The State of Latino Youth in Iowa

Report
The State of Latino Youth in Iowa
School of Social Work
Iowa Latino Affairs
Commission
Shared by John-Paul Chaisson-Cardenas
State Youth Development and 4-H Leader/Director
Iowa State Extension and Outreach
Latino Growth (Youth)
Growth Of Youth of Color in Iowa Schools
Iowa State Public Schools Student Enrollment
Group
2000-01
2012-13
Net Change
476,927
472,608
430,677 (90.3%)
377,238 (79.8%)
-4,319
-53,439
Am Indian/Alaska
2,447(.5%)
2,034 (.5%)
-413
Latino
17,019 (2%)
43,979 (9.3%)
+26,960
African American
18,510 (3.9%)
24,621 (5.2%)
+6,111
Asian American/PI
8,274 (1.7%)
10,228 (2.2%)
+1,954
Kids of Color
46,250(9.7%)
95.370 (20.2%)
+44,423
3.2%
5%
About 70% speak
Spanish
Total Population
White
ELL
(next Vietnamese at 3%)
32,255 = Number of students in Private Schools (12% of Color)
4,295 = Number of Immigrant Students (Student Not born in US in 2011-2012 SY)
Source: Iowa Department of Education
Compiled by John-Paul Chaisson-Cardenas, Cedar Rapids Civil Rights Commission
The Changing Face of Iowa
3.92
The average family
size for the Iowa
Latino population in
2010. The average
family size in the
state of Iowa is
2.97.
• 22.3
•
median age of Iowa Latinos
38.0 median age for all Iowans
11.8%
of the Iowa Latino population is under age 5. Latinos have a higher
concentration of preschoolers among the population than any other race or ethnic group.
S T A T E D A T A C E N T E R O F I O W A A P R O G R A M O F I O W A L I B R A R Y S E R V I C E S/S T A T E L I B R A R Y & T H E O F F I C E O F L A T I N O A F F A I R S (2013)
Immigration and
Latinos
67.2 % of Iowa Latinos in 2012 who are native born.
92% of Iowa Latino youth in Iowa schools are Native Born U.S. Citizens
70% of all English Language Learners (ESL) Speak Spanish at home
52.3% of Iowa youth live in the 11 urban counties but
All of those counties have also seen a significant increase of kids of color
17.1%
35.1%
28.1%
11.8%
29.0%
18.0%
17.1%
27.7%
16.5%
26.3%
Source: U.S. Census & 4-H and K-12 Outreach By the Numbers Report, ISU Extension
= % Kids of Color
Nearly half (48.3%) of the growth in Iowa’s Latino population from 20002013 occurred in six counties: Polk, Woodbury, Johnson, Marshall, Scott,
Pottawattamie, and Linn.
PK-12 Education System Staff Representation Since 2000
2013 (20.2%)
Some growth in guidance Councilors
• 1.6% in 2000
• 2.7% in 2013
2013 (2.2%)
2013 (2.4%)
2013 (1%)
Source: IDE
2013 (1.9%)
Iowa Latinos
Wealth and Poverty
Iowa Unemployment Rate by Race 2013
$13,280
The per capita income of Latinos in
2012. The per capita income for the
state was $26,436
$36,967
The median income of Latino families in
2012. The median family income for the
state was $64,122.
In 2011 the poverty line was income under $23,050 for a family of four
Gap
42% Poverty Rate for Iowa
Latinos 17 and Younger (2013)
STATE DATA CENTER OF IOWA
Food Insecurity in Iowa (2010)
Food insecurity levels are
higher among Families of
Color than among their
white counterparts
2010 Iowa Child and Family Household Health Survey, Iowa Department of Public Health
Family Wealth (U.S.)
“The median wealth of white
households is 20 times that of
black households and 18 times that
of Hispanic households”
 According to Pew Research Center the median wealth of white households is 20 times that of black
households and 18 times that of Hispanic households. That's the largest gap since the government
began collecting the data a quarter of a century ago, and twice what it was before the start of the Great
Recession.
