- University of Management Technology

Report
Third International Textile Conference on
Textile and Clothing , Lahore ,Pakistan
28th and 29th March 2011
Pearl Continental Hotel Lahore
A Study of Possibility of Improvement of Physical
&Mechanical Characteristics of Damask Fabrics
Assoc. Professor Dr. Taher Rajab Kaddar
Department of Textile and Spinning Engineering
Faculty of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering
AL-Baath University - Syria
E - mail : [email protected]
A Study of
Possibility of
Improvement of
Physical
&Mechanical
Characteristics
of Damask
Fabrics
Dr. Taher Rajab Kaddar
Associate Professor
Department of Textile and
Spinning Engineering
Faculty of Chemical and
Petroleum Engineering
AL-Baath University
Syria
E-mail :[email protected]
2
1-Introduction
1-Introduction:
Syrian textile industry works to enhancing the marketing of their products.
The physical and mechanical properties play an important role in achieving
competitiveness.
The Damask Fabrics are a significant heritage products in Syria. Damask Fabrics
manufacturing technology, was one of the five weaving technologies centers in
Byzantine and Islamic in the early Middle Ages .
It has been in the last century and in this century manufactured from silk , cotton...
as Broker fabrics , Damask Fabrics , Al-Aagbani,
Those textiles are still popular despite the competition with foreign industry .
It draw the attention of foreigners in Damascus, and they buy them for their friends
and relatives in their country.
It is enough to know that the wedding dress of Queen Elizabeth II of Britain was
made of the Damascus Brokar tissues. in 1947.
3
1-Introduction
Today's Damask must achieve the requirements of international standard
specifications, in order to withstand the challenges which it faces.
We have been in this research the definition , Damask history production .
Through the practical study in a national company (General Company for
spinning and weaving Damascus) were studied physical and mechanical
properties of Damask produced in the country (type of yarn used, the linear
density of Yarns, tensile strength and elongation of the cloth in the direction of
warp and weft, weight per square & longitudinal meter, weave, width, … )
We are produced two new improved varieties with new specifications according
to international market requirements to enhance the competitiveness of the
company, which makes the Syrian textile industry more effectively.
Research constitutes an important contribution in continuous improvement &
development of Syrian textile companies.
The search results can be applied in all similar textile companies
4
2 –A brief history
When you mention the word Damask, comes to mind immediately the name of
Damascus, Syria , called Damask of Fame to Damascus produced by the
manufacture of other textiles of high quality. These industries have become a
distinctive part of the heritage of Syria. It was made of silk or cotton or linen and is
now produced from any raw materials as possible. Damascus people transferred its
industry to Andalusia so it's called according to Damascus, Damask has many types
such as Atlas and Al-Thabori and Hermazi and AL-Munier (Enlightening) , ALMushem ( Contributor ) and Baptist and Corrugated and Ragged Rainy and
Almekhel.
Damask width was 145 cm , now has increased to 220 cm.
It has lost market share after the nineteenth century out of Muslim Spain, but that it
was rarely in some places in the thirteenth century. [2, 17, 18].
Italy Damask industry began in the fourteenth century. It is the fourteenth century
until the sixteenth century Damask was made in one color drawings of shiny face on
the cloth and normal ground. Then was woven from colors yarn , and have been
introduced in the metal yarn in it's construction, such as gold and other weft yarn ,
which gave it a glamorous and beautiful.
5
2 –A brief history
Damascus is famous in textile manufacturing . (Qaimariya) is called in small
India , and depending on the popularity of this industry , the textile trade is
concentrated in Damascus ...The industry is still present even today.
During the reign of Louis XVI and his wife Marie Antoinette of Austria at the age
of 15 years, married to Louis XVI at the age of 19 years. After months attended
a fashion designer and offered her a cloth and said she'll like it because it is
very rare and is made in an eastern town known for textile industry and when
she saw it said (this is what I want and what I wanted to, I've really liked
Damask, Damascus Brokare (Brocade) is unmatched which is befitting for
ladies. And spread the ancient The newly dramatically all over the world.
