Chemical Nomenclature - University of Michigan

Report
Chemical
Nomenclature
Written by Y. Deng, J. Bazzi and D. Bandyopadhyay
Produced by the Science Learning Center (SLC)
University of Michigan -Dearborn
2013
What is Chemical Nomenclature?
A set of rules to generate systematic
names for chemical substances
Language of chemistry
Used by scientists, particularly
chemists, to communicate and
discuss the issues related to
chemistry
?
Purpose
To introduce the systems of
chemical nomenclature used to
name inorganic compounds and
to write chemical formulas of
inorganic compounds.
Inorganic vs. Organic Compounds
Inorganic compounds are referred traditionally to those
extracted from non-living things (e.g., rocks) and viewed as being
synthesized by geological systems.
Examples:
calcium carbonate (a major compound found in rocks): CaCO3
Sodium chloride (a major compound found in table salt): NaCl
Organic compounds, on the other hand, are referred
traditionally to those found in living things (e.g., plants and
animals) and mainly contain carbon-hydrogen chain and ring
structures.
Examples:
Ethanol (one of the fermentation products of grapes):
CH3CH2OH
Caffeine (one of the components found in coffee beans):
Specific Objectives:
1. Write correct chemical formulas
for inorganic compounds.
2. Name inorganic compounds.
3. Determine the electric charges of
ions involved in ionic compounds.
Part I
THE PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS
AND SYMBOLS OF THE ELEMENTS
The Periodic Table of the Elements is a tabular
arrangement of the chemical elements,
organized on the basis of their atomic numbers
(i.e., the number of protons in their nuclei) and
recurring chemical properties.
There are 118 elements currently listed on the
periodic table. About 90 elements are found in
nature. The remaining ones have been
produced artificially using high energy particle
accelerators.
Each element has its name and
symbol. The symbol can be up to three
letters. The first letter must be capitalized
and the second and third, if any, are in a
lower case.
Examples:
Name
Nitrogen
Chlorine
Ununpentium
Symbol
N
Cl
Uup
The symbols of the elements are derived
from:
 English names
hydrogen – H
calcium– Ca
phosphorus – P
 Latin names
Ferrum (iron) – Fe
Aurum (gold) – Au
Chemical Symbols Derived from Their English Names
Symbol
English Name
Symbol
English Name
H
hydrogen
S
sulfur
C
carbon
Cl
chlorine
N
nitrogen
Ca
calcium
O
oxygen
Mg
magnesium
F
fluorine
Mn
manganese
Al
aluminum
Co
cobalt
Si
silicon
Ni
nickel
P
phosphorous
Zn
zinc
Ba
barium
Cr
chromium
Chemical Symbols Derived from Their Latin Names
Symbol
English
Name
Latin
Name
Meaning
Ag
silver
argentum
silver
Au
gold
aurum
shining dawn
Fe
iron
ferrum
iron
Hg
mercury
hydrargyrum
liquid silver
K
potassium
kalium
potash silver
Na
sodium
natrium
soda
Pb
lead
plumbum
heavy
Cu
copper
cuprum
“from Cyprus” where the
Romans found copper.
The main group elements that must be memorized,
indicated in green color for their symbols and names
alkali
metals
1
IA
Noble
gases
18
VIIIA
alkaline
earth metals
halogens
or 0
H
Hydrogen
2
IIA
13
IIIA
14
IVA
15
VA
16
VIA
17
VIIA
He
Helium
Li
Lithium
Be
Beryllium
B
Boron
C
Carbon
N
Nitrogen
O
Oxygen
F
Fluorine
Ne
Neon
Na
Sodium
Mg
Magnesium
Al
Aluminum
Si
Silicon
P
Phosphorus
S
Sulfur
Cl
Chlorine
Ar
Argon
Transition
Metals
K
Potassium
Ca
Calcium
Br
Bromine
Rb
Rubidium
Sr
Strontium
Sn
Tin
Cs
Cesium
Ba
Barium
Pb
Lead
I
Iodine
Xe
Xenon
The transition metal elements that must be
memorized, indicated in red color of their
symbols and names
4
IVB
5
VB
6
VIB
7
VIIB
Ti
Titanium
V
Vanadium
Cr
Chromium
Mn
Manganese
8
9
10
←VIIIB→
Fe
Iron
Co
Cobalt
Ni
Nickel
11
IB
12
IIB
Cu
Copper
Zn
Zinc
Ag
Silver
Pt
Platinum
Au
Gold
Hg
Mercury
Exercise 1
Write names or symbols of the following
elements.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Ca
K
Co
Mn
Cr
Fe
P
8 . tin
9. silicon
10. gold
11. copper
12. carbon
13. neon
14. bromine
Part II
NAMING BINARY IONIC COMPOUNDS
(CONTAINING TWO DIFFERENT
ELEMENTS)
Naming Binary Ionic Compounds
An ionic compound is a chemical
compound in which ions are held together by
the electrostatic forces between oppositely
charged bodies.