50% of Iowa Latinos Own a home
75% of White Iowans Own a Home
Historical Context (Housing Programs)
Federal legislation on land ownership and housing access:
•
The Homestead Act, 1862: gave 160 acres of free land to every white settler
who could live there for at least five years as part of the United States’ westward
expansion.
•
The National Housing Act, 1934: “redlined” certain neighborhoods—
predominantly Black, Latino, Asian, and Jewish ones—as ineligible to receive
financing.
•
The GI bill, 1944: offered access to higher education and home ownership to
returning WWII veterans, but excluded Latino and black veterans from those
benefits.
•
The Fair Housing Act, 1968: prohibited redlining based on race and religion.
• The Great Recession
• People of color continued to be discriminated against when seeking housing or
applying for loans.
• Banks targeted minority neighborhoods for higher-interest loans.
• Foreclosure rates were highest among communities of color
• Banks stopped maintaining foreclosed homes in many neighborhoods of color
which help create a downward spiral in housing prices in those areas.
Latinos and Health
“A health disparity is a difference
in health outcomes across
subgroups of the population, often
linked to social, economic, or
environmental disadvantages (e.g.,
less access to good jobs, unsafe
neighborhoods, lack of affordable
transportation options). Health
disparities adversely affect groups
of people who have systematically
experienced greater obstacles to
health on the basis of their racial or
ethnic group, religion,
socioeconomic status, gender, age,
mental health, cognitive, sensory,
or physical disability, sexual
orientation or gender identity,
geographic location, or other
characteristics historically linked to
discrimination or exclusion.”
Rear Admiral (RADM) Boris D.
Lushniak, M.D., M.P.H., Acting
U.S. Surgeon General
Source: “Health Disparities Among Children in Iowa:
Results from the 2010 Iowa Child and Family Household
Health Survey” – Realized January 2014, the Iowa
Public Policy Center at the University of Iowa
Latinos and Education
Myth # 1: Families of Color don’t get involved in
their child's education
Research Suggests: Families of
color have similar levels of
involvement BUT are invited less
often to provide leadership in school
committees that are making policy
decisions
Source: Institute for Education Statistics: Parent and Family Involvement in Education, from the National Household Education Surveys Program of 2012-13
Myth # 2: Families of Color don’t get involved in
their child's homework
Research Suggests: Families of color
have similar levels of homework
involvement in spite less available
resources including free time
Source: Institute for Education Statistics: Parent and Family Involvement in Education, from the National Household Education Surveys Program of 2012-13
Myth # 3: Families have low academic expectations
for their children (Parent expects student to…)
Research Suggests: Parents of color and white
parents share similar expectations for their children's
educational attainment
Source: Institute for Education Statistics: Parent and Family Involvement in Education, from the National Household Education Surveys Program of 2012-13
Iowa (2010) – Have felt unsafe in the last 12 months
25%
25%
20%
20%
18%
15%
11%
10%
7%
5%
5%
0%
White
Black
Latino
How often do you feel that your child is NOT safe in your community or neighborhood?
How often do you feel your child is NOT safe at school?
2010 Iowa Child and Family Household Health Survey, Iowa Department of Public Health
Iowa Change in the Achievement/Opportunity Gap Since 2002
(Percent that meets or exceeds performance standard)
White 80% (in 2002)
Black
49%
Latino
57.3%
4th Grade Reading Proficiency
Test Changed
Source: IDE
Iowa Change in the Achievement/Opportunity Gap Since 2002
(Percent that meets or exceeds performance standard)
White 78% (in 2002)
Latino
Black
66.1%
48.2%
4th Grade Math Proficiency
Test Changed
Source: IDE
Iowa
Source: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of
Educational Progress (NAEP), 2011 Assessment
Compiled by John-Paul Chaisson-Cardenas, Cedar Rapids Civil Rights Commission
According to the NAEP:
• Over 80% of Latino of Iowa 8th Grade
students are NOT Proficient in Reading
• Over 86% of Latino of Iowa 8th Grade
students are NOT Proficient in Math
Source: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of
Educational Progress (NAEP), 2011 Assessment
Why was Latino left
out??
Compiled by John-Paul Chaisson-Cardenas, Cedar Rapids Civil Rights Commission
Why are Latinos
Up from 2 to 30?
