Alternate Pavement Bidding in Missouri

Report
March 3, 2011
Natalie Roark, P.E.
Missouri Department of Transportation
Radical Cost Control
Responsibility
5,000 miles of Major Roads
27,000 miles of Minor Roads
10,000 Bridges
Annual Pavement Quantities
Year
Asphalt
Tons
Concrete
$$
YD3
$$
1992
4,950,706
106,542,443
599,575
30,760,634
1995
2,110,902
50,445,371
744,506
63,910,232
2000
5,115,218
200,192,172
1,141,790
108,794,341
2005
8,035,462
397,618,849
604,216
78,585,445
2006
2,467,655
134,679,642
573,052
77,422,513
2007
3,745,808
178,237,592
867,917
103,433,907
2008
2,087,204
122,035,246
667,354
90,891,896
2009
4,719,775
258,484,735
853,350
112,257,492
Cost Control in Missouri
implementation - the road to success
•
Past Decade – Letting schedules optimized
• Spring 2002 – Performance Specs written
• Fall 2003 – Alternate bidding pavements required
• December 2004 – Practical Design
concept pitched to Commission
• Spring 2005 – Districts challenged to cut
STIP 10%
• Fall 2005 – First Practical
Design Policy written
• 2006 – First Design/Build
Projects
• Fall 2007 – First ATC Project
Alternate Pavement Bidding
maximizing competition
CONCRETE
ASPHALT
Radical Cost Control
•
Concrete or asphalt? Let the marketplace decide.
First Alternate Bidding Pilot
 Missouri let five pilot projects in 1996
 Project conditions included
 Design costs within 15% of each other
 At least one mile of paving
 Primary work was paving
 Minimal grade change impact
 Area unit prices
 An LCCA adjustment factor was used
First Alternate Bidding Pilot
 Bidding Results: 3 Asphalt / 2 Concrete
 Low paving prices, but not lower than
expected
 Higher number of bidders per project
 Overall - no verdict, process went dormant
Alternate Bidding Restart
Fall 2002
 Pavement Team Developed: Composed of
MoDOT, PCC and HMA paving industry, and
FHWA representatives;
 Recommended in 2003 to restart alternate
pavement design bidding
 Initial hesitation by concrete industry
 LCCA assumptions difficult to reach consensus on
Alternate Bidding
Pavement Design
 From 1993 – 2004 a simple catalogue design,
derived from the 1986 AASHTO Guide for the
Design of Pavement Structures, was used for
new Jointed Plain Concrete pavements.
 The Pavement Team recommended adopting a
mechanistic-empirical (M-E) design approach for
pavements in Missouri.
M-E Pavement Design Guide
 Beneficial component of making the Alternate
Pavement Bidding process successful.
 Design method had common input parameters for
both pavement types.
 Adopted by AASHTO as state of the art design
method.
 Had industry support to make it successful.
Alternate Pavement Design

‘Structurally Equivalent’ concrete
and asphalt construction and
rehabilitation solutions

Life Cycle Cost Analysis Adjustment
factor applied to the asphalt bid
M-E Design Implementation
 Started using nationally-calibrated MEPDG
program at the beginning of 2005 for PCC and
HMA designs.
 Average PCC thicknesses reduced by
 ~ 2” for high truck volume routes
 ~ 1” for low to medium truck volume routes
 Average HMA thicknesses reduced by
 ~ 3-4” for high truck volume routes
 ~ 1-2” for low to medium truck volume routes
Alternate Pavements - Policy
• Alternate pavement design with a LCCA factor for
projects with 7500 sq yd in a continuous area
• New full depth and major rehabilitation construction
• Optional pavement designs without a LCCA factor
for smaller paving quantities
Alternate Pavement Designs
 New construction (based on M-E Design Guide)
 Concrete
 Asphalt
 Rehabilitation
 8“ Unbonded PCC overlay (UBOL)
 Rubblization w/ 12“ HMA overlay
Design Transition
 Not as bad as initially thought
 After several iterations the procedures were
simplified to one set of designs
 Alternate (or optional) bid designs have become
second nature to MoDOT and consultant
designers
Method of Measurement
 New PCC and HMA measured in square yards
 Unbonded overlays measured in cubic yards for
furnishing and square yards for placing
 HMA overlay (on rubblized PCC) measured in
wet tons
Alternate Design
Life Cycle Costs
 LCCA used solely to determine adjustment
factor for 45-year design life
 Life cycle costs considered
 Initial Construction
 Maintenance
 Rehabilitation
 Salvage value
 User costs
Rehabilitation Assumptions
 Asphalt
 Mill and fill wearing course at 20 years in
driving lanes
 Mill and fill wearing course at 33 years across
whole surface
 Concrete
 Diamond grind whole surface and perform
full-depth repairs on 1.5% of surface area at
25 years
Adjustment Factor =
Present Worth of Future Asphalt Rehab Present Worth of Future Concrete Rehab
Adjustment
Factor
Spreadsheet
Used by
Central Office
Estimating
Section
Low bidder = lower of (PCC
bid price) vs. (HMA bid
price + adjustment factor)
Alternate Bid Example #1
 21 miles of grading and paving new dual lane on US 63