Modern Damask produced by A Electronic Weaving Machinery equipped with
electronic Jacquard and multi-threaded natural and artificial [1,5,8,15,21,24].
Used in addition to blankets to clothing and home furnishings, upholstery and
many other uses.
The Syrian textile industry has risen highly, it is one of the important industries
which the government is trying through its plans to overcome all the obstacles
encountered in order to create the right atmosphere for Arab and foreign
investors to invest in it. It is an strategy industry, depends on the Syrian cotton
6
yarn locally available in abundance.
3 - Classification the Syrian textile heritage
There are more than a hundred kind of traditional fabrics, each type of about twenty
species, characterized by some of the material and color, drawing, patterns and
trimmings, etc. Here are some of them:
Brokare ( Brocade) : A silk cloth decorated with beautiful drawings interspersed with
gold thread and silver.
Al-Dema : A fabric invented by man of Damascus .
Al-Saieh : epigraphy technical fabric is characterized by bright, made from silk and
cotton in different colors.
Al-Alajh: type of Alsaih .
Blanket: the advantage of fees obtrusive
Al-Agbani: Cloth made from silk, embroidered after waving with brocaded thread or
yellow or silver, each drawing or embroidering take a special name .
Damask: Gabardine and thick fabric , tapestries weaved his body to the degree of
innovation, has gained wide fame, fit the faces of mattresses and sofas.
Poplars' Fashions : A modern industry based on making clothing suitable for use
embroidered women blouses made of Brocade coats and women's decorative lacy and
other popular clothing represent the various Syrian cities and rural areas.
Table1
and Table
2
include
Some
types
of
a
Damask
fabrics.
In spite of that machinery textile industries dominated heavily on fabrics manufactured
on hand looms , but it are still top of wings exhibitions interested in this kind of art textile
3 - Classification the Syrian textile heritage
Table 1 Some types of Damask fabrics
Waverly
Damask Shower
Baby Damask
Digital
Damask
It is Damask
Damask
Dandy Damask
8
3 - Classification the Syrian textile heritage
Damask - Damask Fabric
Classic Collection of Damask Fabric
A fabric woven to achieve a tone on tone effect. Patterns
are often floral. It is lighter weight than brocade.
Sometimes referred to as Jacquard.
Damask Fabric
Exclusive Patterns Suitable for Upholstery and Drapery
with a vintage appeal Includes Honeybee, Dragonfly,
Hinsdale, Harrowgate & More.
Damask Prints - Modern Damask Print Fabric Contemporary Damask Print Fabric
A new take on Classic Damask fabrics. These modern
damask prints are the same design you love but are
available in a variety of colors and fabric types.
9
4 - Methods of producing A Damask fabrics
4-1 - The traditional method for the manufacture of A Damask fabrics:
Traditional fabrics are produced currently on hand looms and is as old and lowproductivity, It's maintained for the purposes of tourism and are stationed in
Damascus as a Professional market , Silk market and Azemeh Palace Museum
Figure 1.[26 , 27] .
Stages of the manufacturing from natural silk: Kababp( winder) to El-Fattal
(twister), and Mosadi(wrapper) and dyer , Almozaiki , Mulki (drawing in) ,
Weaver and dakkak (dropper) and then turn the fabric to the piston.
10
4-1 - The traditional method for the manufacture
of A Damask fabrics
Figure 1 hand loom From Damascus city – syria
11
4 2 - The mechanical method for the manufacture of A Damask
Figure 2 shuttle less weaving machine (Ruti)
12
4-3 – The electronically method for the manufacture of A
Damask
4-3 - The electronically method for the manufacture of A Damask:
New Damask are made of 100% cotton yarn on electronically jacquard weaving
machines, used in upholstery and curtains, mattress covers and bedspreads.
This development has allowed to move the 30 000 hooks and speed of 700 rpm
[6 , 7,8, 9, 10, 12, 13 ,14, 23,].
