1. Darwin's theory of evolution assumes that _______ change(s) through evolution. a. only physiology b. only mental capacities c. only physiology and mental capacities in animals d. both physiology and mental capacities in animals and humans 2. Morgan's Canon stipulates that a. all animals will work harder and learn faster the larger the reward or punishment. b. all animal physiology and mental capacities gradually change via evolution. c. we should always use the simplest explanation possible to explain a behavior, regardless of the behavior’s complexity. d. we learn most behaviors through trial and error, with reward and punishment providing feedback about our actions. 3. Which of the following individuals is not associated with the study of instrumental or operant learning? a. Edward Thorndike b. John Watson c. Edward Tolman d. Ivan Sechenov 4. In classical conditioning subjects learn _______ associations. a. S-S* b. S-R-S* c. R-S* d. S-R 5. In instrumental and operant conditioning subjects learn _______ associations. a. S-S* b. S-R-S* c. R-S* d. S-R 6. The main distinction between classical and instrumental conditioning is that a. classical conditioning is effective only with reflexive behaviors, instrumental conditioningonly with voluntary behaviors. b. the variables that affect classical conditioning affect instrumental conditioning differently or not at all. c. classical conditioning involves stimulus-stimulus learning, whereas instrumental conditioning involves response-outcome learning. d. classical conditioning occurs more in animals, and instrumental conditioning occurs more in humans. e. All of the above 7. Learning that a skull and crossbones means poison, that sour smelling milk is spoiled milk, and that a certain cologne belongs to a loved one are all examples of wha type of learning? a. voluntary b. consequence controlled c. classically conditioned d. instrumentally conditioned 8. Which of the following statements about habituation is true? a. Habituation occurs in all animal species. b. Habituation is a simple form of associative learning. c. Habituation occurs only with extensive instrumental practice. d. All of the above 9. Escape is said to occur when a subject a. responds to a signal for an aversive event and thereby prevents the aversive event from occurring. b. engages in a behavior and is presented with an aversive event. c. experiences an aversive event and then engages in a behavior that removes that event. d. engages in a behavior and does not experience any outcome. 10. Avoidance is said to occur when a subject a. responds to a signal for an aversive event and thereby prevents the aversive event from occurring. b. engages in a behavior and is presented with an aversive event. c. experiences an aversive event and then engages in a behavior that removes that event. d. engages in a behavior and does not receive any outcome. 11. When Sasha gets ready to walk her puppy, the dog sometimes resists the leash by squirming. In response to this behavior, Sasha stops what she is doing, stands up straight, crosses her arms across her chest, and looks away, conspicuously ignoring the puppy. Sasha is using the procedure of _______ to reduce the dog’s tendency to misbehave. a. omission b. escape c. punishment d. avoidance e. positive reward 12. Punishment is a procedure in which a subject _______ every time the subject performs a particular response. a. has an aversive stimulus removed b. experiences a desirable event c. has a desirable outcome removed d. experiences an aversive event 13. Shaping is a procedure used in _______ conditioning to gradually _______. a. classical; increase the intensity of the S* b. classical; modify how the S is presented over trials c. instrumental; change the amount, frequency, or time of delivery of the outcome d. instrumental; change the amount, frequency, or kind of response produced 14. When an animal or human experiences a taste or odor that is associated with illness, they learn to avoid contact with that taste or odor in the future. This conditioning procedure is referred to as a. sign tracking. b. fear conditioning. c. taste aversion learning. d. conditioned compensatory responding. 15. Sam’s athletic club gives current members a credit for one month’s membership fees for every two new members they refer to the club. To date, Sam has earned three months of credit on his athletic club fees. The club then decides to discontinue this membership credit program, and Sam’s referrals quickly decline to zero. This change in Sam’s behavior is most likely due to a. omission. b. escape. c. punishment. d. avoidance. e. extinction. 16. Which of the following examples illustrates spontaneous recovery? a. Paul tries to log onto a computer that was not working the day before. b. Sarah decides to take a different route to class to avoid smelling the freshly baked bread from a bakery. c. Steve is given the opportunity to take a make-up quiz because he notified his teacher in advance of his impending absence. d. Jesse attempts a new style of painting when his previous attempts fail to produce the desired results. 17. In general, classical and instrumental learning occur most readily when a. the time between R-S* or S-S* is short. b. the time between R-S* or S-S* is long. c. the size or intensity of the S* is large. d. the size or intensity of the S* is small. e. Both a and c 18. The issue of preparedness in learning is connected to a. the age at which we attempt to train an animal or human. b. the particular size, type, frequency, duration, and timing of the S* that will be used in the conditioning procedure. c. whether the selected behavior tends to be easy or hard to learn based on the organism’s evolutionary predispositions. d. whether we use classical or instrumental procedures to achieve behavioral change. 19. The unconditional stimulus is a. an event that naturally elicits a reliable and measurable response. b. a learned event that elicits a reliable and measurable response. c. an event that does not initially elicit a response but will do so after it has been presented a few times. d. an event that will elicit a reliable and measurable response after this event has been preexposed to the subject. 