Usually, the positively charged portion
consists of metal cations (e.g., Na+) and the
negatively charged portion consists of anions
(e.g., Cl-).
Formation of An Ionic Compound
e-
Cl
Na
Na+
Cl-
A sodium atom loses an electron to form a positive
ion (cation): Na+.
A chlorine atom gains an electron to form a
negative ion (anion): Cl-.
The cation and the anion are held together by the
electrostatic forces (ionic bond) to form an ionic compound.
Rules for Naming Binary Ionic
Compounds
1. When naming cations, the name of the element is used.
2. When naming anions that are derived from an atom of
the element, the name of the element is modified with
the suffix –ide added.
For example:
Chlorine (Cl) is the name of the element. When a chlorine atom gains an
electron, it becomes an anion, chloride (Cl-).
3. Write the symbol of the cation first, and then the symbol
of the anion.
NaCl
Formation of Magnesium Chloride
Cl
Write the
formula with
the positive
& negative
charges
balanced.
e-
Cl-
Mg
Mg2+
e-
Cl
Cl-
Mg 2+ + 2 Cl-  MgCl2
A subscript “2” is used to indicate number of chloride ion
present in a magnesium chloride compound.
Rules for Naming Binary Ionic Compounds
(Continued)
4. Compounds are electrically neutral, thus the
total number of cations and anions must be such
that positive and negative charges balance to
zero.
MgCl2
5. The number of each ion present in the
compound is designated by a subscript following
its chemical symbols. For example, an aluminum
oxide compound consists of 2 aluminum cation (Al3+)
and 3 oxide anions (O2-).
Al2O3
A modified periodic table useful for writing formulas for binary
ionic compounds. The numbers in blue indicate the common
charges of cations and anions after these atoms gain or lose
electrons.
15
VA
16
VIA
17
VIIA
18
VIIIA
1
IA
2
IIA
13
IIIA
3
2
1
0
+1
+2
+3
1
H
2
He
3
Li
4
Be
7
N
8
O
9
F
10
Ne
11
Na
12
Mg
13
Al
15
P
16
S
17
Cl
18
Ar
19
K
20
Ca
31
Ga
35
Br
36
Kr
37
Rb
38
Sr
53
I
54
Xe
55
Cs
56
Ba
Non-metals
Transition
Metal
Elements
Metals
Examples of Binary Ionic Compounds
Full Name
Name of Cation
Name of Anion Chemical Formula
sodium chloride
sodium (Na+)
chloride (Cl-)
NaCl
lithium bromide
lithium (Li+)
bromide (Br-)
LiBr
calcium iodide
calcium (Ca 2+)
Iodide (I-)
CaI2
aluminum sulfide
aluminum (Al3+)
sulfide (S2-)
Al2S3
potassium oxide
potassium (K+)
oxide (O2-)
K2O
lithium hydride
lithium (Li+)
hydride (H-1)
LiH
barium nitride
barium (Ba2+)
nitride (N3-)
Ba3N2
strontium phosphide strontium (Sr2+) phosphide (P3-)
Sr3P2
Some metals can form cations with different charges.
These cations can be named using two systems:
(a) Stock System:
The charges of cations can be described by using Roman
numerals.
