The Hip

The Hip is a ball and socket joint like the
shoulder, but because it is me stable it has less
motion than the shoulder.
The hip is a triaxial joint meaning that it moves
in all three planes.
 Abduction/adduction
 Internal and external rotation
 Which motion is each
plan in???
Hip consists of 3 bones, one of which has 3
 Coccyx
 Pelvis
 Illium
 Ischium
 Pubis
The pelvis
articulates with the
sacrum on the
posterior side of the
The pelvis
articulates with the
two pubic portions
of the pelvis on the
anterior side of the
The pelvic girdle
articulates with the
femur at the head of
the femur and the
acetabulum of the
pelvic girdle.
First part of the
pelvis is the
The fan shaped
illium makes up
the superior
portion of the
hip bone
Illica Fossa- large smooth concave on the
anterior surface of the illium
Illiac Crest- superior part of the illium that you
can touch.
The Illica Crest runs from the anterior superior
illiac spine ASIS to the posterior superior illiac
spine PSIS.
You can palpate these easily
There is also a posterior inferior and anterior
inferior illiac spine that are just below the ASIS
and PSIS. There muscles that attach to each.
The Ischium is the posterior inferior portion of
the pelvic bone.
Ramus- inferior/medial part. It is attachment
site for adductor magnus, and obturator
Ischial tuberosity is rough blunt projection of
the inferior ischium, it is the part that you bear
weight on when you sit.
The pubis form the anterior inferior portion of
the pelvis.
The symphysis pubis
is a cartilaginous
joint connecting the
bodies of the two
pubic bones at the
anterior midline.
Superior and Inferior ramus are above and
below the symphysis pubis. Attachment for
various muscles.
Acetabulum is the concave socket that the
femoral head fits into. It is made up of the all
three pelvic bones.
Obterator foramen- a large opening made up of
the bodies and rami of the ischium and pubis
through which passes blood vessels and
Femur is the longest and strongest bone in the
body. A person’s height is roughly 4x the
length of their femur.
Head is the rounded
portion covered with
articular cartilage
The Neck is the
narrower portion
between the head and
the trochanters.
Greater Trochanter is the large projection
located laterally between the neck of the femur
and the body. Provides attachments for glute
medius and minimus.
Lesser trochanter- smaller projection located
medially and posterior and just distal to the
greater trochanger. Attachment for the
Medial and Lateral Condyle- distal medial and
lateral end of the femur.
Medial and Lateral Epicondyle- projection
proximal to the condyle
-Linea Aspera- prominent
longitudinal ridge running most of
the posterior femur length.
Tibial Tuberosity is the large projection on the
tibia at the proximal end where the patellar
tendon attaches.
There are 3 main ligaments in the hip joint.
They attach from the rim of the acetabulum to
the femoral neck. They are in a spiral fashion
and allow flexion and restrict hyperextension.
Acetabular Labrum helps increase the depth of
the labrum, it is fibrocartilage like the
Iliotibial band- is the very long tendinous
portion of the tensor fascia latae muscle. It
runs from the anterior iliac crest to the lateral
tibia. The gluteus maximus has tendons that
are attached to it.
Iliotibial band syndromeoveruse injury causing
lateral knee pain. Repeated
friction of the band sliding
over the lateral femoral
epicondyle, caused by tight
muscles, or worn down
Trochanteric bursitis- result of either acute
trauma or overuse. Tight glute muscles and
Iliotibial band can create overuse among
runners and bikers.
Hamstring Strain “pulled hamstring”- most
common muscle problem in body, often
recurrent and a result of overload, or moving
the muscle too fast.
Hip Pointer/Iliac crest contusion- due to a
direct blow to the iliac crest.
Iliopsoas Muscles- actually
two muscles with separate
proximal attachments, and a
common distal attachment.
Prime hip flexor muscle.
Sartorius – longest muscle
in the body. It is also called
the tailor muscle and it has
many actions, when
combined they are most
Adductor Longus- most superficial of the
adductor muscles, it can be palpated most
easily due to the long tendon in the medial
anterior groin.
Adductor Magnus- largest, most massive and
deepest of the adductor muscles. It is a very
strong adductor muscle.
Gracilis- the only hip flexor
that is a two joint muscle. It
starts at the pubic symphysis,
and attaches to the proximal
medial tibia and assists with
knee flexion.
Gluteus Maximus- large, quadrilateral shaped
muscle located on the superficial buttocks.
Posterior hip muscle that is a very strong hip
Gluteus Medius- Triangular shaped muscle like
the deltoid. It spans the hip laterally and is a
primary adductor muscle.
Piriformis- This is one of the deep rotator
muscles of the hip, it goes from the sacrum to
the greater trochanter of the femur. It laterally
or externally rotates the hip.
Tensor Fascia Lataeshort muscle with a long
tendinous attachment. It
starts at ASIS and attaches
to the IT band. It is a hip
adductor and is most
powerful in a bit of hip

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