Distributed Engine Controls

Welcome to the
OAI Aerospace Instrumentation and Controls Collaboration Forum
Ohio Aerospace Institute, 22800 Cedar Point Road, Cleveland, OH 44142
The Building Blocks of Smart Sensors and other Technologies for
Distributed High Temperature Intelligent Integrated Controls Networks
for Aerospace Applications
25 August, 2011
Dr. Al Behbahani
Air Force Research Laboratory
1:00 – 2:15 p.m.
Smart sensors
•15 min – Introduction --Al
Motivation for Distributed High Temperature Controls
Distributed Open Software Hierarchical Architectures for
Control Systems
•20 min – Developing standards for distributed engine controls –
• High level node architecture (functional requirements)
• What will the DECWG requirements document contain
 20 min – Developing standards for Smart Sensors – Bhal
 20 min – Discussions
2:15 – 2:30 p.m.
Statement of Objective
• The Air Force Research Laboratory has committed its resources to the development of
new tools and component technologies to improve the affordability, fuel efficiency and
increased power/weight of the legacy and future fleet of aircraft gas turbine engines
thorough the Versatile Affordable Advanced Turbine (VAATE) initiatives.
• A pervasive enabler across all VAATE platforms is high temperature capable controls,
sensors, and actuators which will allow for enhanced thermal management, development
cost reductions, and possible fuel burn savings. The Distributed Engine Control Working
Group (DECWG) has identified that a key enabler for future engine control systems is high
temperature capable electronics which will allow full life operation in increasingly harsh
thermal environments.
• This effort will develop requirements documents to be used by industry for high
temperature distributed control systems (along with high temp. sensors and actuators)
as well as perform proof of concept testing for State Of the Art (SOA) high
temperature Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) device packaging and development/toolkit
work for compact/affordable SOI wafers.
• This activity serves as initial risk mitigation for demonstrating high temperature
Distributed control architectures on the 2014 -2015 CAESAR engine.
Objectives of Today’s Meeting
 Eliminate duplication and encourage collaboration among DECWG, PIWG, ASWG, IAPG,
TETWoG, small businesses, universities, and colleges for sensors, instrumentation, modeling &
 Summary of the DECWG, and how small business & universities can participate or contribute
to overall goal and vision of the DECWG & other teams. Ideas such as SBIR benefits and
contributions, consortium participation, standards, Power supplies, Process and Toolkit
Development, sensors, collaborate in buying parts for the whole group at the reduced price,
communication data bus, packaging, System Level / Node Level / Chip Level requirements, cost
minimization ideas.
 Reemphasize the vision of the DECWG to eliminate operational limitations imposed by Controls
on next generation turbine engine and aerospace vehicle applications, while positively impacting
system-level cost, weight, size, reliability and adaptability/reuse metrics.
 The DECWG goal is to create a voluntary pre-competitive collaboration between government
and aerospace industry to promote development of affordable high-temperature-capable
distributed gas turbine engine controls and sensors.
 Define the roll and responsibilities for the airframers to be involved in the PIWG & DECWG.
Need to have an integration plan to involve them.
 A true collaboration between the entire participants for a mutually beneficial for advancement of
sensors, actuators, and controls.
The Process for Distributed Controls
(including Smart Sensors and Actuators)
Is the central
issue needs to
be focused
Requirements are different for Test
Cell Application Vs. Flight application
Objective: Modular, Open, Distributed
Engine Control
Increased Performance
• Reduction in engine weight due to digital
signaling, lower wire/connector count,
reduced cooling need
• 5% increase in thrust-to-weight ratio
Improved Mission Success
• System availability improvement due to
automated fault isolation, reduced
maintenance time, modular LRU
• 10% increase in system availability
Lower Life Cycle Cost
• Reduced cycle time for design,
manufacture, V&V
• Reduced component and maintenance
costs via cross-platform commonality,
obsolescence mitigation
• Flexible upgrade path through open
interface standards
Open Systems Development, Modeling
& Design
• Future systems requirements definition
• Open industry interface standards
• System modeling tools development
• Modular system integration and test
Hardware Systems Development
• High temperature integrated circuits and
systems development
• Improved electronic component
Software Systems Development
• Software system partitioning
• Software design and modular test
• Software distributed system V&V
Technical Requirements for Distributed Controls,
Smart Sensors and Actuators
Physical Drivers for Smart Sensors / Actuators / Distributed Control
System Designs
Thermal Environment
Externals Packaging
Rapid Reconfiguration / Upgradability
Generic Physical/Functional Interface
Environmental Requirements
Certification Impact
Integration Testing
Developing Standards
Financial Responsibility
Focus on Near-Term Applications
Concentrate on commercial applications with production volumes
Design for maximum leveraging though multiple applications
Externals Packaging
Need to integrate electronics onto or within existing hardware
Minimize unique hardware
Adding new/extra mounting hardware drives cost, weight in the wrong direction
Technical Requirements for Distributed Controls…(Cont.)