Ex. Iron can form two cations: Fe2+ & Fe3+
FeCl2: iron(II) chloride
FeCl3: iron(III) chloride
(pronounce: iron-two chloride; iron-three chloride)
(b) Classical system:
Assign the ending “ous” to the cations with fewer positive charges
and the ending “ic” to the cations with more positive charges
Ex. Iron can form two cations: Fe2+ & Fe3+
FeCl2: ferrous chloride
FeCl3: ferric chloride
Naming of Cations Using the Classical and Stock Systems:
Cations
Names, Charges
Element
chromium, Cr
cobalt, Co
copper, Cu
iron, Fe
lead, Pb
manganese, Mn
mercury, Hg
nickel, Ni
tin, Sn
chromium(II)
(chromous)
cobalt(II)
(cobaltous)
copper(I)
(cuprous)
iron(II)
(ferrous)
lead(II)
(plumbous)
manganese(II)
(manganous)
mercury(I)
(mercurous)
nickel(II)
(nickelous)
tin (II)
(stannous)
+2
+2
+1
+2
+2
+2
+1
+2
+2
chromium(III)
(chromic)
cobalt(III)
(cobaltic)
copper(II)
(cupric)
iron(III)
(ferric)
lead(IV)
(plumbic)
manganese(III)
(manganic)
mercury(II)
(mercuric)
nickel(III)
(nickelic)
tin(IV)
(stannic)
+3
+3
+2
+3
+4
+3
+2
+3
+4
Additional Examples of Binary Ionic Compounds
Chemical
Formula
Name of Cation
Name of
Anion
Name
(Stock System)
Name
(Classical System)
FeF2
(Fe2+)
iron(II), ferrous
fluoride (F-)
iron(II) fluoride
ferrous fluoride
FeF3
(Fe3+)
iron(III), ferric
fluoride (F-)
iron(III) fluoride
ferric fluoride
Cu2O
(Cu+)
copper(I), cuprous
oxide (O2-)
copper(I) oxide
cuprous oxide
CuO
(Cu2+)
copper(II), cupric
oxide (O2-)
copper(II) oxide
cupric oxide
PbBr2
(Pb2+)
bromide (Br-)
lead(II), plumbous
lead(II)
bromide
plumbous
bromide
PbBr4
(Pb4+)
lead(IV), plumbic
lead(IV)
bromide
plumbic
bromide
bromide (Br-)
Exercise 2
Give the names or formulas of the following
binary ionic compounds. If a compound can be
named by both the Stock and the Classical systems,
provide both names.
1. CaO2
2. NaH
3. Mg3N2
4. FeI3
5. CuCl
6. CuCl2
7. Ba3P2
8. aluminum chloride
9. calcium phosphide
10. stannous oxide
11. ferric bromide
12. ferrous bromide
13. barium nitride
14. nickel(III) chloride
Part III
NAMING IONIC COMPOUNDS
CONTAINING POLYATOMIC IONS
Names of Some Oxo-Anions
An oxo-anion usually contains two elements in which one of
them must be oxygen. The oxo-anions of some elements (in blue)
can have either a suffix -ate or -ite added to the root names of the
elements. For example, SO42- and SO32- are oxo-anions of sulfur
element. Their names are sulfate and sulfite, respectively.
IIIA
B
BO33borate
VIB
Cr
CrO42chromate
Cr2O72dichromate
VIIB
Mn
MnO42manganate
MnO4permanganate
IVA
VA
VIA
VIIA
C
CO32carbonate
N
NO3nitrate
{NO2-}
{nitrite}
O
F
Si
SiO44silicate
P
PO43phosphate
{PO33-}
{phosphite}
S
SO42sulfate
{SO32-}
{sulfite}
Cl
ClO3chlorate
{ClO2-}
{chlorite}
Br
BrO3bromate
I
IO3iodate
Names of Common Polyatomic Ions
Formula of
Ion
Name of Ion
Formula
of Ion
Name of ion
Formula
of Ion
Name of Ion
NO2-
nitrite
NO3-
nitrate
SCN-
thiocyanate
SO42-
sulfate
HSO4-
hydrogen sulfate
bisulfate
BrO3-
bromate
SO32-
sulfite
HSO3-
hydrogen sulfite
bisulfite
AsO33-
arsenite
CO32-
carbonate
HCO3-
bicarbonate
hydrogen carbonate
AsO43-
arsenate
MnO4-
permanganate
CrO42-
chromate
Cr2O72-
dichromate
PO43-
phosphate
HPO42-
hydrogen phosphate
H2PO42-
dihydrogen
phosphate
ClO2-
chlorite
ClO3-
chlorate
ClO4-
perchlorate
ClO-
hypochlorite
IO3-
iodate
IO4-
periodate
Names of Common Polyatomic Ions (cont.)