in Macon/Adair Counties
Adjustment factor = $1,541,000
Low HMA construction bid = $22,220,790
Low HMA bid for comparison = $23,761,790
Low PCC construction bid = $24,320,546
Winner  low HMA bid
Adjustment factor has no impact
Alternate Bid Example #2
 8 miles of grading, paving, and bridges for new dual






lane on US 36 in Macon County
Adjustment factor = $964,800
Low HMA construction bid = $40,499,627
Low HMA bid for comparison = $41,464,427
Low PCC construction bid = $35,322,473
Winner  low PCC bid
Adjustment factor has no impact
Alternate Bid Example #3
 11 miles of grading and paving new dual lane on US






63 in Randolph County
Adjustment factor = $1,469,200
Low HMA construction bid = $25,262,509
Low HMA bid for comparison = $26,731,709
Low PCC construction bid = $26,452,184
Winner  low PCC bid
Adjustment factor HAS impact
Alternate Pavement Update for
Jobs Thru Dec 2010 with LCCA
Factor
 187 Alternate Projects to Date ($2.234 bil)
 174 Full Depth ($2.052 bil)
 13 Rehabilitation ($182.1 mil)
 Full Depth
 59 Asphalt Awards ($539.4 mil)
 115 Concrete Awards ($1.513 bil)
 Rehabilitation
 1 Asphalt Award ($2.6 mil)
 12 Concrete Awards ($179.5 mil)
Results: Difference in Low Bids
 Low PC Bids vs. Low AC Bids LCCA Factor not Applied



PC Total – $854,428,378
AC Total - $871,075,824
Difference - $16,647,446 (1.9%)
 Low PC Bids vs. Low AC Bids LCCA Factor Applied



PC Total – $854,428,378
AC Total - $901,988,624
Difference - $47,560,246 (5.6%)
 LCCA Factor has Determined Low Bid 4 Times since
October 2003.
Number of Bidders
Price Summaries
 Start of Alt Paving in 2003-2005 price difference
from alt to non-alt for same items of work - 10%
 Since then still savings but all jobs are alt so hard to
make a valid comparison.
Other Optional Bidding
 Intermediate overlays
 5 ¾” HMA vs.
 5” ‘big block’ PCC
 Thinner overlays
 3 ¾” HMA vs.
 4” ultrathin PCC
Other Optional Bidding
 Thin overlays
 1 ¾” HMA vs.
 1” HIR plus surface treatment
and
 3 ¾” HMA vs.
 4” CIR plus surface treatment
Optional Shoulder Designs
 A2 design
 5 ¾” HMA
 5 ¾” PCC
 A3 design
 3 ¾” HMA
 4” PCC (also roller compacted option)
“It appears that MoDOT has developed a
balanced, innovative program that could
serve as a national model for other
highway agencies throughout the nation
and beyond.”
Thank You and Questions!
For more information including example plans
and specifications go to:
http://epg.modot.mo.gov
Natalie Roark, P.E.
[email protected]
(573) 751-3726
2011Virginia Concrete Conference
March 3, 2011
Richmond, VA
Bob Long
Executive Director
ACPA Mid-Atlantic Chapter
Evolution of Alternate Design Alternate
Bid (ADAB) Procedures
 Joint efforts began in the Fall 2007
including WVDOH, FHWA and industry.
 Formal procedures implemented in July
2008
 All procedures finalized June 2010
CORRIDOR H – US 48
MOOREFIELD (July 2008)
 First “formal” Alternate Bid pavement project
 10.6 miles
 4-lane arterial
 No life cycle cost adjustment (C factor)
 Included asphalt escalator
 Asphalt by the ton and PCCP by the SY
CONCRETE PAVEMENT DESIGN
Description:
Pavement Typical
 Perpetual pavement design
10” Jointed Plain
Concrete Pavement
4”
Free Drain Base
provided by Industry using
Westergaard Equations Design
 10” Jointed Plain Concrete
Pavement on 4” free draining base
 15’ doweled joints
 Full depth tied concrete shoulders
Assumptions:
•Analysis period = 50 yrs
•Initial performance period = 22 yrs
•Rehab performance period for CPR = 14 yrs
•Rehab performance period for Overlay = 14 yrs
•No Salvage value @ year 50
•Rehab #1 – diamond grinding and 7.5% joint patching
•Rehab #2 – overlay w/2” skid resistant mix w/PMA and 2% joint
patching
ASPHALT PAVEMENT DESIGN
Pavement Typical
2”
12.5mm skid w/76-22 AC
2.5” 19mm mix w/76-22 AC
4”
25mm mix w/64-22 AC
5” 37.5mm mix w/64-22 AC + 0.5%
AC content
4”
Free Drain Base
Description:
 Perpetual pavement design
provided by Industry using
PerRoad 3.2 Design Program
 13.5” HMA on 4” free draining base
 Use PG 76-22 polymer modified
asphalt (PMA) binder in top 4.5”
and on future overlays
 Increase AC by 0.5% in bottom 5”
Assumptions:
•Analysis period = 50 yrs
•Initial performance period w/PMA = 22 yrs
•Rehab performance period w/PMA = 14 yrs
•No salvage value @ year 50
•Rehab #1 – mill and resurface w/2” skid resistant mix w/PMA
•Rehab #2 – mill and resurface w/2” skid resistant mix w/PMA
West Virginia Department of Transportation
Division of Highways
Bid Results - Letting of July 15, 2008
PROJECT NUMBER &
BIDDERS
APD-0484(308) (X312-H93.38)
Kokosing Construction Co.,
Inc. (PCCP)
Hi-Way Paving, Inc. (PCCP)
Anthony Allega Cement
Contractor, Inc. (PCCP)
West Virginia Paving, Inc.
(Asphalt)
McCarthy Improvement
Company (PCCP)
Cherry Hill Construction, Inc.
(PCCP)
BID
34,544,899.90
36,137,190.09
36,995,205.73
38,072,526.42
41,096,902.30
44,354,677.45
SECTION 690
MAINLINE PAVEMENT
690 – GENERAL
690.1 - DESCRIPTION:
This Special Provision shall define the requirements to construct
mainline pavement, which includes roadway pavement and full depth
paved shoulders, to the limits as shown by the contract plans. The
contractor shall construct one of the pavement systems as described
herein and by the contract plans.
CONCRETE PAVEMENT SYSTEM:
A concrete pavement system shall be constructed as defined by the
concrete typical section(s) and all other documents referenced in the
contract plans. This work and materials shall include jointed plain
concrete pavement, free draining base, fabric for separation, subgrade,
and subgrade preparation
ASPHALT PAVEMENT SYSTEM:
An asphalt pavement system shall be constructed as defined by the
asphalt typical section(s) and all other documents referenced in the
contract plans. This work and materials shall include asphalt wearing
surface, asphalt base courses, free draining base, fabric for separation,
subgrade, and subgrade preparation.
.
RECENT ADAB PROJECTS
WV 10 – 3.7 miles




