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NEW MATERIALS FOR THE RAILWAY
INFRASTRUCTURE
The problem of current collection
JSC RAILWAY RESEARCH INSTITUTE
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NEW MATERIALS FOR THE RAILWAY
INFRASTRUCTURE
The problem of head current collection
OVERHEAD LINE SUSPENSION
WIRES:
- contact wires;
- suspension cable
CURREN COLLECTION INSERTS:
MATERIAL:
Carbon; Carbon-copper
DESIGN:
Simple; Compound
SHAPE:
Rectangular; Aerodynamic
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NEW MATERIALS FOR THE RAILWAY INFRASTRUCTURE
The problem of head current collection
Tightening of operating conditions for high-speed traffic
Current collection for high-speed railway transport is characterised by a
simultaneous increase in:
• TENSION STRESS OF OVERHEAD CATENARY WIRES INCREASES
2–3-FOLD;
wave propagation speed ~ √N/m (N = tension force, m = weight per unit
length); wave speed must exceed train speed
• 2. SPEEDS INCREASE BY A FACTOR OF 2–2.5
•
• 3. CURRENT VALUE GROWS 1.5-2 TIMES
• 4. ROLLING STOCK POWER IS PLANNED TO RISE TO 20 MW
• 5. CURRENT AT THE CURRENT COLLECTOR: UP TO 4 kA FOR
DIRECT CURRENT, OVER 1 kA FOR ALTERNATING CURRENT
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NEW MATERIALS FOR THE RAILWAY INFRASTRUCTURE
The problem of head current collection
CURRENT COLLECTION FOR HIGH-SPEED RAIL TRANSPORT
PROBLEMS:
1. A SHARP INCREASE IN WEAR AND DAMAGE RATES;
2. INCREASED IMPORTANCE OF LOCAL WEAR (UP TO 1.5 KM OF CONTACT WIRE
MUST BE REPLACED OWING TO INCREASED WEAR OF A FEW METRES);
3. LOW TEMPERATURE CREEP OF CONTACT WIRES AND SUSPENSION CABLES.
•
•
•
•
CAUSES OF THE UNSOLVED PROBLEM:
REGULATORY FRAMEWORK IS INSUFFICIENT OR NONEXISTENT;
NO SYSTEMATIC STUDIES AND TESTS OF MATERIALS USED IN THE COLLECTOR
ASSEMBLY ARE AVAILABLE;
MATERIALS FOR HIGH-CURRENT SLIDING ELECTRICAL CONTACTS OF HIGHSPEED RAIL TRANSPORT ARE NOT AVAILABLE
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NEW MATERIALS FOR THE RAILWAY
INFRASTRUCTURE
CONTACT WIRES
Material
Composition Strength,
, % of
MPa
alloying
metals
Elongation, Resistivity, Standards
%
µΩ·m
and regul
МF-120
Cu-OF
CuAg0,10
БрМг0,25Ф
CuMg0,2
CuMg0,5
CuCd0,7
БрЦр0,5Ф
CuSn0,2
Copper
Copper
0,08-0.12 Ag
0,2-0,3 Mg
0,1-0,3 Mg
0,4-0,7 Mg
0,5-0,8 Cd
0,4-0,6 Zr
0,15-0,55 Sn
≥4
3-8
3 – 10
≥4
3 – 10
3 – 10
2-7
≥4
≥4
≥ 357,7
≥ 360
≥ 350
≥ 401,8
≥ 430
≥ 490
≥ 430
≥ 421,4
≥ 420
≤0,0177
≤0,01777
≤0,01777
≤0,0220
≤o,0240
≤0,02778
≤0,02005
≤0,0200
≤0,02395
GOST 2584
EN50149
EN50149
GOST2584
EN50149
EN50149
EN50149
GOST2584
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EN50149
NEW MATERIALS FOR THE RAILWAY
INFRASTRUCTURE
The problem of head current collection
Wires: possible solutions
New technologies:
Alloying:
Improvement:
mechanical and thermo-mechanical properties
Decline:
Resistivity
Alloying + SPD:
Lower alloying level;
Improvement:
Severe plastic deformation (SPD):
Equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE);
Conform process;
Simultaneous drawing of two metals
Improvement:
mechanical and thermo-mechanical properties
No decline in resistivity
mechanical and thermo-mechanical properties
No decline
in resistivity
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NEW MATERIALS FOR THE RAILWAY INFRASTRUCTURE
The problem of head current collection
WIRES: SPD Schemes
ECAE
ECAE in parallel channels
Conform process
Copper wire hardness vs. temperature
of one-hour-long annealling
140
Conform-process:
continuous technology
Improve the mechanical and thermomechanical properties
Hardness (HB)
120
100
80
60
ИПД
40
Обычный контактный
провод
20
0
0
100
200
300
400
500
Temperature (°C)
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NEW MATERIALS FOR THE RAILWAY INFRASTRUCTURE
The problem of head current collection
Properties of wires: conform - process
