Wudianto and Bambang Sumiono

Report
Presented in Meeting on Coral Triangle Fishers Forum
Denpasar, 15-17 June 2010
BY:
WUDIANTO and BAMBANG SUMIONO
2010
RESEARCH CENTER FOR CAPTURE FISHERIES
AGENCY FOR MARINE AND FISHERIES RESEARCH
OUT LINE
1. INTRODUCTION
2. DEVELOPMENT OF TRAWL FISHERIES IN INDONESIA
3. BYCATCH AND DISCARD IN TRAWL FISHERIES
4. HOW TO METIGATE BYCATCH IN TRAWL FISHERIES
5. RESEARCH ON BYCATCH IN TRAWL FISHERIES
6. CONCLUSION
INTRODUCTION
South China Sea
Pacific Ocean
Java Sea
Arafura Sea
Indian Ocean
Continental Shelf :
• South China Sea
• Malacca Strait
• Java Sea
• Arafura Sea
Deep Sea :
• Indian Ocean
• Pacific Ocean
• Banda Sea
• Sulawesi Sea
Based on this topography--- the species of fish resources are
significantly diffrerent among those areas
Fisheries Management Areas in Indonesian Waters
DEMERSAL
UDANG
PELAGIS KECIL
PELAGIS BESAR
DEMERSAL
UDANG
PELAGIS KECIL
PELAGIS BESAR
DEMERSAL
PELAGIS KECIL
PELAGIS BESAR
DEMERSAL
UDANG
PELAGIS BESAR
1. Selat Malaka
8. Laut Sulawesi dan
Samudera Pasifik
2. Laut Cina Selatan
9. Samudera Hindia A
(Barat Sumatera)
DEMERSAL
UDANG
PELAGIS KECIL
PELAGIS BESAR
DEMERSAL
UDANG
PELAGIS KECIL
PELAGIS BESAR
3. Laut Jawa
7. Teluk Tomini dan
Laut Maluku
4. Selat Makassar
dan Laut Flores
5. Laut Banda
6. Laut Arafura
9. Samudera Hindia B
(Selatan Jawa-Nusa Tenggara)
DEMERSAL
UDANG
PELAGIS KECIL
PELAGIS BESAR
= Fully Exploited
DEMERSAL
UDANG
PELAGIS KECIL
PELAGIS BESAR
= Moderate Exploited
DEMERSAL
UDANG
PELAGIS KECIL
PELAGIS BESAR
= Overfishing
DEMERSAL
UDANG
PELAGIS KECIL
PELAGIS BESAR
= Uncertain
Distribution of Fish Resources
and Type of Fishing Gears
Coastal
Oceanic
Littoral
TRAWLERS AND PURSE SEINERS
Continental shelf
Source: FAO, 1999
PURSE SEINERS AND LONG LINERS
Slope
DEVELOPMENT OF TRAWL FISHERIES
IN INDONESIA
SHRIMP TRAWL FISHERIES
Based on commercially approach
there are two type of shrimp trawling
in Indonesia :
1.Small scale shrimp trawling
fisheries
2.Industrial/commercial shrimp
trawling fisheries
The
shrimp
fishery
started
commercially in Indonesia since
1969. There are three types of trawl
used in the Arafura Sea, namely:
Source : Ditjen P2SDKP, 2006
1) Double rig shrimp trawl: the head
rope length is between 15 and 26 m.
A try-net, with a head rope length
between 2 and 4 m is used.
2) Single rig stern trawl: head rope
length is between 26 and 35 m.
3) Quad trawl, this type has 4 codends. The head rope length is
between 20 and 25 m.
Distribution of fishing ground in Arafura Sea
131°
133°
135°
137°
139°
0°
Latitude (S)
2°
Papua
4°
6°
Laut Arafura
8°
Longitude (E)
Keterangan :
Daerah penangkapan perikanan rakyat
Daerah penangkapan udang komersial (trawl)
Daerah penangkapan telor torani
Daerah penangkapan ikan komersial (fish net)
141°
Distribution Map of Trawl Net in Indonesia
Selat Malaka
1
Pukat apolo
2
Pukat layang
3
Mini trawl
4
Lampara dasar
Dogol
5
berpalang/berpapan
Cantrang
6
berpalang/berpapan
7
Fish net
x
x
x
x
x
x
Selat Karimata dan Laut Cina
Selatan
1
Pukat ikan
x
2
Pukat udang
x
3
Lampara dasar
x x
4
Dogol berpapan
x x
Lampara dasar
5
x
berpapan
x
Selat Makasar, Laut Flores, dan Selat
Tiworo
Lampara dasar
1
x
(Kaltim)
2
Katrol/Rengreng
x
3
Mini trawl
x
4
Paddenreng
x
Dogol berpapan (S.