Formula
Ion
NH4+
CN
OH
ammonium
mercury(I)
(mercurous)
cyanide
hydroxide
O22
peroxide
SCN
thiocyanate
C2H3O2 (or CH3COO-)
acetate
CHO2- (or HCOO-)
formate
C2O42- (or -OOC-COO-)
oxalate
Hg22+
Examples of Ionic Compounds with Polyatomic Ions
Formula
Name of Cation
Name of Anion
Stock
System
Classical
System
NiSO4
(Ni2+)
nickel(II), nickelous
sulfate(SO42-)
nickel(II)
sulfate
nickelous
sulfate
Ni2(SO4)3
(Ni3+)
nickel(III), nickelic
sulfate(SO42-)
nickel(III)
sulfate
nickelic
sulfate
(NH4)2HPO4
(NH4+), ammonium
hydrogen
phosphate(HPO42-)
ammonium
hydrogen
phosphate
ammonium
hydrogen
phosphate
Al(CH3COO)3
Al3+, aluminum
acetate(CH3COO -)
aluminum
acetate
aluminum
acetate
Hg2(NO2)2
(Hg22+)
mercury(I)
mercurous
nitrite(NO2-)
mercury(I)
nitrite
mercurous
nitrite
Hg(NO2)2
(Hg2+)
mercury(II)
mercuric
nitrite(NO2-)
mercury(II)
nitrite
mercuric
nitrite
Exercise 3
Give the names or formulas of the following ionic
compounds with polyatomic ions. If a compound can be named
by both the Stock and the Classical systems, provide both
names.
1. CaSO3
2. NaHCO3
3.Hg2(NO3)2
4. Hg(NO2)2
5. Cu(CH3COO)2
6. Ba(SCN)2
7. Na2Cr2O7
8. calcium phosphate
9. cuprous sulfite
10. ammonium nitrite
11. ferrous dihydrogen phosphate
12. barium cyanide
13. potassium permanganate
14. plumbous carbonate
Part IV
NAMING ACIDS AND BASES
An acid is a substance that ionizes in water to produce
hydrogen ions (H+). A base is a substance that ionizes
in water to produce hydroxide ions (OH-).
A. Acids without oxygen atoms
The following compounds are named depending on whether
they are present as pure substances or are dissolved in water to
form aqueous solutions .
Formula
Pure Substance
Aqueous Solution
HCl
hydrogen chloride
hydrochloric acid
HBr
hydrogen bromide
hydrobromic acid
HI
hydrogen iodide
hydroiodic acid
H2S
hydrogen sulfide
hydrosulfuric acid
HCN
hydrogen cyanide
hydrocyanic acid
B. Common oxo-anions and
their corresponding oxo-acids.
Element
Oxo-Anion
Oxo-Acid
boron
BO33
borate
H3BO3
boric acid
nitrogen
NO3
nitrate
HNO3
nitric acid
PO43
phosphate
H3PO4
phosphoric acid
PO33
phosphite
H3PO3
phosphorous acid
SO42
sulfate
H2SO4
sulfuric acid
SO32
sulfite
H2SO3
sulfurous acid
ClO
hypochlorite
HClO
hypochlorous acid
ClO2
chlorite
HClO2
chlorous acid
ClO3
chlorate
HClO3
chloric acid
ClO4
perchlorate
HClO4
perchloric acid
bromine
BrO3
bromate
HBrO3
bromic acid
iodine
IO3
iodate
HIO3
iodic acid
phosphorus
sulfur
chlorine
C. Common organic acids
Formula
Name
HCOOH (CH2O2)
formic acid
CH3COOH (C2H4O2)
acetic acid
HOOCCOOH (C2H2O4)
oxalic acid
D. Bases
Formula
Name
Formula
Name
NaOH
sodium hydroxide
LiOH
lithium hydroxide
KOH
potassium hydroxide
Sr(OH)2
strontium hydroxide
Mg(OH)2
magnesium hydroxide
Ca(OH)2
calcium hydroxide
Ba(OH)2
barium hydroxide
AgOH
silver hydroxide
Zn(OH)2
zinc hydroxide
Al(OH)3
aluminum hydroxide
Hg2(OH)2
mercury(I) hydroxide
mercurous hydroxide
Hg(OH)2
mercury(II) hydroxide
mercuric hydroxide
CuOH
copper(I) hydroxide
cuprous hydroxide
Cu(OH)2
copper(II) hydroxide
cupric hydroxide
Ni(OH)2
nickel(II) hydroxide
nickelous hydroxide
Ni(OH)3
nickel(III) hydroxide
nickelic hydroxide
Co(OH)2
cobalt(II) hydroxide
cobaltous hydroxide
Co(OH)3
cobalt(III) hydroxide
cobaltic hydroxide
Pb(OH)2
lead(II) hydroxide
plumbous hydroxide
Cr(OH)3
chromium(III) hydroxide
chromic hydroxide
Exercise 4
Give the names or formulas of the following acids
and bases. If an acid or a base can be named by both the
Stock and the Classical systems, provide both names.