The manufacturers of jacquard machines are : Grosse and Schleicher
(Germany) ,Bonas( England) and Staubli (France). Stages of technology for the
manufacture of Damask of cotton yarn: warping - draw in - Weaving .
13
5- Case Study
5- Case Study
5-1 - Introduction: The study was conducted in a public company (General Company
for Spinning and Weaving Company Damascus), which produces cotton yarn & fabrics,
dyed, mercerized and printed. It contains factories for the spinning and weaving,
dyeing.
5-2 - Stages of technology for the manufacture Damask fabrics of cotton yarn
Figure 3 Outline of processes for the production of a Damask fabrics on the modern
weaving machinery .
Figure 4 Outline of the indirect warping machine BENNINGER.
-Weaving Machine: Rapier Weaving Machine G6200 SULZER TEXTIL equipped with
electronic Jacquard machines GROSSE EJP-2 with 5376 hooks.
14
Figure 3 - technological stapes for the manufacture
of Damask fabrics of cotton yarn
Yarns reception and testing
Weft yarns preparation ,single
( dyed & white)
Drawing-in , reeding , knotting
Warp yarns preparation
,doubled ( dyed & white)
Sectional warping
Weaving
Fabric quality control
Damask fabrics packaging
Damask fabrics storage &customer
delivering
Figure 3 - technological stapes for the manufacture
of Damask fabrics of cotton yarn
15
indirect warping
machine BENNINGER
Figure 4 A diagram of a indirect warping
machine BENNINGER
16
5-3 - Steps of design and manufacturing of A Damask Fabric aided by
computer computer
The design section consists of the following devices: scanner, computer and keyboard,
graphic table unite and the printer. German software[ 10,20 ] :
(GROSSE PROFETIONAL JACQUARD DESIGNE SYSTEM (JAC-ARTIST PRO)).
Table 2 consists steps of design and manufacture of computer-assisted Damask:
Table 2 the following steps for the implementation of computer-aided design
No Name of the process
.
No Name of the process
.
1
Input Design
7
Electronic Reduction
2
Cropping
8
Design finishing
3
Resizing
9
Weave editor
4
Color Reduce
10 Harness preparation
5
Redrawing
11
6
Slow Reduction
Weaving
17
5-4- laboratory equipment
5-4- laboratory equipment :
count of yarn -SUPERBA to check sliver and yarns, Tex Techno Statimat Me: to examine
the tensile strength of yarn and fabrics[3,4,16, 20,22.] .
5-5- Raw materials used for weaving Damask fabrics:
Using single-threaded or doubling colored. The table 3 shows Results of tests:
Table 3 shows Results of tests
Length
Cutter (Km)
CV
elongation
tension
(%)
(E) )%(
(yarn/cN)
Dye
Dye
Dyed
Dyed raw
raw
raw
raw
d
d
8.77 9.17 3.84 4.80 5.63 6.03 1945 1980
Twist using
(t/m)
of
Yarn count
No
Dyed Threa
(Ne)
d
281
weft
2.5
1
550
13.81 14.54 5.11 6.58 7.52 6.64 914.95 984.97
weft
8.5/1 O.E 2
639
16.25 16.25 5.54 4.59 5.36 6.34 780.08 794.70
14.49 15.76 4.65 5.06 6.39 5.50 555.48 703.66
warp
650
warp
24/2
carded
3
30/2carded 4
5-6 - Types of Damask Fabrics which were studded :
5-6 - Types of Damask Fabrics which were studded :
Newly Damask are of cotton or synthetic yarn, silk, wool , used in modern varieties of
clothing , apparel ,upholstery and curtains, mattress covers and bedspreads.
Analysis was conducted and a study of A Damask fabrics produced in the company of
the Spinning and Weaving was to extract data on the linear density for Yarns - warp
and weft densities - weave - weight per square and longitudinal meter, Cloth width uses
of
each
type
the
number
of
colors.
