no technical reason for not
proceeding with the orbiter at the present time. This remark applies to any of
the candidate orbiter configurations. The statement should also be qualified
since some of the requirements that have been placed on the orbiter vehicle
will have to be relaxed if the machine is to use only currently available
technology.”
THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE SPACE SHUTTLE (CONT’D)
• A STRONG RELATIONSHIP IS ESTABLISHED BETWEEN THE NASA-AMES
RESEARCH CENTER AND THE NASA-MANNED SPACECRAFT CENTER TO
WORK ON SPACE SHUTTLE TECHNOLOGY
- THE PEOPLE AND THE FACILITIES AT AMES ARE ESSENTIAL TO THE
SUCCESS OF THE SPACE SHUTTLE PROGRAM
- DR. HOWARD GOLDSTEIN OF THE AMES RESEARCH CENTER LEADS THE
DEVELOPMENT OF THE REUSABLE SURFACE INSULATORS
- THE REUSABLE SURFACE INSULATORS (TILES) ARE INSTALLED ON
“COLUMBIA” FOR THE FIRST FLIGHT
INTERLUDE IN THE AIR FORCE
• H.M. IS APPOINTED UNDER SECRETARY OF THE AIR FORCE (1977 TO 1979)
AND LATER SECRETARY (1971 TO 1981)
- ESTABLISHED AN AIR FORCE MISSION SUPPORT ELEMENT (MSE) AT THE
NASA-LYNDON B. JOHNSON SPACE CENTER (FORMERLY MANNED
SPACECRAFT CENTER)
- INITIATED MOVE TO ESTABLISH AIR FORCE SPACE COMMAND
- AIR FORCE LAUNCH VEHICLES AVAILABLE AT THE TIME: TITAN IIIE AND
TITAN 34D CARRY 35,000 LBS TO LOW EARTH ORBIT
- SPACE SHUTTLE PAYLOAD ESTIMATED AT ABOUT 60,000 LBS IN LOW
EARTH ORBIT. VOLUME OF PAYLOAD BAY ALSO A POSITIVE FACTOR
- SEVERAL IMPORTANT NATIONAL SECURITY RELATED PAYLOADS PLACED
AND EVENTUALLY FLOWN ON THE SPACE SHUTTLE
• H.M. ATTEMPTED AND FAILED TO PERSUADE AIR FORCE TO BUILD SPACE
SHUTTLE LAUNCH FACILITY AT VANDENBERG AIR FORCE BASE
• PRESIDENT CARTER CONSIDERS CANCELLATION OF SPACE SHUTTLE
- DELAYS AND COST GROWTH DUE TO SHUTTLE MAIN ENGINE FAILURES
- H.M. AND DEFENSE SECRETARY HAROLD BROWN PERSUADE PRESIDENT
CARTER TO CONTINUE THE SPACE SHUTTLE PROGRAM.
Decision meeting with President Carter to continue the
Space Shuttle Program, November 14, 1979
OPERATION OF THE SPACE SHUTTLE
• RONALD REAGAN IS INAUGURATED PRESIDENT ON JANUARY 20, 1981
- JAMES M. BEGGS IS NOMINATED TO BE NASA ADMINISTRATOR. BEGGS
IS A FORMER ASSOCIATE ADMINISTRATOR OF NASA AND UNDER
SECRETARY OF TRANSPORTATION
- THE WHITE HOUSE NOTIFIES H.M. ON MARCH 13, 1981 THAT HE WILL
BE NOMINATED DEPUTY ADMINISTRATOR OF NASA
- H.M. VISITS BEGGS IN ST. LOUIS ON MARCH 21, 1981
- BEGGS AND H.M. AGREE ON PRIORITIES FOR NASA: FIRST, MAKE THE
SPACE SHUTTLE WORK AND SECOND, TO PERSUADE THE REAGAN
ADMINISTRATION TO ADOPT THE SPACE STATION AS THE NEXT MAJOR
INITIATIVE IN SPACE
James M. Beggs, NASA Administrator
1981-1985
Hans Mark, Deputy Administrator of NASA
1981-1984
OPERATION OF THE SPACE SHUTTLE (CONT’D)
• THE FIRST LAUNCH OF “COLUMBIA” APRIL 12, 1981
- THE MISSION COMMANDER IS ASTRONAUT JOHN W. YOUNG, A
CIVILIAN AND THE PILOT IS ASTRONAUT ROBERT L. CRIPPEN, A NAVAL
OFFICER AND GRADUATE OF UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS AT AUSTIN
- THE FIRST FOUR SHUTTLE FLIGHTS ARE TEST FLIGHTS WITH CREWS OF
ONLY TWO PEOPLE
- H.M. IS IN THE MISSION OPERATION CONTROL ROOM AT NASA-LBJ
CENTER ALTHOUGH NOT YET CONFIRMED BY SENATE AS DEPUTY
ADMINISTRATOR
Concept
Reality
Max Faget: “Let’s do it again!”
