Differentiating Assessment for All Learners

Report
DIFFERENTIATING
ASSESSMENT FOR ALL
LEARNERS
Music For Everyone
NAfME – October 2014
Berta Hickox
Alice Hammel
Rationale for “winding it back”
• Our literacy sequences are commonly linear, and rerouting or
remediating becomes difficult in a general music classroom.
• In every class, students begin to fall behind as they skip steps or get
lost in our teaching sequences.
• We commonly encounter students who are entering our classroom
after other students have had years of sequenced instruction.
Rationale for “winding it back”
• We also frequently teach students who have already mastered our
current, and perhaps future, goals and who are hoping for a
challenge or for more difficult content in music class.
• By ‘winding back’ or ‘winding forward’ we can accommodate the
needs of all students while continuing to teach ALL students in our
music classrooms.
Winding it Back – Rhythmic Example
• Activity: T. speaks a 4-beat rhythm pattern (duple) including
quarter notes and eighth notes; individual students decode the
pattern into rhythm syllables.
•Queen Caroline
Winding it Back – Rhythmic Example
• Activity:
• 1. review several rhythm patterns including the new rhythm (verbal
association)
• 2. T. speaks 4-beat pattern on neutral syllable
• 3. c. echoes 4-beat pattern on neutral syllable
• 4. c. decodes 4-beat pattern in rhythm syllables
Winding it Back – Rhythmic Example
• Steps the students have previously performed to lead up to this
activity = steps to ‘wind it back’
• 1. aural/oral patterning (neutral syllable to neutral syllable)
• 2. verbal association patterning (rhythm syllable to rhythm syllable)
• 3. duple rhymes
• 4. speak rhyme + patsch beat - solo
• 5. speak rhyme + point the visual – solo
• 6. speak rhyme + show beat division – solo
• 7. speak rhyme + show beat or beat division
Winding it Back – Rhythmic Example
• 8. speak rhyme + show beat + show beat division
• 9. speak rhyme + tap rhythm – solo
• 10. speak rhyme, switch between beat, beat division and rhythm
• 11. speak rhyme + show beat + tap rhythm - solo
• 12. speak rhyme, patsch quarter note/beat, tap eighth notes/beat
division
• 13. name the beat “ta” and the beat division “ta-ti”
• 14. speak the rhyme in rhythm syllables, patsch quarter note/beat,
tap eighth notes/beat division
• 15. speak all known rhymes in rhythm syllables
• 16. improvise using rhythm syllables
Winding it Forward – Rhythmic Example
• Steps to ‘wind it forward’:
• Student improvises a 4-beat rhythm pattern (duple) including
quarter notes and eighth notes for the class or another student to
decode
• Student decodes a series of 4-beat rhythm patterns (duple)
including quarter notes and eighth notes
• Student decodes a series of 4-beat rhythm patterns (duple)
including quarter notes and eighth notes while conducting a 2pattern
Winding it Back – Melodic Example
• Activity: Students sight sing unknown melodic patterns from a
tone set containing sol and mi when s = space 3.
•See Saw
Winding It Back – Melodic Example
• Activity:
• 1. c. reviews the staff placement of the pitches when s = space 3
• 2. T. points an unnamed but familiar song on the tone set, c. sings
the solfa and identifies the song
• 3. T. points several known melodic patterns on the staff, c. sings in
solfa
• 4. T. points several less familiar or unknown melodic patterns on
the staff, c. sings in solfa
• 5. T. selects from volunteers to perform step 4 individually
Winding it Back – Melodic Example
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Steps the students have previously performed to lead up to this activity=
steps to ‘wind it back’
1. vocal exploration and pitch-matching activities
2. aural/oral patterns (neutral syllable to neutral syllable)
3. verbal association patterns (solfa to solfa)
4. songs including only sol and mi
5. high and low activities (listening and responding to high and low
pitches; stars & basket)
6. body solfa (high sounds = hands on head; low sounds = hands on
shoulders)
7. sing known songs with text and body solfa - solo
8. sing known songs using the words “high” and “low” with body solfa.
9. name the high sound “sol” and the low sound “mi”
Winding it Back – Melodic Example
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10. sing known songs using solfa and body solfa - solo
11. hand signs for sol and mi
12. sing known songs using solfa and hand signs - solo
13. improvise using sol and mi (body solfa and/or hand signs) - solo
14. decode 2-4 pitch patterns into solfa - solo
15. “write” solfa patterns with melodic icons
16. introduce the staff
17. read known songs from the staff when sol and mi are line notes
18. read known songs from the staff when sol and mi are space notes
19. Students sight sing unknown melodic patterns from the staff when sol
and mi are line notes
• 20. Students sight sing unknown melodic patterns from the staff when sol
and mi are space notes
Differentiated Assessment
• Differentiated assessment: The teacher points to patterns from the
tone set that correspond with the ability levels of individual
students.
• Students who have challenges with the task will read patterns that
are extracted from known songs that the class has previously
performed with body solfa and/or hand signs.
• Students of average ability will be asked to read known patterns
first, then will progress to more challenging patterns (i.e. patterns
starting on mi or combinations of pitches that have not appeared in
song literature).
• Students in need of additional challenge will sing more challenging
patterns such as those starting on mi or unfamiliar combinations of
pitches, and may be asked to point to the tone set and sing solfa
without teacher help.