1. HF (aqueous solution)
2. H2SO3
3. H2CO3
4. H2S (pure substance)
5. Hg2(OH)2
6. Fe(OH)2
7. H3PO4
8. nitric acid
9. aluminum hydroxide
10. ferric hydroxide
11. cuprous hydroxide
12. hydrocyanic acid
13. nitrous acid
14. sulfuric acid
Part V
NAMING HYDRATES
Hydrates – compounds that have a specific
number of water molecules attached to them.
Examples:
(1) BaCl2·2H2O
(2) CuSO4·5H2O
(3) MgSO4·7 H2O
The First Ten Greek Prefixes
Greek Prefix
Number
monoditritetrapentahexaheptaoctanonadeca-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Examples of Hydrates and Their Names
The Greek prefixes are used to indicate the number
of water molecules in hydrates.
(1) BaCl2·2H2O
Name: barium chloride dihydrate
(2) CuSO4·5H2O
Name : copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate (Stock System)
Or
cupric sulfate pentahydrate (Classical System)
(3) MgSO4·7 H2O
Name: magnesium sulfate heptahydrate
Exercise 5
Give the names or formulas for the following
hydrates. If a hydrate can be named by both the
Stock and the Classical systems, provide both
names.
(1) LiCl·H2O
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
MgSO4·7H2O
CoCl2·6H2O
CuSO4·5H2O
Na2SO4∙10H2O
(6) barium chloride dihydrate
(7) sodium carbonate decahydrate
(8) ferrous sulfate hexahydrate
(9) strontium nitrate tetrahydrate
(10) manganese(II) nitrate tetrahydrate
Part VI
NAMING BINARY MOLECULAR
COMPOUNDS
(CONTAINING TWO ELEMENTS, BUT
DON’T CONTAIN CATIONS AND ANIONS)
Rules for Naming Binary Molecular Compounds
Examples of binary molecular compounds: CO2, CCl4
1.When naming the first element, the name of the
element is used.
2.Then name the second element by taking the
first part of the element name and adding the
suffix “ide”.
3.Use Greek prefixes to denote the number of
atoms of each element present.
4.The prefix “mono” can be omitted for the first
element.
5.For oxides, the ending “a” in the prefix is
sometimes omitted.
Examples
CO: carbon monoxide (not monocarbon monoxide)
CO2: carbon dioxide
SO3: sulfur trioxide
N2O4: dinitrogen tetroxide (not tetraoxide)
PCl5: phosphorus pentachloride
S2F10: disulfur decaflouride
An exception to the use of Greek prefixes involves
molecular compounds containing hydrogen
Traditionally, many of these compounds are
called either by their common names or by
names that do not specifically indicate the
number of H atoms present.
Examples:
CH4 - methane; NH3 – ammonia; PH3 – phosphine
H2O- water; H2S – hydrogen sulfide; SiH4 -silane
Exercise 6
Give the names or formulas for the following
binary molecular compounds.
1. NO
8. dinitrogen monoxide
2. SO2
9. boron trichloride
3. Cl2O7
10. diarsenic pentoxide
4. PBr3
11. sulfur hexachloride
5. SF6
12. nitrogen triiodide
6. P2O5
13. carbon tetra bromide
7. CCl4
14. diphosphorus pentoxide
Acknowledgements
The authors would like to thank Ali Bazzi,
Ogie Stewart and Ruixiao Zuo for their
valuable comments and suggestions that
were of great help in preparing and
improving this module.
The authors would like to thank Annette Sieg,
Assistant Director of SLC, as well as the SLC
staff for their help and technical support.