Compiled by John-Paul Chaisson-Cardenas, Cedar Rapids Civil Rights Commission
Suspensions and Expulsions (Removals) by Race
Source: IDE
“It may be easy to assume that much of the
disproportionality is due to the individual behavior
of low income boys of color. However, studies
show pronounced racial disparities in treatment
and punishment between white and youth of color,
youth of color are punished much more harshly for
similar infractions. New research continues to find
no evidence that disciplinary disparities are due to
poverty.”
(Russell J. Skiba, Mariella I. Arredondo, and M. Karega Rausch 2014).
Disproportionate Minority Contact (DMC) In Iowa
Of those
there
are
some
18,064
that get
arrested
Of those
there are
some
3,132
that get
detained
Example of what NOT to do: Philosophy/Politics
vs. Data/Effectiveness
What happened here?
Hint: There was not an increase in youth crime.
The Latino Paradox
(Is assimilation good for Latinos?)
Health: The Hispanic paradox, or Latino paradox, also known as the
"epidemiologic paradox," refers to the epidemiological finding that Hispanic and
Latino Americans tend to have health outcomes that paradoxically are
comparable to, or in some cases better than, those of their U.S. white
counterparts, even though Hispanics have lower average income and education.
-- John Ruiz, Ph.D., assistant professor at the University of North Texas 2011
Child welfare: A 2010 study published by the Urban Institute found that
things are different for different generations of Hispanic children. While
children of immigrants were underrepresented in foster care, third
generation children were significantly over-represented.
Education: First generation Latino immigrant youth in non-English speaking
homes have about the same level of educational attainment as third generation
immigrant youth from English-speaking homes, all else equal. Second generation
immigrant youth, however, have higher educational attainment than third
generation immigrant youth, even when they live in non-English homes. Vanessa
Cruz, DePaul University, 2009
Iowa Prison Population by Race
Iowa Department of Human Rights -- Division of Criminal and Juvenile Justice Planning
Will Immigration Reform Happen???
 $159/Day – Amount to hold an immigrant
 2 Billion a Year – Amount the U.S. Federal Government spent in
2011 to incarcerate immigrants
 $45 Million – Amount three private detention companies
(Corrections Corporation of America, The GEO Group, and
Management and Training Corp) have spent on the current
Immigration Reform Bill via campaign donations and/or
lobbyists at the state and federal level.
Source:
http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/09/17/racial-disparity-drug-use_n_3941346.html
http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-201_162-57485392/ap-private-prisons-profit-from-illegal-immigrants/
“If Iowa leaders invest in Latino youth now, it will payoff tomorrow. If they don’t, they will pay tomorrow.”
44% of all Latinos who are eligible to vote in Iowa are
between the ages 18 to 29.
 This is greater than the share of all Latino eligible voters
nationwide (33%) in that age range.
 In contrast, only 20% of all White Iowa eligible voters are
between the ages 18 to 29.

Mission: ISU Extension and Outreach builds
partnerships and provides research-based learning
opportunities to improve the quality of life in Iowa.
4-H Mission: 4-H empowers youth to reach their
full potential through youth and adult partnerships
and research-based experiences.
Vision: Preparing (All) Iowa’s youth to be
successful, contributing members of society
Source: 4-H and K-12 Outreach By the Numbers Report, ISU
Extension
MY VISION FOR 4-H
We as an organization will build on what we already do so well:
“empowers youth to reach their full potential through youth
and adult partnerships and research-based experiences”
We will add value to all our programs by building the capacity of
our youth, volunteers, community and staff to work in the context
of DIVERSITY and build programs that are welcoming and
inclusive of ALL YOUTH regardless of gender, race, culture,
Why:
language, disability, national origin, sexual orientation or socioeconomic status.
• It is a critical
Overtime, 4-H shall become“experts” in facilitating the difficult
community and institutional conversations from a systemic and
research informed perspective SO THAT we as a state can
empower ALL OUR YOUTH to reach their full potential.
•
•
But we need your help.
•
•
investment in our
future as a state
It is research based
No one else has the
capacity or the scale
to make a difference
in this area
It is the law
It is the right thing to
do

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