Windows to ENTREPRENEURSHIP Teaching

Windows to
A Teaching Guide
Presented to the:
Entrepreneurship Gravitas: Action Research
Colloquium in the Setting of ASEAN Integration
A colloquium showcasing pioneering studies on issues relevant to mSMEs
and implications on impending ASEAN Economic Community in 2015.
Teodoro Room of UP ISSI on August 27, 2014 from 8AM to 5PM.
Presented by:
Maria Luisa B. Gatchalian
Project Manager | Researcher | Contributor, WETG
Member, Research & Information Committee |Special Projects Committee, SERDEF
Faculty/Chairperson, Entrepreneurship Department, Miriam College
Immediate Past President, ENEDA National SY 2011-2013
Technical Advisor | Alternate Focal Person –UNESCO Entrepreneurship Education Network- Miriam
College, Philippine National Chapter
PART 1: Action Development Research
Windows to
A Teaching Guide
1. An Action Development Project that is Research
2. In Response to the expressed teaching and learning
needs of both of entrepreneurship educators and
3. Culled from 5 years of documented reports and
proceedings, resolutions, , recommendations, round
table discussions, and surveys conducted
Windows to
A Teaching Guide…the
first of its kind to address
1. Numerous calls for resource materials for the
new breed of entrepreneurship educators ; that
2. Bridges the learning needs and gaps; with
3. Teaching methods and models that WORK!
4. Contextualized in the Philippine setting and
Windows to
A Teaching Guide…an
Statement of the Problem
The degree program in entrepreneurship was authorized by the
Commission on Higher Education for implementation in 1995. Since then,
1. There has not been any teaching guide or materials designed or
developed entrepreneurship educators – in the Philippines .
2. There are no existing published teaching materials organized, directed
and purposive towards the delivery of knowledge, attitudes and skills in
entrepreneurship teaching in higher education
3. The study therefore, was aimed to identify the needs and gaps in order
to come up with tools to address such in order to enhance and strengthen
the teaching system for entrepreneurship in tertiary courses in the
Windows to
A Teaching Guide…Its Framework revolves around well-
trained, knowledgeable and competent entrepreneurship
teachers for effective and meaningful teaching and
The Framework
The research work of Curran and Rosen (2006) support the need for
competent teachers as they exclaim “What influences student attitudes
toward a course? The first and obvious answer is the ‘Instructor!” (pp 135148). Conan and Rosen further extrapolated the other significant factors in addition to the instructor that
are at work at shaping a student’s attitude toward a course.
Henderson and Nash (2007) strongly stress this idea: “A teacher’s
influence, positive or negative, transcends the courses taught. Although a
teacher’s career lasts usually 20 to 30 years, his or her influence may last for the lifetimes of students or, in
rare instances centuries” (p. vii).
Windows to
A Teaching Guide…Its Framework revolves around well-
trained, knowledgeable and competent entrepreneurship
teachers to effect learning”
They claimed in Excellence in College Teaching and Learning drove their point clearly:
“The quality of instruction that college students need is too important to
be left to inadequately trained teachers, no matter how small or large
their number” (Preface). The advice is that all colleges and universities should have professional
development staff or at least adequate resources to assist their teachers to become better in their
This also holds that among the other factors that will help prepare, train, and improve the professional
competencies of entrepreneurship teachers is a good set of well-established framework for
a meaningful teaching and learning materials and tools for lifelong
learning. It also stands on the premise that “one can only give what one
Windows to
A Teaching Guide…an
Objectives of the Project
1. Revisit and and expand the survey conducted on the “Needs
and Gaps in Teaching and Learning Entrepreneurship in
Higher Education, in the Philippines” with a wider range of
geographical reach ; specifically where ENEDA regional
chapters are located in Luzon , Visayas and Mindanao
2. To stratify and analyze the results of of documented training
needs identified in conferences, focus group and round table
discussions conducted by ENEDA from 2007 to 2012;
Windows to
A Teaching Guide…an
3. To develop and write a publishable teaching guide in
entrepreneurship in response to identified needs; with cases,
, experiences, and practices that works);
4. In a format that lends itself to self-directed learning of
entrepreneurship faculty: a) primarily in higher education;
b) in K11-12; c) as well as a reference for use among
entrepreneurs ; d) others like those aspiring ones, college
students , trainers, and development experts.
Windows to
A Teaching Guide…an
Significance of the research
1. Provides the foundation, framework, design and content of
the teaching guide and the future on-line teaching as
opportunity may allow.
(intended for use of ENEDA members, entrepreneurship educators by and large , prospective and new
entrepreneurship educators; as a reference for students aspiring to become entrepreneurs , entrepreneurs as
well as development experts and policy makers);
2. Provides a self-directed/programmed learning guide
(especially for those who cannot attend the regular course program due to distance, cost and time
implications. It is intended to provide a guide and understanding of what teaching entrepreneurship is about)
Windows to
A Teaching Guide…an
3. Allows the teaching faculty to:
a) relate and assess the entrepreneurial learning process to
one’s professional teaching readiness and competency index
(based on the synthesis and integration of realistic and relevant discussions in the guides’ teaching
framework shall appropriate to the crop of students enrolled in the course)
b) direct the entrepreneurship teaching faculty to identify the
competencies and skills they have to acquire, enhance or
4. A welcome contribution to the entrepreneurship teaching
faculty with its dire need for teaching materials and tools.
(Extensive literature research has not revealed any teaching module that will guide the faculty in teaching
entrepreneurship in higher education , in the Philippine setting).
