Technological Advancements in Coal Beneficiation

Report
4th Coal Summit 2012
Coal-Bridging the Gap :
Challenges and Strategies
Hotel The Ashok
19th&20th November’12
Technological Advancements
in Coal Beneficiation
Sunil Yadav
Vice President - Projects & Systems
INTERNAL
PRESENTATION OUTLINE
1. Introduction
2. Coal Preparation Overview
3. Design Philosophy
4.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
Technology Advancements in
Slurry Pumping
Classification
Gravity Separation
Flotation
Thickening
Mechanical Dewatering
5. Summary
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Date Author Title
INTERNAL
Introduction
•Coal will continue to occupy the centre stage in India’s energy scenario.
•Coal accounts for more than 50% of India’s commercial energy.
•About 75% of the coal in the country is consumed in Power Industry.
•Coal is abundant in India but primarily high in ash and needs to be washed
•Coal Washing in India grews at a CAGR of more than 13% over the past 5 years.
•It is predicted that it will grow at a CAGR of more than 20% in coming 5 to 7 Years.
•20% of coal produced is washed in India against a Global average of 50%
•All Coking Coal produced in India gets washed but very little Thermal Coal is
washed.
•The Trend is shifting to washing of non coking coal due to environmental reasons.
•Coal Washing increases the cost of coal, but benefits far outweigh the additional
cost.
•Benefits accrued in terms of savings in transportation, O&M cost and Efficiency far
exceeds the cost incurred.
•Technology should be adapted to make Coal washing an integral part of our Energy
Chain.
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Date Author Title
INTERNAL
Coal Preparation Overview
The process adopted for Coal Washing
Washery
5
Heavy Media
Jigs
Dugda 1, BCCL
Tromp Bath
Dugda 2, BCCL
HM Cyclone
Bhojudih,BCCL
Bath
Batac
Patherdih,BCCL
Bath
Baum
Sudamdih,BCCL
HM Cyclone
Moonidih, BCCL
HM Cyclone
Mahuda, BCCL
HM Cyclone
Kargali,CCL
Wemco Drum
Batac
Kedla,CCL
HM Cyclone
Batac
Piparwar,CCL
HM Cyclone
Batac
Jamadoba,TISCO
HM Cyclone
Dorr-Oliver
Bhelatand,TISCO
HM Cyclone
Dorr-Oliver
West Bokaro #2,#3,TISCO
HM Cyclone
Outotec
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Date Author Title
Baum/Komag
Flotation
Others
Denver-Metso
Denver-Metso
Denver-Metso
Wemco
W/O Cyclones
Wemco
DESIGN PHILOSOPHY
UPGRADATION EFFICIENCIES
100
80
60
40
20
0
10
100
Flotation
Size in Microns
Spirals
1000
H.M. Cyclone
Trends in Coal Washing
HMC
Jigs
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10000
Jigs
Single
Process
to
Multiple
Process
INTERNAL
Building Blocks of a Coal Washery
INPUT
Pumping
Classification
Unit
Operations
Gravity Separation
Flotation
Thickening
Mechanical
Dewatering
OUTPUT
7
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Date Author Title
Technological Advancements in
a. Slurry Pumping
INPUT
Pumping
Classification
Gravity Separation
Flotation
Thickening
1. Pump Metallurgy has improved over the years
Cast Iron
Ni Hard
2. Plants are now Pump Fed instead of Gravity Fed
resulting in lower fixed and operating costs
3. Large Capacity Pumps > 5000 m3/h available
a. Single large module in place of many smaller ones.
b. Smaller foot print of the plant
c. Pumping cost reduced.
d. Reduced Capex/Opex.
4.Local Manufacturing by
International Companies
has lowered the Capex.
Mechanical
Dewatering
OUTPUT
8
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27% Chrome
24 inch pump can handle
>5000 m3/hr flow
Technological Advancements in
b. Classification - Multiflo Banana
INPUT
Pumping
Classification
Gravity Separation
Flotation
Thickening
Mechanical
Dewatering
OUTPUT
9
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1. Multiflo Screens
1. Are becoming Popular for Classification
2. Are becoming popular for Drain & Rinse
3. Replace Sieve Bend
4. Have smaller footprint for same capacity
5. Have large capacity and help in designing
high capacity single module.
6. Largest width > 4m,length > 8m ( 4.2x8.5)
7. 70% more capacity than sievebendscreen combination
8. Are available in Single or double deck.
INTERNAL
4.2m wide x 8.4 m long screen
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Date Author Title
Technological Advancements
b. Classification- Hydrocyclones
INPUT
Pumping
2. Cyclones are
a.extensively used below 150 Microns
b. Range from 25mm to 1200mm
c. Capacities upto 2000 m3/hr

Materials of Construction
Classification
–
–
Gravity Separation
Flotation
Thickening
Mechanical
Dewatering
OUTPUT
11
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–
–
–
–
Polyurethane
Mild steel with replaceable
rubber liners
Mild steel Polyurethane Lined
Mild steel with SiC Liners
Mild steel with Alumina tiles
Cast Iron
INPUT
Technological Advancements in
c. Gravity Separation - Coarse Coal
Jigs- Baum/Batac
Pumping
Classification
Gravity Separation
Flotation
Are the most popular in India
Available as 2 products/3 products
Simple to operate
No Magnetite Required
Work at very high cut densities
Very good deshaler.