Environmental Requirements
• Design for existing ambient temperatures and vibration environments
• Don’t drive cost/complexity into the DCM to withstand unrealistic margins
• Focus on actual engine environments, not D0160/810 generic requirements
• Design electronics to withstand existing hardware thermal conditions
• Recognize limitations of typical industry materials
• Aluminums (300F/149C), Elastomers (350F/177F)
Certification Impact, Changes to Testing
• Allow certification at modular level
• Require system level certification using black box approach to testing
• Allow flexible system expansion/contraction without recert. required
Integration testing
• System integration testing paradigms will shift
• System integration tasks will shift one layer down the food chain
• AS/OS boundaries may drive testing location, integration responsibilities
Bhal will be talking next
Motivation / Objective
• Are engine control sensors and actuators
keeping pace with turbine engine system
• How Do & Why Should we take advantage of
emerging electronics and smart sensors and
actuator technologies, and integration
• What are the collaboration opportunities for the
turbine engine sensors and actuators
Implementation of Distributed Engine Controls with Smart Sensors
Cross Channel Data Links (CCDL
The Role of Data Communication and Smart Sensors
and Actuators in a Distributed Engine Control
A fully distributed control system. Each system element individually connects to the
network. Each physical element can have multiple functions, some of which require
real-time communication for control and others which may be less time critical.
Distributed Open Software (DOS) Hierarchical
Architectures for Control Systems
Straw man Plans
• To work on High temperature Electronics to
be used in the data concentrator, smart
nodes, smart sensors, smart actuators, and
smart pumps
• Each company proprietary information will be
• Every company from US will start from the
same building blocks.
• Will use common I/Os, data buses, and
standard components / software (if possible)
Smart Sensors, Actuators, & Integration
• Develop the technologies to implement reliable,
integrated electronics for high temperature
• Stable, high temperature transistors
• Multilevel interconnect structures for complex
integrated circuit development
• High performance packaging and interconnects for
reliable, extreme environment applications
• Develop high temperature sensing capabilities
Need collaboration on Smart
Sensors and Actuators
High Temperature Electronics
High Temperature Packaging
Data Bus Communication
Standardized Smart Sensors
Standardized Smart Actuators
Standardized software
Standardized Power supplies
Standardized chips
Standardized Communication H/W
Standardized testing & Evaluation
Certifiable components
Integration Testing
Standardized Processes while keeping proprietary information and
stimulating innovation and evolution in the Distributed Control
Centrally Controled FADEC
Baseline centralized engine control architecture. The FADEC connects directly to each
system element
IEEE 1451
Standard for a Smart Transducer Interface for Sensors and Actuators
The objective of IEEE 1451 is to develop a smart transducer interface standard to
make it easier for transducer manufacturers to develop smart devices and to interface
those devices to networks, systems, and instruments by incorporating existing and
emerging sensor and networking technologies. The standard interface consists of
three parts.
• Smart Transducer Interface Module (STIM) – electronics to convert the
native transducer signal to digital quantities.
• Transducer Electronic Data Sheet (TEDS) – a memory which contains
transducer specific information such as; identification, calibration,
correction data, measurement range, manufacture-related information,
• Network-capable application processor (NCAP) - the hardware and
software that provides the communication function between the STIM
and the network
IEEE 1451
The IEEE 1451 standard family defines the interfaces between various
transducers and networks, including wireless

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