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4-lane arterial on new alignment – pre-graded
10” PCCP vs. 12.25” Asphalt
Bid by the SY of Mainline Pavement
4 of the 6 bidders bid concrete and the low concrete bid
was 17% lower than asphalt
Low SY price was $60.00
King Coal US52 – 9.5 miles




Pre-graded and bid by the SY of Mainline Pavement
10” PCCP vs. 11.5” Asphalt
5 out of 6 bidders went concrete and the concrete bid
was 3% lower than asphalt
Low SY price was $48.45
RECENT ADAB PROJECTS
WV Corridor H, US 48 – 3.3 miles





4-lane arterial on new alignment – pre-graded
10” PCCP vs. 13.5” Asphalt
Bid by the SY of Mainline Pavement
4 of the 5 bidders bid concrete and the low concrete bid
was 29% lower than asphalt
Low SY price was $46.40
WV ADAB Bid Results
Millions of Dollars
45
40
35
30
25
Asphalt
Concrete
20
15
10
5
0
Corridor H
2008
Route 10
2009
Route 52
2009
Corridor H
2010
RECENT ADAB PROJECTS
US Route 35, Putnam County – 14.5 miles






Design build – lump sum bid
4-lane arterial with structures on new alignment – grade,
drain, pave & structures
Bid by the SY of Mainline Pavement
10” PCCP vs. 12.5” Asphalt
Four proposers – 3 confirmed use of concrete pavement
Successful team went with concrete
RECENT ADAB PROJECTS
WV Corridor H, US 48 – 6.0 miles






Design bid build
4-lane arterial with structures on new alignment – grade,
drain, pave & structures
Bid by the SY of Mainline Pavement
10” PCCP vs. 12.5” Asphalt
Low bidder went with concrete
Low SY price was $44.50
THE RESULTS
 8 out of 9 projects went concrete when
bid as an alternate to asphalt
 On these projects about 80% of the
bidders have bid concrete and all have
had at least 4 bidders
 WVDOH has saved $9,800,000 just on the
four paving jobs alone over the low
asphalt bids.
UPCOMING ADAB PROJECTS
1. Route 9 - Charlestown - VA line – 3.1 miles
paving only
2. Corridor H - Rte. 1 to Mount Storm – 11.8 miles
paving only
3. Corridor H - Mount Storm to Parsons - 10 miles
grade, drain, & pave
Why ADAB “Works” in WV
 WVDOH senior management support
 Strong new construction program
 Equivalent designs
 Economized PCCP design (no seal, no dowels in
shoulder, no cure on CTOGB
 Most asphalt work controlled by one company
Alternate Design
Alternate Bid
Questions?????
www.midatlantic.pavement.com
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