Ref : Rajrappa/Bhojudih/Dugda/Kedla/Piparwar etc
Drewboys can handle ROM at
capacities > 600 tph per unit
Ref : Kathara, Durgapur
Thickening
Mechanical
Dewatering
OUTPUT
12
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LoFlo Bath are available from 5’ to 9’
and can handle 10”coal at 250 tph per unit
Ref : Aryan/Global/Gupta Coal
Technological Advancements in
c. Gravity Separation- Medium and Small Coal
INPUT
Pumping
Classification
Gravity Separation
HM Cyclones
Handles coal of 50mm
Has Epm <0.03
Largest is 1450mm dia
Available in Ni Hard/Ceramic
Life ~ 2 years
Largest Module > 500 tph
No moving parts
Ref : TISCO/Jindals/ST-CLI etc
Flotation
Thickening
Mechanical
Dewatering
OUTPUT
13
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INTERNAL
1500 mm Dia HM Cyclone- Worlds Largest-at Multotec South Africa
14
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Date Author Title
Technological Advancements in
c. Gravity Separation- Fine Coal
INPUT
Pumping
Classification
Gravity Separation
Flotation
Thickening
Mechanical
Dewatering
OUTPUT
15
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Spirals
1. Handles coal 1mm x0.1mm
2. Handle Oxidised/Weathered Coal
3. Single/Double/Tripple Start
4. Cheapest Opex-Gravity is free
5. Lasts too long, sometimes > 8 yrs
6. With & Without Wash water
7. No moving parts, No reagents
8. Simple to Operate
9. MX7-Double Stage available
Technological Advancement in
d. Flotation - Mechanical Tank Cells
INPUT
Mechanical Cells
Pumping
•Popular for Rougher
Classification
•Installed at West Bokaro/Jamadoba/Bhelatand/
•Gidi/Dugda/Rajrappa etc for Coking Coal
•No Reference in Non Coking Coal
Gravity Separation
•Lab Trials show that it is possible to float Thermal Coal
Tank Cells of 200 m3 volume are available
Flotation
Thickening
Mechanical
Dewatering
OUTPUT
16
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Technological Advancement in
d. Flotation – Microcel Column
INPUT
Pumping
Classification
•
•
•
Gravity Separation
•
Flotation
Thickening
Mechanical
Dewatering
OUTPUT
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•
Invented during the 70s
Emerged during the 80s
One column replaces
several cleaning stages
Allows
high
concentrates
grade
Simplifies flowsheets
Cleaner Stage
Rougher Stage
Scavenger Stage
1
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Sparger
Retrofit
Product Ash / Yield Relationship
Yield (%)
Same Product Ash
Increase in Yield
Air-water or air-only sparger
Cisa (Microcel™) sparger
Product Ash (%)
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Benefits of Column Flotation
•
•
•
•
•
•
Improved Recovery
Optimized Grade
Increased Throughput
No Plugging
On-line Replacement
Reduced Wear &
Maintenance
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Moura Dawson
(Anglo Coal)
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INPUT
Technological Advancements in
e.Thickening - Lamellas
•
•
•
•
Pumping
•
•
Classification
Gravity Separation
Flotation
Lamella Thickener 12m dia in
700 tph coal washery in JPL in Tamnar.
Thickening
Mechanical
Dewatering
OUTPUT
22
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Compact Design-Space Saving
Small Footprint
Easy Control
~1/3rd the dia of conventional
thickener
Less or No Flocculant
Quick Stabiliasation
Coal References in India
•Gupta Coal, 2 nos in WCL Area
•Global Coal inTalcher
•Global Coal in Ramagundam
•Electrosteel Washery in Parbatpur
•Jindal Power at Tamnar
•Jindal Steel at Barbil
•Bhatia Coal in WCL Area
•Eastern Steel and Power ,Jharsugude
Lamella Thickener 12m dia in
350 tph coal washery in Electrosteel-Bokaro
Thickening - Conventional & Lamella
50 Metres
Diameter
21 Metres
Diameter
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Date/Title/Author
Technological Advancements in
f. Mechanical Dewatering
INPUT
Pumping
Coarse Coal
Centrifuge
Can handle upto 50mm
Mechanical Dewatering is
being stretched to lower
the moisture in the product
Classification
Gravity Separation
Flotation
Dewatering
HF Screen
Low Power Consumtion
~5 Times Gravitational Pull
Drum Filters
Disc are getting phased out
Thickening
Mechanical
Dewatering
OUTPUT
24
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Pressure Filters
Future of Coal Industry
Massey Coal in US were the first to use.
ZERO WASTE SOLUTION FOR THERMAL COAL
PULVERIZED FUEL POWER
STATION
METSO
COAL PREPARATION PLANT
ELECTRICITY TRANSMISSION
METSO
FLY ASH
CLASSIFIER
COAL MINE
REJECTS
COAL
COARSE
ASH
FINE ASH
CEMENT INDUSTRY
LWA SINTER PLANT
ELECTRICITY TRANSMISSION
25
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LWA utilization
METSO
CFBC POWER PLANT
ZERO WASTE SOLUTION FOR METALLURGICAL COAL
PULVERIZED FUEL POWER
STATION
BLAST FURNACE
CLEAN
COAL
ELECTRICITY TRANSMISSION
METSO
FLY ASH
CLASSIFIER
COAL MINE
METSO
COAL PREPARATION PLANT
REJECTS
COAL
COARSE
ASH
FINE ASH
CEMENT INDUSTRY
LWA SINTER PLANT
ELECTRICITY TRANSMISSION
LWA utilization
METSO
CFBC POWER PLANT
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