Tables (from 4 to 6) consists the physical and mechanical properties of Damask fabrics
which have been studied and laboratory tested.
19
Table 4 The physical and mechanical properties of Damask fabrics
Testing result
Damask fabric 705- B
Testing item name
No.
Damask fabric 705-A
2 18 182
Damask fabric sample
1
Fabric width (cm)
2
Cut- Selvedge 1cm
Cut- Selvedge 1cm
Selvedge type & weds (cm)
3
257
254
Squire meter weight (gr/m2)
4
467.74
462.28
liner meter weight (gr/m)
5
16.8 x 15.8
8.5 x 9.4
Repeat dimension(cm)
6
35
36
Warp density(yarn/cm)
7
15
15
Weft density (yarn/cm)
8
twill1/2 & 2/8
Twill 1/4
Weave in decorative section
9
Satin 2/5
Twill 1/3
Weave in ground section
10
2
2
Number of color
11
29.46/2 100% cotton
29.84/2
Type & count of warp (Ne)
12
-Z
-Z
twist direction of warp
13
8.5 - 100% cotton
Type & count of weft (Ne )
14
885.90
951.01
resistance to tension in direction of the warp (N)
15
627.80
661.63
resistance to tension in direction of the weft (N)
16
12.33
11.9
Elongation in warp direction )%(
17
11.42
12.79
Elongation in weft direction%( )
18
Z
twist direction of warp
19
Sulzere G6200
Weaving machine
20
8.5 - 100% cotton
Z
Sulzere G6200
100% cotton
220
220
Weaving machine weds (cm)
400
400
Weaving machine (rpm)
21
20
23
Table 5 physical and mechanical properties of Damask fabrics
Testing results
Damask fabric ) 705-D)
Testing item name
No.
Damask fabric (705-C (
Damask fabric sample
1
182
182
Fabric width (cm)
2
1 Cut- Selvedge
1 Cut- Selvedge
Selvedge type & weds (cm)
3
254
262
Squire meter weight (gr/m2)
4
462.28
467.84
liner meter weight (gr/m)
5
10.8X20.4
27.5X15.8
Repeat dimension(cm)
6
38
34
Warp density(yarn/cm)
7
16
18
Weft density (yarn/cm)
8
Twil 5/1& 1/4
Weft Rips 1/4
Weave in decorative section
8
Satan 5/2
Satan 5/2
Weave in ground section
10
2
2
Number of color
11
30/2 100% cotton
Type & count of warp (Ne)
12
-Z
-Z
twist direction of warp(T/M
13
8.5 - 100% cotton
8.5 - 100% cotton
Type & count of weft (Ne)
14
30/2
100% cotton
Table 6 physical and mechanical properties of Damask fabrics
Testing results
Damask fabric710-B Damask fabric 710-A (
136
1 Cut- Selvedge
239
325.04
10.8 X 20.4
34
18
Satin 5/2
twill 6/2
2
RUTI – Automatic
120
136
1 Cut- Selvedge
239
326
7.9 X 12.4
34
13
Satin 5/2
twill 1/2
2
RUTI - Automatic
120
Testing item name
No.
Damask fabric sample
1
Fabric width (cm)
Selvedge type & weds (cm)
Squire meter weight (gr/m2)
liner meter weight (gr/m)
Repeat dimension(cm)
Warp density(yarn/cm)
Weft density (yarn/cm)
Weave in decorative section
Weave in ground section
Number of color
Weaving machine
Weaving machine (rpm)
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
22
5-7 The new and modern types of Damask fabrics
It was designed and produced two new types of Damask fabrics according
to market needs . by GROSSE (CAD / CAM) System German company ,
It was conducted the tests of the physical and mechanical characteristics of
Damask (1181 ) product , and Damask (2) by modern laboratory devices.
Table (7) shows the results of a study of the physical & mechanical properties
of the modern Damask fabrics.