Celebrating a successful first flight of “Columbia”
Mission Control Room at Johnson
Space Center
A tense moment before liftoff
President Reagan talks with orbiting astronauts
The new President has a genuine interest in space flight
SPACE SHUTTLE OPERATIONS (CONT’D)
• SIGNIFICANT OPERATIONS OF SPACE SHUTTLE MISSIONS 1981 TO 1984
(H.M. IS PRESENT IN THE MOCR FOR ALL FLIGHTS EXCEPT STS-7)
-STS-1
-STS-2
“COLUMBIA”
“COLUMBIA”
FIRST FLIGHT APRIL 12-14, 1981
PRESIDENT REAGAN VISITS CONTROL ROOM
NOVEMBER 12-14, 1981
-STS-4 “COLUMBIA”
PRESIDENT REAGAN VISITS EDWARDS AFB ON JULY 4,
1982 FOR LANDING, SAYS “SHUTTLE WILL ESTABLISH A
MORE PERMANENT PRESENCE IN SPACE”
-STS-6 “CHALLENGER” FIRST FLIGHT APRIL 4-9, 1983
-STS-7 “COLUMBIA”
FIRST AMERICAN WOMAN IN SPACE. DR. SALLY RIDE.
PRESIDENT SUHARTO OF INDONESIA AND H.M.
AT NASA-KENNEDY SPACE CENTER FOR LAUNCH
JUNE, 18-24, 1983
-STS-9 “COLUMBIA”
FIRST SPACELAB MISSION, FIRST GERMAN IN SPACE,
DR. ULF MERBOLD NOVEMBER 28-DEC. 8, 1983
-STS-11 “CHALLENGER” SOLAR MAXIMUM SATELLITE RETRIEVAL AND REPAIR
MISSION APRIL 6-13, 1984
-STS-12 “DISCOVERY”
FIRST FLIGHT (H.M. PRESENT BUT WILL LEAVE NASA
ON SEPT. 8, 1984) AUGUST 30-SEPT. 5, 1984
THE SPACE STATION
• A PERMANENTLY OCCUPIED SPACE STATION IN EARTH ORBIT WAS PART
OF THE OMSF MANAGEMENT COUNCIL’S ORIGINAL PLAN IN 1970
- SPACE STATION PLAN MENTIONED TO PRESIDENT REAGAN BY NASA
ADMINISTRATOR BEGGS DURING VISIT TO MOCR ON APRIL 13, 1981
DURING STS- 2
- ON JULY 4, 1981,PRESIDENT REAGAN IS PRESENT AT “COLUMBIA’S”
LANDING AT EDWARDS AFB. IN HIS SPEECH HE MENTIONS HIS
COMMITMENT TO “A MORE PERMANENT AMERICAN PRESENCE IN
SPACE”
• BEGGS JUDGES THAT REAGAN IS PERSONALLY INTERESTED IN SPACE
ACTIVITIES AND CAN BE PERSUADED TO ADOPT SPACE STATION
INITIATIVE
- ASKS NASA STAFF TO DEVELOP SOME SPACE STATION CONCEPTS
THE SPACE STATION (CONT’D)
- SPACE STATION WOULD BE A LABORATORY ON EARTH ORBIT, A
MAINTENANCE AND REPAIR BASE AND A STAGING BASE FOR MORE
AMBITIOUS MISSIONS TO THE MOON AND EVENTUALLY TO MARS
• CAMPAIGN TO PERSUADE REAGAN ADMINISTRATION TO ADOPT
SPACE STATION
- DEBATE OVER SPACE STATION ARCHITECTURE DURING 1982 & 1983
- BEGGS AND H.M. FAVOR A “BASE LINE” CONCEPT WHICH FEATURES
A SMALL CENTRAL STATION ACCOMPANIED BY OTHER MAN TENDED
SPACE CRAFT FLYING “IN FORMATION” FOR SPECIAL PURPOSES AS
ASTRONOMY, EARTH OBSERVATIONS, SPACE MANUFACTURING AND