Material
Strength,
MPa
Elongation, % Resistivity, μΩ·m
Softening point,
°С
Cu-0,2Sn
Cu-0,2Sn
Сu-OF
Cu
> 420
> 450
> 360
> 400
2 -8
6
2-8
5
330
370
230
270
<0,02395
<0,02062
<0,0177
<0,0177
EN 50149
Conform
EN 50149
Conform
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NEW MATERIALS FOR THE RAILWAY
INFRASTRUCTURE
The problem of head current collection
• Reconstructing areas of local wear
without taking the wire down
Reconstruction: deposited layer
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NEW MATERIALS FOR THE RAILWAY INFRASTRUCTURE
The problem of current collection
Current collecting inserts
Properties of current collecting inserts produced by Morgan Carbon
Material
grade
Material
Permissible linear
current density,
A/mm
In
motion
Standing
Resistivity, Density,
μΩ·m
g/cm³
Flexural
strength,
MPa
Hardness,
HS
CY3TA
Coke
6
1
38
1.7
30
85
CY280
Coke and graphite
6
1
38
1.6
35
75
MY7A
CY3TA, bronze
impregnated
10
2
10
2.4
75
90
MY7A2
CY280, bronze
impregnated
14
2.3
5
2.5
85
95
MY7D
CY3TA, bronze
impregnated
14
2.3
5
2,7
90
92
MY258
Modified MY7D
16
2,3
3
2,9
90
92
MY258A2
MY7A2 with additional
bronze impregnation
18
2.7
<2
2.7
75
85
MY258P
impregnation and crimping
20
5
<1
3.2
85
80
MY259
CY280, bronze
impregnated
16
2,5
3
2,8
90
90
MY131
Lightweight MY258P
10
2
8
2.2
80
105
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NEW MATERIALS FOR THE RAILWAY INFRASTRUCTURE
The problem of head current collection
• CURRENT COLLECTING INSERTS:
• Materials development and possible solutions
СНИЖЕНИUSING SELF-ASSEMBLY BEHAVIOUR OF SURFACE STRUCTURES,
INCLUDING NANOSTRUCTURES, UNDER FRICTION: WEAR RATE IS REDUCED
SEVERAL FOLD
30
Thermodynamic brunch
25
20
Bifurcation point
15
Dissipative structures
1
10
5
0
0
2
4
6
Current density, A/mm
8
10
12
14
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NEW MATERIALS FOR THE RAILWAY INFRASTRUCTURE
The problem of head current collection
CURRENT COLLECTING INSERTS
Aerodynamic shape of current
collection inserts.
Wear resistance increase (30-70 %)
Catalyst application
resistance
_ __ _ __ _ ____ _ _Wear
___ __ _ _ ____
_ __ __ _ _ __ _ _increase
___ ___ __ _ _ _ _ _____ __ __ , ___ ___ __ _ _
_ ____ _ _____ __ ___ _.
900
800
Without catalyst
ÅÂÁ ͇ڇÎËÁ‡ÚÓ¾‡
àÌÚÂÌÒË‚ÌÓÒÚ¸ ËÁ̇¯Ë‚‡Ì˽, Ï„/˜‡Ò
700
With
catalyst 3%
ä‡Ú‡ÎËÁ‡ÚÓ¾ - 3%
600
ä‡Ú‡ÎËÁ‡ÚÓ¾‡ - 6%
With catalyst 6%
ä‡Ú‡ÎËÁ‡ÚÓ¾‡ - 9%
500
With catalyst 9%
400
300
200
100
0
0
20
Current, A
40
60
80
JSC “VNIIZhT”
100
120
140
íÓÍ, Ä
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NEW MATERIALS FOR THE RAILWAY
INFRASTRUCTURE
The problem of head current collection
• CURRENT COLLECTING INSERTS:
• Materials and shape. Aerodynamic modelling
Heat flux distribution
Temperature distribution
Traditional
shape
Alternative shape
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NEW MATERIALS FOR THE RAILWAY INFRASTRUCTURE
The problem of head current collection
• Research programme
1. Studies to investigate wear rate dependence on current density, sliding speed and
contact force for various current collecting inserts and contact wires;
2. Studies of wear surfaces
3. Studies and tests of copper-based wires manufactured using different technologies to
investigate low-temperature creep and determine their electrical, mechanical and thermal
characteristics;
4. Developing a technology for reconstructing areas of local contact wire wear without
taking the wires down;
5. Developing standards:
– for contact wires;
– for current collecting inserts;
– for fixtures
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NEW MATERIALS FOR THE RAILWAY
INFRASTRUCTURE
The problem of head current collection
• THANK YOU !
• Mobile phone: +79161476190
• Business e-mail : [email protected]
• Home e-mail : [email protected]
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