Table 7 physical and mechanical properties of the new improved Damask fabrics:
Testing results
Damask fabric 2
Testing item name
No.
Damask fabric 1181
Damask fabric samples
1
182 182
1 Cut- Selvedge
1 Cut- Selvedge
239
414
325.04
753.48
28.5 X 25
30 X 41.5
66
33
15
22
Traditional designs
4 Damascus designs
Traditional designs
Traditional designs
2
2
)N d( 36.73 + 35.5 +33.43100%
20.73/2 Ne 100% cotton
shanel
-Z
-Z
2.78 +17.07+ 13.51 100%
5.56+2.71 + 2.36 shanel
cotton
Fabric weds (cm)
Selvedge type & weds (cm)
Squire meter weight (gr/m2)
liner meter weight (gr/m)
Repeat dimension(cm)
Warp density(yarn/cm)
Weft density (yarn/cm)
Weave in decorative section
Weave in ground section
Number of color
2
3
4
1011.91
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
Type & count of warp (Ne)
12
direction of warp
13
Type & count of weft(Ne )
14
1005.94
resistance to tension in warp direction (N)
15
432.25
1216.34
resistance to tension in weft direction (N)
16
11.08
11.27
17.65
13.66
Elongation in warp direction )%(
Elongation in weft direction )%(
17
18
24
5-8 Discussion the results of tests
The Results of tests of tension resistance in direction of warp and weft for the
variety Damask (1181) and Damask (2),were documented and analysed .
We have established detailed reports of the analysis and testing results of
physical and mechanical properties of Damask in the Department of jacquard
fabric , and executive instructions relating to its production, and tension strength
and elongation diagrams for produced fabrics, were identified as the values of
the terms of the specifications.
Observation: we prepared an attachment contains resistance to tension
diagrams in direction of weft & warp for all samples
25
5-8 Discussion the results of tests
1 - The test results of the physical and mechanical characteristics of A Damask
Fabrics , tables (from 4 to 7), and the results of tests of resistance to tension in
direction of weft & warp of all fabrics produced meet the quality requirements of
both functional and aesthetic, to increase the demand for modern products in
market, absence of complaints by customers.
2 -The physical & mechanical properties of yarns affect on Damask fabrics ,
table (3) show disparity between values of the assumed specification and real
values, which affect the physical and mechanical properties, it is necessary to
provide good yarns for industry .
3 - Appears from the table 7 the high value of the resistance to tension in
direction of warp of the new varieties and increase the weight per square meter
of the Damask (1181) and Damask (2) compared with the value of the
resistance to tension in direction of warp of the items (705 - 710) in the tables
(4-6), due to the use of thick weft yarn in 1181 and a synthetic yarn in the
Damask (2) which gives good features .
26
6 - Suggestions and Conclusions
1 - It has been defined and determined the characterization and classification of
Damask fabrics and the physical mechanical specification , and it indicate the
need to update the design of Damask to meet the requirements of the tourist
industry, which is reflected in the national income , and economic and social
development.
2 - The study showed that Damask fabrics still enjoys a worldwide reputation for
well-built through a long history back for several centuries is still required in the
international market and reflects the Syrian heritage and the nobility of the
textile Syrian industry where history come from deep road , for this reason it is
recommended the revival of the industry and maintain.
27
6 - Suggestions and Conclusions
3 -The production of new Damask fabrics with new drawings and specifications
fulfils the requirements of fashion leads to quality & productivity improvement,
and increase the products added – value, as the selling price of new products
increases to 60% .
4 - The development of scientific methodology to study, analyze and diagnose
the problems of the textile industry, through the research model, which benefit
from it the textile companies and the scientific institutes.
28
6 - Suggestions and Conclusions
5 - The information contained in the research contribute to identify the problems
of the state and society and to find solutions and increase the stock of
knowledge and keep pace with market requirements and develop product lines.
6 - The results, reports, laboratory analysis diagrams , which has been
documented and saved, constitutes a scientific base for developing the Syrian
Standard, which improve the prestige of Damask fabrics in the international
market.