5
x
Tiworo)
6
Dogol berpalang
x
Laut Seram, Teluk Tomini, Laut
Sulawesi dan Samudera Pasifik,
Teluk Bintuni
1
Pukat udang
x
2
Pukat ikan
x
3
Dogol
x
4
Lampara
x
Arafura, Aru dan Laut Banda
1
Pukat udang
2
Pukat ikan
Samudera Hindia
1 Pukek osoh (padang)
2 Pukat ular (sibolga)
3 Pukat ikan (sibolga)
Lampara dasar
4
(sibolga)
x
x
x
x
Laut Jawa
x
1
2
x
3
4
5
6
7
Arad
Jaring WCW
Dogol berpapan
(DKI)
Cotok
Garuk kerang
Payat Alit (Jatim)
Krakat
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
8
Mini beam trawl
x
9
Arad berpalang
x
10
Arad berpapan
x
11
14
Cantrang berpalang
Lampara dasar
berpapan
Lampara dasar
berpalang
Mini trawl (Jatim)
x
15
Andu (DKI)
x
12
13
x
x
x
Legenda
Skala Kecil (< 5 GT)
Skala Sedang (5-10 GT)
Skala Besar (10 GT)
x
x
x
DJPT-DKP (2005)
BYCATCH AND DISCARDS
IN SHRIMP TRAWL FISHING
These shrimp trawls used for capturing
shrimp as target species and demersal
fish as the by-catch. The by-catch
includes young fish and trash fish,
which are comprised of small
individual fish and that almost of fish
are discarded at sea.
Since the trawl banning in some part of
Indonesia waters in 1980 (presidential
decree No.39/1980), only by-catch
excluder device (BED) equipped
shrimp trawl is allowed to be
operated in Arafura Sea and its
adjacent waters.
By-catch ratio to shrimps by sub areas caught by shrimp trawler in the Arafura waters
Year
Sub Area
Ratio By-Catch:Shrimp
References
1992
II
Bintuni
9:1
Iskandar et al. (1993)
1993
II
Bintuni
5:1
Badrudin & Karyana (1993)
1993
III
Kaimana
4:1
Badrudin & Karyana (1993)
1995
III
Kaimana
5:1
Nasution (1997)
1996
III
Kaimana
9:1
Widodo (1997)
1997
III
Kaimana
8:1
Suharyanto (1997)
1998
III
Kaimana
8:1
Sumiono et al (1998)
2001
III
Kaimana
5:1
Badrudin (2001)
2002
III
Kaimana
6:1
Budihardjo & Budiman (2002)
1982
IV
Dolak
18:1
Sumiono (1982)
1982
IV
Dolak
19:1
Naamin & Sumiono (1983)
1985
IV
Dolak
21:1
Rusmadji & Soselisa (1985)
1993
IV
Dolak
12:1
Badrudin & Karyana (1993)
1982
VI
Aru
11:1
Sumiono (1982)
1991
VI
Aru
13:1
Widodo (1991)
1993
VI
Aru
12:1
Widodo (1997)
1996
VI
Aru
8:1
Widodo (1997)
1997
VI
Aru
11:1
Suharyanto (1997)
1998
VI
Aru
13:1
Sumiono et al (1998)
2001
VI
Aru
12:1
Badrudin (2001)
FISHING GROUND FOR SHRIMP TRAWL IN
ARAFURA SEA
0.00
-1.00
-2.00
II
46 44 41
535436
3740
48475245
38
51 35
49
5
0
30313233
Papua
Latitude (S)
-3.00
III
-4.00
28
29
2322
2726 25 24
e
j 21 181716
d
11
20 12
c
13
I
10
14
o
ab
h
n
g
9
f
m
2
3
k l
p
6
q
5
sr
yx
ut
z
za
zb
wv
zc
zd
zhzi
zg
zezf zlzm
zjzk
IV
-5.00
VI
-6.00
Arafura Sea
-7.00
-8.00
130.0
131.0
132.0
133.0
134.0
135.0
Longitude (E)
136.0
V
137.0
138.0
139.0
140.0
Catch composition of shrimp trawl net in Arafura sea, 1991-2003
Percentage (%)
Family / Species groups
1991 1)
1997 2)
2003 3)
Lutjanidae
Pomadasydae
Nemipteridae
Formionidae
Leiognathidae
Mullidae
Sciaenidae
Theraponidae
Synodontidae
Other fishes
3,68
8,95
1,53
4,38
5,03
1,75
32,29
0,87
6,84
28,94
2,11
5,22
1,21
3,33
6,05
2,25
17,50
0,51
4,45
29,02
0,10
0,47
1,17
2,70
6,84
0,81
13,41
0,26
0,59
32,83
Demersal fish
52,97
60,03
57,05
Pelagic fish
22,87
19,08
25,68
Non fishes
3,14
4,44
5,18
Shrimp
21,22
16,45
12,09
Catch rate (kg/hr)
103,2
286,6
148,8
References:
1) Badrudin & Karyana (1993)
2) Sumiono et al. (1998)
3) Budihardjo & Budiman (2003)
Bycatch Reduction Efforts in Trawl
Fisheries using BRDs
For reducing bycatch:
Choosing a BRD or TED ?