Ideas for Differentiated Assessment
• reading flashcards
• writing with the flyswatter
• beat flashcards
• class set of flashcards
• tone/rhythm ladder or tone set
• rhythm rondo
• 2-part flashcards
• part-work (conducting, HS in canon, adding an ostinato)
Rhythm rondo
ABACADAEA
Assessment and “Winding”
• “The Goal”
• Sight-reading 5 rhythm flashcards containing the new rhythm concept
• wise choices for self-leveling when selecting
• rhythm syllables match the notation
• correct meter
• steady and consistent beat
Winding it Back
• Read 3 flashcards containing familiar rhythm patterns with accuracy
• Read 3-5 flashcards containing rhythm patterns from previous
rhythm concept
• Swatting the correct rhythm pattern from a selection of 3-5
flashcards, when spoken in rhythm syllables by the teacher
• Swatting the correct rhythm pattern from a selection of 3-5
flashcards, when spoken on a neutral syllable by the teacher
Winding it Forward
• Read a series of 4 flashcards containing familiar rhythm patterns
with accuracy
• Read a series of 4 flashcards containing unknown rhythm patterns
with accuracy
• Read a series of 4 flashcards containing unknown rhythm patterns
while tapping an ostinato
• Choose and read (on a neutral syllable) a rhythm flashcard from a
selection of 5 flashcards for a classmate
• Locate and correct the error in a 4-beat rhythm when the rhythm
pattern is spoken on a neutral syllable by the teacher
A Modified Parallel Curriculum for a First Grade
General Music Class
• Sol-Mi Notation – Quarter-Eighth Notation (Presentation Stage)
Non-modified or
adapted curricular
goals
Modified curricular
goals
Adapted curricular
goals
Students will
decode quarter
eighth patterns
from chants that are
well-known to them
Student will tap the
rhythm with words
to chants that are
well-known to him
Student will derive
quarter eighth
patterns using
popsicle sticks given
as much time as
necessary
Non-modified or
adapted curricular
goals
Modified curricular
goals
Adapted curricular
goals
Students will apply
new rhythm
syllables to chants
well-known to them
Student will chant
rhythms that
contain
quarter/eighth with
other students
Student will chant
using rhythm
syllables at a tempo
of his choosing
Non-modified or
adapted curricular
goals
Modified curricular
goals
Students will sing
Student will
sol-mi patterns using approximate higher
neutral syllables
and lower pitches
following individual
prompt by teachers
Adapted curricular
goals
Student will sing solmi patterns using
neutral syllables at a
tempo of his
choosing
Non-modified or
adapted curricular
goals
Modified curricular
goals
Adapted curricular
goals
Students will show
higher and lower
with their hands and
with the use of icons
Student will show
higher and lower
through any
modality he prefers
Student will
demonstrate higher
and lower using
icons and/or body
motions
Non-modified or
adapted curricular
goals
Modified curricular
goals
Adapted curricular
goals
Students will
discover the two
pitches (sol and mi)
and their similarities
as noted in several
folk songs wellknown to them
Students will sing
folk songs that
contain sol-mi with
other students
Student will
discover sol-mi in at
least one folk song
well-known to him
Non-modified or
adapted curricular
goals
Students will apply
new solfege
syllables to chants
well-known to them
Modified curricular
goals
Adapted curricular
goals
Student will apply
new solfege
syllables to at least
one chant wellknown to him
Charting Student Learning Objectives
• Objective: The students will solfege unfamiliar patterns using only
notes in the diatonic major scale (steps-no skips), and rhythms that
include quarter, paired eighth, and half notes, and equivalent rests.
Pitch Matching Steps
Pitch Matching
Sing major scale on neutral
syllables, ascending
☐
Sing major scale on neutral
syllables, descending
Sing major scale with solfege,
ascending
☐
Sing major scale with solfege,
descending
Sing pitches on a staff with
solfege
Find and sing “do” using a “do
key”
☐
☐
☐
☐
Reading Steps
Reading
Recognize staff
☐
Recognize treble and bass clefs
☐
Understand line and space notes
☐
Name the line in both clefs
☐
Name the space in both clefs
☐
Identify notes on lines and spaces in both
clefs
☐
Recognize rhythms: half, quarter, eighth,
and equivalent rests
☐
Recognize bar lines and measures
☐
Recognize time signatures 2/4, 3/4 and
4/4
☐
Rhythm Readiness Steps
Rhythm Readiness
Maintain steady beat
☐
Chant and clap
☐
Perform half notes and rests
☐
Perform quarter notes and rests
☐
Perform paired eighth notes
☐
Elementary School Rhythm Reading Adapted
Sequence
Final Thoughts
• *Actively teach students how to think: when and how to use strategies and
how to problem-solve (metacognition)
• *Strategize as a class, then in smaller groups: how would you approach a
sight singing exercise? Learning a new dance? Improvise in triple meter?
• This type of work will support common core learning in other subject areas
• Challenge ALL students at their individual levels. When the student achieves
the goal, raise the bar. Think like a solfege teacher 
• Overtly teach the rubric so that students can self-assess: I was able to sing
the song in my head voice, sing the correct words and rhythm, and maintain
the melodic contour of the song, but I cannot yet maintain good intonation,
so my score on the rubric is a 4.
• Reward learning, not perfection
Bibliography
• Teaching Music to Students with Special Needs: A Label-Free
Approach. Alice M. Hammel and Ryan M. Hourigan. Oxford
University Press, 2011.
• Teaching Music to Students with Autism. Alice M. Hammel and Ryan
M. Hourigan. Oxford University Press, 2013.
Contact Information
• Berta Hickox ([email protected])
• Alice Hammel ([email protected])

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