A LAUNCH FACILITY FOR MISSIONS INTO THE SOLAR SYSTEM
- BEGGS AND H.M. ARGUE THAT THIS CONFIGURATION WOULD BE
LESS EXPENSIVE AND MORE FLEXIBLE THAN A LARGE MONOLITHIC
STATION
- IN CONGRESSIONAL TESTIMONY, BEGGS ARGUES THAT THE “BASE
LINE” SPACE STATION COULD BE “BOUGHT BY THE YARD”. OPPOSITION
ARGUES THAT TOO MUCH EXTRA-VEHICULAR ACTIVITY IS REQUIRED
Base Line Configuration of the Space Station
THE SPACE STATION (CONT’D)
• CRITICAL MEETINGS DURING THE SPACE STATION CAMPAIGN
- AUGUST 8, 1983. MEETING IN WHITE HOUSE SITUATION ROOM
WITH NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL. PRESIDENT, VICE PRESIDENT,
SECRETARY OF DEFENSE, CHAIRMAN OF JOINT CHIEFS OF STAFF,
DIRECTOR OF CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AND NATIONAL SECURITY
ADVISOR ARE PRESENT. H.M. REPRESENTS NASA
- OUTCOME OF MEETING UNCERTAIN
- DECEMBER 1, 1983 MEETING IN CABINET ROOM IN WHITE HOUSE.
CABINET COUNCIL ON TRADE AND COMMERCE MET. PRESIDENT
AND NINE SENIOR CABINET OFFICERS ARE THERE. COMMERCE
SECRETARY MALCOLM BALDRIDGE IS CHAIR. ADMINISTRATOR BEGGS
MAKES A PRESENTATION WHICH SPARKS LIVELY DISCUSSION
- H.M. ASKS WOOD SHOP AT NASA-LANGLEY TO MAKE A MODEL OF
THE SPACE STATION AS THEN CONCEIVED
- DECEMBER 5, 1983. FINAL DECISION BY PRESIDENT REAGAN TO
APPROVE $150 MILLION TO START THE SPACE STATION PROGRAM
First rough draft drawing of the
Space Station appeared in 1983.
Gil Rye explains the Space Station model at
the Cabinet Council meeting. The model was
made by the Model Wood Shop of the NASALangley Research Center.
Cabinet Council Meeting to reach
the decision to build a space station.
December 1, 1983
President Reagan delivers the “State of the
Union” message in which he proposed the
construction of a Space Station.
THE SPACE STATION (CONT’D)
• PRESIDENT REAGAN’S STATE OF THE UNION ADDRESS ON JANUARY 25,
1984
- IMPORTANT EXCERPTS:
“America has always been greatest when we dared to be great. We can
reach for greatness again.
We can follow our dreams to distant stars, living and working in space for
peaceful, economic and scientific gain. Tonight, I am directing NASA to develop a
permanent manned space station and to do it within a decade.
We want our friends to help us meet these challenges and share in their
benefits.
NASA will invite other countries to participate so we can strengthen peace,
build prosperity and expand freedom for all who share our goals.”