Exercise 1 – Key
Write names or symbols of the following elements
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Ca
K
Co
Mn
Cr
Fe
P
calcium
potassium
cobalt
manganese
chromium
iron
phosphorus
8 . tin
9. silicon
10. gold
11. copper
12. carbon
13. neon
14. bromine
Sn
Si
Au
Cu
C
Ne
Br
Exercise 2 - Key
Give the names or formulas of the following binary ionic
compounds. If a compound can be named by both the Stock and
the Classical systems, provide both names.
1. CaO2
2. NaH
3. Mg3N2
4. FeI3
5. CuCl
6. CuCl2
7. Ba3P2
8. aluminum chloride
9. Calcium phosphide
10. Stannous oxide
11. Ferric bromide
12. Ferrous bromide
13. Barium nitride
14. Nickel (III) chloride
calcium peroxide
sodium hydride
magnesium nitride
ferric/iron(III) iodide
cuprous/copper(I) chloride
cupric/copper(II) chloride
barium phosphide
AlCl3
Ca3P2
SnO
FeBr3
FeBr2
Ba3N2
NiCl3
Exercise 3 - Key
Give the names or formulas of the following ionic compounds with
polyatomic ions. If a compound can be named by both the Stock and
the Classical systems, provide both names.
1. CaSO3
2. NaHCO3
3.Hg2(NO3)2
4. Hg(NO2)2
5. Cu(CH3COO)2
6. Ba(SCN)2
7. Na2Cr2O7
8. calcium phosphate
9. cuprous sulfite
10. ammonium nitrite
11. ferrous dihydrogen phosphate
12. barium cyanide
13. potassium permanganate
14. plumbous carbonate
calcium sulfite
sodium hydrogen carbonate
or sodium bicarbonate
mercurous/mercury(I) nitrate
mercuric/mercury(II) nitrite
cupric/copper(II) acetate
barium thiocyanate
sodium dichromate
Ca3(PO4)2
Cu2SO3
NH4NO2
Fe(H2PO4)2
Ba(CN)2
KMnO4
PbCO3
Exercise 4 - Key
Give the names or formulas of the following acids and bases. If an acid or a base
can be named by both the Stock and the Classical systems, provide both names.
1. HF (aqueous solution)
2. H2SO3
3. H2CO3
4. H2S (pure substance)
5. Hg2(OH)2
6. Fe(OH)2
7. H3PO4
8. nitric acid
9. Aluminum hydroxide
10. Ferric hydroxide
11. Cuprous hydroxide
12. Hydrocyanic acid
13. Nitrous acid
14. Sulfuric acid
hydrofluoric acid
sulfurous acid
carbonic acid
hydrogen sulfide
mercurous/mercury(I) hydroxide
ferrous/iron (II) hydroxide
phosphoric acid
HNO3
Al(OH)3
Fe(OH)3
CuOH
HCN
HNO2
H2SO4
Exercise 5 - Key
Give the names or formulas for the following hydrates. If a hydrate can
be named by both the Stock and the Classical systems, provide both
names.
(1) LiCl·H2O
lithium chloride monohydrate
(2) MgSO4·7H2O
magnesium sulfate heptahydrate
(3) CoCl2·6H2O
cobaltous/cobalt (II) chloride hexahydrate
(4) CuSO4·5H2O
cupric/copper (II) sulfate pentahydrate
(5) Na2SO4∙10H2O
sodium sulfate decahydrate
(6) barium chloride dihydrate
BaCl2·2H2O
(7) sodium carbonate decahydrate
Na2CO3·10H2O
(8) ferrous sulfate hexahydrate
FeSO4·6H2O
(9) Strontium nitrate tetrahydrate
Sr(NO3)2·4H2O
(10) manganese (II) nitrate tetrahydrate
Mn(NO3)2·4H2O
Exercise 6 - Key
Give the names or formulas for the following binary molecular
compounds.
1. NO
nitrogen monoxide
8. dinitrogen monoxide
N2O
2. SO2
sulfur dioxide
9. boron trichloride
BCl3
3. Cl2O7
dichlorine heptoxide
10. diarsenic pentoxide
Ar2O5
4. PBr3
phosophorus tribromide
11. sulfur hexachloride
SCl6
5. SF6
sulfur hexafluoride
12. nitrogen triiodide
NI3
6. P2O5
diphosphorus pentoxide
13. carbon tetrabromide
CBr4
7. CCl4
carbon tetrachloride
14. diphosphorus pentoxide
P 2 O5

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