20. In most conditioning studies, a. there are only a few stimuli present that could potentially enter into the developing associative relationship. b. there are a variety of stimuli present that could potentially enter into the developing associative relationship. c. there are a variety of stimuli present, but the researcher prevents irrelevant stimuli from entering into the developing associative relationship. d. the researcher eliminates all irrelevant stimuli and exposes the subject to only the relevant stimuli. 21. The conditional stimulus is a. an innate trigger. b. a sign stimulus or releaser. c. a learned trigger. d. All of the above 22. Clicker training, which involves pairing a metallic clicking sound with a food treat, is currently a popular method for training zoo animals and pets. Initially the click is meaningless, but as the number of click–food treat pairings increases, the animal (e.g., a dog) appears to develop an expectation that a click signals a food treat. Thus the dog approaches, looks at the handler, and appears excited (e.g., wagging tail, drooling, etc.). From a classical conditioning perspective, the click sound would be classified as the a. unconditional stimulus. b. unconditional response. c. conditional stimulus. d. conditional response. 23. A dog handler paired a click sound made by a metallic clicker with food. If the handler forgot her clicker, she could also snap her fingers or produce a click sound with her mouth. To the extent that dog reacts to the finger snap or mouth click as it does to the metallic clicker, we would classify this behavior as a. spontaneous recovery. b. acquisition. c. generalization. d. habituation. 24. While you are stopped at a traffic light and listening to a new song on the radio, the driver behind you accidentally hits your car. You suffer mild whiplash, minor bruising, and are terribly frightened by the accident. Weeks later, you still get anxious whenever you hear the song that was on the radio at the time of the accident. One explanation of “what is learned” in classical conditioning studies is that the subject forms an association between the song and the impact of the car collision, thus illustrating _______ learning. a. S-R b. S-S c. R-S d. R-R 25. Classical conditioning is also referred to as _______ substitution learning. a. response b. stimulus c. stimulus-response d. response-stimulus 26. Using rats, a researcher pairs a buzzer with a flashing light and presents these two stimuli 10 times. Next he pairs the flashing light with a twosecond blast of cold air and presents these two stimuli 10 times. The light–cold air pairing produces a startle response in the rat. To demonstrate that sensory preconditioning occurred, the researchers would present the _______ and thereby produce a startle response. a. light b. buzzer c. light and cold air d. buzzer and cold air e. buzzer-light combination 27. You are driving your younger brother to basketball practice when the wheels of the truck in front of you throw a rock up at your car windshield. After the rock hits the windshield, your younger brother yells “Incoming!” You are unlikely to learn an association between the word “Incoming” and the rock because the event was a real-life example of the _______ conditioning procedure a. trace b. backward c. delay d. simultaneous 28. Preexposing a CS or US a. increases its salience and effectiveness in forming a classical association. b. decreases its salience and effectiveness in forming a classical association. c. has no effect on its salience or effectiveness in forming a classical association. d. has a negative effect on delay, trace, or backward conditioning, but no effect on simultaneous conditioning. 29. A negative contingency is a situation in which a. neither a CS nor a US will occur. b. a CS but not a US will occur. c. a US will occur during the CS as well as when the CS is absent. d. a CS is paired with an aversive US. 30. In an experiment with rats, a researcher first pairs a light with a shock for 20 trials, and then pairs a light-and-tone compound with the same shock. When the rats are tested with trials of the tone only, the light only, and the light-tone compound only, the researcher finds that the subjects show fear responses with a. the light only, the tone only, and the light-tone compound. b. the light only, but not the tone only or the light-tone compound. c. the light only and the light-tone compound, but not the tone only. d. the light-tone compound, but not the tone only or the light only 31. The Rescorla-Wagner model emphasizes the importance of a. contiguity between the CS and US. b. the surprisingness of the CS. c. the surprisingness of the US. d. contextual conditioning. 32. The term “asymptote” is used to refer to the a. surprisingness or salience of the CS. b. surprisingness or salience of the US. c. lower limit of the learning curve. d. upper limit of the learning curve. e. variability in responding until learning occurs. 33. In the Rescorla-Wagner model, the symbol _______ refers to the limit of the amount of associative strength or learning that may occur. a. b. c. V d. e. 34. Which set of symbols is used to represent the surprisingness of the US? a. b. c. – SV d. + SV e. + 35. According to the Rescorla-Wagner model, if the _______, then no conditioning of associative strength will occur. a. salience of the CS is zero b. salience of the US is zero c. US is not biologically significant d. a or b 36. The Rescorla-Wagner model predicts that the associative strength of a single CS that has been trained to asymptote and then completely extinguished is a. neutral or zero. b. weak but inhibitory. c. weak but excitatory. d. moderately inhibitory. e. strongly inhibitory. 37. According to the Rescorla-Wagner model’s assumptions about CS salience (), if two neutral stimuli (light with an =. 8 and tone with an =. 