The Paula Principle “Most women work below their level of competence” Tom Schuller NHS Employers Strategic Forum Oct 2014 www.paulaprinciple.com The challenge “The NHS is committed to offering development and learning opportunities for all full-time and part-time staff. No matter where you start within the NHS you'll have access to extra training and be given every opportunity to progress within the organisation.” www.nhscareers.nhs.uk/working-in-the-nhs/developing-yourcareer/ The Peter Principle (1969) “Every employee rises to his level of incompetence” The Paula Principle in short Across OECD countries, a growing female/male gender gap in educational performance. But on the employment side – careers and pay – the male\female gap is closing only slowly – if at all. Source OECD Closing the Gender Gap 2012 Key Crossovers Girls overtake boys in getting 2+ A levels 1989 Women overtake men in HE participation 1994 Ditto at postgraduate level 2001 Women more likely to go on adding to their human capital….. Proportion of population undertaking training or education in last four weeks by age and gender Source: Eurostat; in Houston & Osborne THEMP 2013 Whilst on pay and careers it’s a very different story…….. Source: HM Revenue and customs 28/12/2012 Pay gap: closing but for how long? The crucial importance of a lifecourse perspective 35 30 percengtage gap 25 20 1958 cohort 15 1970 cohort 10 5 0 20 30 40 Age Source: Jenny Neuberger % of women in the NHS : • · chief executives – 40% • · finance directors – 26% • · nursing directors – 87% • · HR directors – 69% • · medical directors – 24% % of consultants: 67% men 33% women % of doctors in training: 42% men 58% women ”Full-time women achieved hospital consultant status slightly earlier– on average in 11.3 years compared to full-time men’s 11.7 - and they are as likely as men if not more so to be found working in hospital specialisms as in general practice, though their specialism choices are different. But women who at any point work part-time are very heavily over-represented in general practice, and take much longer to achieve consultant status, if they get there at all. Amongst the 1977 and 1988 graduates working in hospitals only 67% of those who had not always worked full-time from the first two cohorts had reached consultant status, compared with 96% of men and 92% of women who had always worked full-time.” Kathryn S Taylor, Trevor W Lambert, Michael J Goldacre, ‘ Career progression and destinations, comparing men and women in the NHS: postal questionnaire surveys’, British Medical Journal 2009;338:b1735 ‘Careers’: not only ‘professionals’ ‘Careers’: is it the glass ceiling? Or the sticky floor? What explains the PP? • • • • Discrimination Structural: child/eldercare Psychology: self-confidence+ Vertical networks • Choice Issues for discussion (alongside the 5 factors) • How accurately and appropriately do our systems reward ‘competence’? • What more could be done to value ‘nontraditional’ career paths, especially when people have longer working lives? • How far can you innovate/tailor your practices to meet the PP challenge ?