29
7- References
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2 - (Al-Atrash, Reem Mansour. 1996), the Book of Silk in Syria, the banner of Iskenderun,
Syria and Lebanon, a publication of the Syrian Ministry of Culture .
3 -(Adanur sabit . 2001) , Hand book of weaving , Technomic Publishing Co. , Department of
Textile Engineering , Abourn University, Alabama , U. S. A.
4 - Arindam, Basu ,2006 ,Textile Testing , Fiber , Yarn & Fabric , Published by: The South India
Textile Research Association, Printed by: M/s .Shristi Impression, India.
5 - ASTM D 3597-89 - upholstery fabric .
6 - BS 2543 – 91- upholstery fabric
7 – BSI - Global . Com. , (2010) , quality/standards/index . xalter, Available from: http://
www.emea.bsi-global.com/quality/standards/index.xalter, [Accessed5August 2010].
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9 – Giovanni , Castellei , Salvatore , Maietta , Giuseppe & others (2000) - WeavingReference Books of Textile Technologies , Milano , Italy .
10-Grosse (2004) , Operating Manual of Electronic Jacquard Machine,EJP-2 .Germany
11-INTI International University,Nilai,Malaysia, ASST Workshop on Engineering Education ,
Present Status , Trends and Challenges 19–23 July 2010 Damascus , Syria
12-Jenkins, David, ed.: The Cambridge History of Western Textiles, Cambridge, UK:
Cambridge University Press, 2003 .
30
7- References
13 -Kadolph, Sara J. ( 2007) , ed.: Textiles, 10th edition, Pearson/Prentice-Hall.
14 - Mario, Bona, 1994 - Textile Quality , physical methods of product and process control,Texilia, IStituto per la
Tradizione la Tecnoloqia Tessile S.P.A,printed by: Nuova oflito, Mappano (Torino , Italy ) .
15 -Monnas, Lisa. Merchants, Princes and Painters: Silk Fabrics in Italian and Northern Paintings 1300-1550.
London and New Haven, Yale University Press, 2008 .
16--Praxiom Research Group Limited ,(2010) , ISO 9000 and ISO9001Plain English, Alberta , Canada ,
Available from : www.praxiom.com . , [ accessed 6 August 2010] .
17- Syrian Standard (m. S. O 1254/1993), upholstery fabrics.
18 - (Taher Kaddar . 2008) , weaving technology (2), AL- Baath University Publishing directorate, Homs.
19 - (Taher Kaddar . 1997), the entrance to the Total Quality Management and ISO 9000, Harvest House for
printing, publishing, distribution, Damascus.
20 - Romanian STAS 1111-78 - upholstery fabric
21 - Schleicher (2007) , Instruction manual of electronic jacquard machine , Germany .
22 - Sor Heoh Saw ( 2010 ) , Quality Assurance in Engineering Education in Far East ,
23 - Spinning and Weaving General Corporation (2007) , Internal system , Jacquard Weaving Factory chapter ,
Damascus – Syria .
24-Staubli (2007), manual Instruction of electronic jacquard machine,Staubli CIX-4 .
25- Sulzer (2004) , Instruction manual of electronic jacquard machine Sulzer G 6200 .
26 - Susan C . Wally , Dr Deborah Vess (1998-2001) , The Art and History of Weaving , Georgia , Georgia
College & State University and the Board of Regents of the University
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27 - Wikimedia Foundation, Inc (2010) , the free encyclopedia , Jacquard weaving , Text is available under the
Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License ; Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jacquardweaving , [Accessed 5 August 2010].
31
Fig. 5 Jacquard weaving factory, Damascus
Fig. 5 Jacquard weaving factory, Damascus
32
THANK YOU
Dr. Eng. Taher Rajab Kaddar
Associate Professor
Department of Textile and Spinning Engineering
Faculty of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering
AL-Baath University-Syria
E- mail: [email protected]
Cell : 00963 933 517314

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