4) are put in compound and paired with a shock, a. on each conditioning trial the tone will acquire more associative strength than the light. b. on each conditioning trial the light will acquire more associative strength than the tone. c. the tone and the light will acquire equal amounts of conditioning on each trial, with subjects learning about light in half the amount of time it takes to learn about tone. d. the tone and the light will acquire equal amounts of conditioning on each trial, with subjects taking about half as long as usual to learn about stimuli. 38. In a third-grade classroom, Carla became an aversive excitatory stimulus to Kelly because she often embarrassed her in front of other pupils. In the fourth grade, Kelly and Carla are again in the same class, but the new teacher will not tolerate abusive behavior. After six weeks, Kelly is no longer made anxious by Carla’s presence. When Kelly later joins a soccer team, and finds that Carla belongs to the same team. According to the Rescorla-Wagner model, Kelly is likely to _______ about Carla’s presence on the team. a. feel a little anxious b. feel a little excited c. be unconcerned d. be surprised 39. The Rescorla-Wagner model emphasizes the importance of the _______, whereas the Mackintosh model emphasizes the importance of the _______. a. US; context b. CS; context c. context; CS d. context; US e. US; CS 40. The term “reactivated memory” refers to a. retraining procedures that restore the forgotten memory. b. retraining procedures that change the original meaning of the forgotten memory. c. priming procedures that facilitate retrieval of the forgotten memory. d. a memory that occurs inappropriately and is no longer triggered by a specific CS 41. We use the term _______ to refer to memories that may be forgotten because recently learned memories block or conflict with access to older memories a. retroactive interference b. proactive interference c. encoding failure d. trace decay 42. A rat is trained to expect food whenever a flashing light occurs. In a second training phase, the same rat gets food whenever the left key light is illuminated but no food when the right key light is illuminated. The rat has some difficulty learning the association in the second training phase, likely due to a. retroactive interference. b. proactive interference. c. encoding failure. d. trace decay 43. Kevin likes to study chemistry while listening to his favorite band on his iPod. When he goes to take his first chemistry test, he finds that his professor does not allow anyone to listen to their iPod while taking the test. During the test Kevin has difficulty remembering some of the chemistry information he studied, likely due to a. proactive interference. b. retroactive interference. c. trace decay. d. retrieval failure. 44. An occasion setter a. increases the ambiguity of another cue. b. reduces the ambiguity of another cue. c. disrupts responding to a meaningful cue. d. reduces response fatigue or sensory adaptation. 45. Researchers have found that children of parents with alcoholism learn to predict the parents’ behavioral tendencies. For example, when a child interacts with a parent (CS1) and detects the smell of alcohol (CS1CS2), the child knows that the parent will not prepare a meal; when the child detects no alcohol (CS1), the child knows that the parent will prepare a meal and perform other parental functions. This is a real-world example of a a. feature-negative discrimination. b. feature-positive discrimination. c. reinstatement effect. d. rapid reacquisition effect. e. renewal effect. 46. Which one of the terms in the following list does not belong with the others? a. Feature-negative stimulus b. Feature-positive stimulus c. Occasion setter d. Target stimulus 47. To test the meaning of an occasion setter in a serial, feature-negative discrimination, a buzzer is sometimes followed by food and sometimes followed by no food. However, when a flashing light precedes the buzzer, no food is delivered. In a second phase of training, the flashing light is paired with food. When the flashing light is again presented with the buzzer, the occasion-setting model predicts that when the buzzer is presented we should see a. a high sustained rate of lever pressing. b. bursts of lever pressing intermixed with periods of no responding. c. no lever pressing. d. a low sustained rate of lever pressing. 48. The confusion of a young child who can recognize many common birds (e.g., robins, cardinals, blue jays, gold finches, etc.) as birds, but is stumped when presented with a picture of an exotic-looking peacock, illustrates the _______ theoretical approach to concept learning. a. transfer b. feature c. prototype d. exemplar 49. Subjects who learn a concept by distinguishing characteristics that are associated with reinforcement from those that are not, are illustrations of the _______ theory. a. transfer b. feature c. prototype d. exemplar 50. _______ memory is a type of reference memory related to an organism’s ability to remember specific personal experiences (e.g., Where did I put my keys?). a. Working b. Episodic c. Procedural d. Semantic 51. Which of the following findings about time cognition is false? a. Biological clocks operate according to a repeating cycle, even when environmental cues are constant or unchanging. b. Changing environmental cues can reset or change the cycling of biological clocks. c. Cognition of time is regulated by biological clocks in animals and by external environmental cues in humans. d. Biological clocks are readily entrained by external cues and can be adjusted in a relatively short period of time. 52. A researcher trains animals on an interval schedule using the onset of an explicit cue (e.g., light) as the signal that behavior will not be reinforced until a set amount of time has elapsed. This researcher is using the _______ procedure. a. temporal generalization b. temporal bisection c. superposition d. peak 53. In the information processing model for timing proposed by Gibbon and Church, a hypothetical mechanism produces a timing sensation or pulse that is used to measure the amount of time that has passed. This mechanism is referred to as the a. accumulator. b. pacemaker. c. comparator. d. scalar. e. switch.