- THESE WERE OUR MARCHING ORDERS
- ON JUNE 24, 1984, THE CONGRESS APPROVED OUR REQUEST OF $150
MILLION TO INITIATE THE SPACE STATION PROGRAM
London Economic Summit Meeting, June 1984: President Reagan explains
the Space Station to Prime Ministers, Left to Right: Margaret Thatcher of
U.K., Bettino Craxi of Italy, Pierre Trudeau of Canada and Yasuhiro
Nakasone of Japan.
THE DREAM FADES
• H.M. DECISION TO LEAVE NASA
- SPACE SHUTTLE OPERATIONS GOING WELL
- SPACE STATION ADOPTED AS NEW INITIATIVE BY REAGAN ADMINISTRATION
- CONGRESSIONAL APPROVAL PROCESS WELL UNDERWAY
- PERSONAL PROBLEM: FOLLOWING 15 YEARS OF FEDERAL SERVICE
HAD ACCUMULATED PERSONAL DEBT OF $40,000
- ACCEPTED OFFER TO BECOME CHANCELLOR OF UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS
SYSTEM ON APRIL 14, IN 1984
• SOLID ROCKET MOTOR SEAL PROBLEM
- WAIVER OF FULL REDUNDANCY REQUIREMENT ON MARCH 28, 1983
CAUSED BY OBSERVED O-RING SEAL EROSION. H.M. INFORMED OF
ACTION BY ACTING ASSOCIATE ADMINISTRATOR FOR SPACE FLIGHT
L. MICHAEL WEEKS AND CONCURS BASED ON TITAN III EXPERIENCE
- VERY SERIOUS O-RING SEAL EROSION OBSERVED ON FLIGHT STS-10
(STS-41B), FEB. 3-11, 1984 RESULTS IN “ACTION ITEM” BY H.M. TO
PERFORM COMPLETE REVIEW OF SOLID ROCKET MOTOR, SEALS AND
JOINTS BY MAY 30, 1984
THE DREAM FADES (CONT’D)
- H.M. ANNOUNCES RESIGNATION FROM NASA ON MAY 1, 1984 AND WAS
OUT OF THE DECISION MAKING LOOP
- REVIEW REQUIRED BY H.M. ACTION ITEM HELD ON AUGUST 19, 1985
FIFTEEN MONTHS AFTER REQUESTED DEADLINE. RESULT IS HIGHLY
QUALIFIED RECOMMENDATION TO KEEP FLYING.
• REPLACEMENT AS DEPUTY ADMINISTRATOR
- DR. WILLIAM R. GRAHAM IS SWORN IN AS DEPUTY ADMINISTRATOR OF
NASA ON NOVEMBER 25, 1985, EIGHTEEN MONTHS FOLLOWING H.M.
RESIGNATION
- NASA ADMINISTRATOR BEGGS REQUIRED TO TAKE LEAVE OF ABSENCE
ON DECEMBER 2, 1985. DR. GRAHAM BECOMES ACTING ADMINISTRATOR
• H.M. VERY CONCERNED AND UPSET BY DEVELOPMENTS BUT IS ONLY A
SPECTATOR
- WRITES LETTER ON DECEMBER 3, 1985 TO V.P. GEORGE H.W. BUSH
SUGGESTING DR. JAMES FLETCHER BE NAMED ACTING ADMINISTRATOR
- RESPONSE IS AMBIGUOUS
• THE SPACE SHUTTLE “CHALLENGER” IS LOST ON JANUARY 28, 1986
THE FUTURE
• SHALL WE FOLLOW THE CHINESE EXAMPLE?
- ZHENG HE CONDUCTS SEVEN LONG SEA VOYAGES BETWEEN 1403
AND 1433 USING LARGE SAILING SHIPS
- MANDARIN MING DYNASTY BUREAUCRATS END THE EXPLORATIONS
BY OUTLAWING SHIPS WITH MORE THAN TWO MASTS
• SHALL WE CONTINUE TO LEAD THE WORLD IN SPACE FLIGHT
TECHNOLOGY?
- HYPERSONIC ATMOSPHERIC FLIGHT
- REUSABLE SPACECRAFT
X-51A WAVERIDER
Boeing X-37B

similar documents