Windows to
A Teaching Guide…is a descriptive research which used
simple methodologies, relevant design, purposive
sampling and gap analysis
Research Design
Primary data came come from: a) surveys/one-on-one interviews using semistructured formats; b) FGDs and round table discussions; c) Delphi conference
and critiquing; d) actual observation and documentation of current activities
and processes in the teaching of entrepreneurship; e) blended-online/chat/mobile surveys
Secondary data gathering came from: a) review of existing literature relevant
for teachers teaching of entrepreneurship b); documentation of the materials,
methodologies, and current effective teaching practices were gathered.
These primary and secondary sources provided extensive information
necessary in the development and writing of the guide.
Windows to
A Teaching Guide…is a descriptive research and used
which used methodologies, relevant design and gap
Faculty; administrators ; entrepreneurship students from selected ENEDA
member schools
1. Luzon : NCR: Metro Manila; South Luzon
2. Visayas: Roxas City
3. Mindanao: Zamboanga City
Past Conferences |Round Table Discussions | Delphi Conferences | Critiquing
1. Bohol
2. Palawan
3. South Luzon
4. Davao
5. Manila
6. Iloilo
Windows to
A Teaching Guide…results and findings
Result Highlights:
Young adolescents as nascent entrepreneurs – M-Nyet -A
Shows self- determination that allows them to make career choices .
The new digital/touch screen generation; with multiple intelligences prefers:
hands-on, experiential learning methods and strategies;
b) personalized, engaging, and enriching learning;
need role models; teachers with expertise; more of mentors and
facilitators who will show them the way at the onset as they learn to be more
self-directed in their entrepreneurial learning journey in college.
Windows to
A Teaching Guide…results and findings
d) Human and technological connectivity. (While they have high preference for nurturing
through mentorship, they also favor electronic and digital gadgets, tools, and Internet sites to hasten learning).
e) Peer counseling (from the higher batches or from contemporaries The “big-sister; little-sister” concept
and the advising/mentorship mode from faculty create a family-like environment that makes learning more
engaging and students more responsive.
f) Learning interventions that break the monotony of classroom work.
(interventions include plant visits, local and foreign travel, exhibitions, competitions, retreats, social outreach
programs, interaction with “real entrepreneurs,” and joining student organizations with school interaction that
are fun and meaningful).
Windows to
A Teaching Guide…results and findings
Result Highlights
2. Educators who are not necessarily entrepreneurs teach students to become
a) Highly educated Tertiary level faculty members teaching entrepreneurship
are the products of traditional business education; they have earned MBAs,
PhDs, or DBAs, but rarely on entrepreneurship.
b) Generation gap in the way teachers treat the new generation of students.
(This situation shows the need for educators of teen-agers to be trained to match these students’ learning
needs. The research found that this is necessary if the educational system seriously wants to produce educated
and responsible entrepreneurs while in college).
Teachers rely mostly on available teaching materials that are meant for
general business course; foreign authors (Among the local materials for reference used by
some HEIs like UST, Miriam College, and San Beda College is Introduction to Entrepreneurship (UP ISSI/SERDEF,
revised publication, 2007).
Windows to
A Teaching Guide…results
d) Faculty development relies heavily on seminars, training, and forums, some
of which have been organized by ENEDA, (which educators find wanting in the development of
skills in teaching and delivery, and in classroom and subject management.)
e) These non-formal training programs are mostly expensive and not affordable
for many teacher and because of high registration fees and transportation requirements for participants. School
administrators generally put a cap on the amount or number of training programs their faculty members can attend.
Most of the faculty members have to be creative in finding ways to participate in such activities outside of their
school. For those who are highly motivated, personal investment takes place as these faculty members pay their own
way to attend such training programs.)
f) Challenges beyond control ; from Top –down and many other factors
(e.g.: the
large number of students per class, which limits consultation and mentoring time per team or student. Large classes
encourage disengagement among the students. They disclosed that they are frustrated at having to handle these
disinterested students but they find it fulfilling to work with the truly motivated ones. Teachers claim that their
challenge now is how to make learning more engaging. The load can be very taxing on the educator. However, the
educators added that their creativity and resourcefulness turn up during the most trying moments.
Windows to
A Teaching Guide…results
Scarcity of competent entrepreneurship educators
h) Emerging support system among educators, students and institutions,
agencies and entrepreneurs themselves , which has proven to be very helpful in
many ways.
Windows to
A Teaching Guide…results and findings
Result Highlights
School Administration, the entrepreneurship program, faculty, and course
An evolving and growing entrepreneurship program and its administration.
b) Puts entrepreneurial mindset and education among the top 10
achievement priorities of the 21st century (that can make human resources or human
capital relevant to the changing career and living pattern of students today).
Slowly mainstreaming the entrepreneurship education as a legitimate
academic discipline in formal education and one of the standard courses;
following its and its recognition as a long-term solution to socio-economic
woes. (CHED has pushed the formal integration of entrepreneurship education pursuant to Republic Act No.
7722 as embodied in Memorandum Order No. 17 (CMO # 17) Series of 2005; Bachelor of Science in
Entrepreneurship; though not prescriptive; it follows guidelines for its quality assurance )
Windows to
A Teaching Guide…results and findings
School administration...
d) Need for a mix of practitioners/entrepreneurs/experts with academicians as
resource persons.
e) Recognition of distinct and specific professional and personal qualities and
attributes for effective teaching.
f) Need a specific formal training or education that will provide the increasing
need for entrepreneurship teachers across levels of education for its program
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