BRDs is any modification designed
principally to exclude fish bycatch
from a shrimp trawl, and also
exclude other animals and non-living
material (debris).
TED or Turtle Excluder Device is
any modification to a shrimp trawl
designed to reduce the capture of
turtle, and large animal including
sharks, stingrays, jellyfish and
some large fish.
Eayrs (2005)
Technical specification of BRDs used in sea trials at Arafura sea
TED super shooter (US type)
Grid length (cm)
120 cm
Grid breadth (cm)
90 cm
Grid bar shape and size
45 º
Grid material
Aluminium pipe
Diameters of grid (mm)
16 mm
No of element
8
Bar distance (cm)
10 cm
Grid setting angle (º)
47,5 º
Grid position
Front part of cod end
Source: Purbayanto et al. (2007)
Square mesh window
Mesh type
Square mesh window
Window positioning
-
Window length
22 M = 978 mm (in stretched)
Window breadth
48 M = 2136 mm (in stretched)
Mesh opening (mm)
B1 = 22,5 mm (A,B,C) and B2
=31,75 mm (D)
Netting material
PE 380, 60 fly
Knotted/knotless
Knotted
Twine type
Multifilament (raschel net)
Twisted/braided twine
Twisted
Single/double twine
Single
Twine diameter (mm)
1,60 mm (A,B,C) and 2,30 mm
(D)
Twine colour
Green
Source: Purbayanto et al. (2007)
Fish eye
Code
-
Fish eye material
Stainless steel
Diameter of fish eye (mm)
12,7 mm
Length of frame (cm)
55 cm
Breadth of elliptical opening (cm) 20 cm
Width of elliptical opening (cm)
45 cm
Fish eye position
-
Source: Purbayanto et al. (2007)
RESEARCH ON BYCATCH
REDUCTION DEVICES (BRDs)
IN SHRIMP TRAWL FISHING
rigid hooped TED
Research on selective devices for
industrial shrimp fishing had been
carried out by Research Institute for
Marine Fisheries (RIMF) and other
institution ; Agency for Assessment
and Application of Technology, Bogor
Agricultural University (IPB) and
Directorate General of Capture
Fisheries.
Some types of selective devices had
been researched through fishing
experiment method, namely ;
1. BED (By-catch Excluder Device)
or rigid hooped TED (Turtle
Excluder Device)
2. SS-TED (Super Shooter-Turtle
Excluder Device) and
3. JTED for juvenile excluder device
single-grid hard TED
Source, Dept. PSP, FPIK-IPB
The research was aimed to determine design
& construction of by-catch excluder devices
that would be easy to use, would not affect the
catch (especially for shrimp) and would be
easily accepted by fishermen.
The research was began with a collaborative
fishing trial by introducing BED (the first type
TED) to shrimp fishing companies in Arafura
Sea in 1982.
Some fishing experiment of selective devices on shrimp trawling fisheries
Type of
BRD
Year
Location
Vessel
Type of
Trawler
Institution
BED/TED
1982
Arafura
Comm
Double rig
RIMF,
AAAT,IPB
BED/TED
1982
Southern
Cilacap
R/V
Stern trawl
RIMF
SS-TED
1997
Aru and
Dolak
Comm
Double rig
RIMF
SS-TED
2002
Northern
Java
R/V
Stern trawl
RIMF
SS-TED
2006
Makassar
strait
R/V
Stern trawl
RIMF
SS-TED
2007
Arafura
waters
Comm.
Double rig
IPB, DGCF
JTED
2007
Northern
Java
RV
Stern trawl
RIMF
RESULTS OF FISHING EXPERIMENT
Fishing exp in Arafura waters used pair towing of two nets and in
Cilacap waters used single towing net.
Avarage rate of by-catch reduction and loss of shrimp per towing
Catches
BED in Arafura waters
BED in Southern Cilacap waters
Kg/hour
%
Kg/hour
%
By-catch
80.1
42.51
86.2
63.9
Shrimp
4.3
27.48
1.4
31.4
These results could not prove the potential benefit of BED to be
promoted to industrial shrimp fishing in the Arafura Sea. In addition
the BED was heavy, large and difficult to handle.
Fishing exp in Arafura, Aru and Dolak waters used pair towing of
two nets and in Northern Java waters used single towing net
Average of by-catch reduction and loss of shrimp per towing
By-catch
Shrimp
Kg/jam
%
Kg/jam
%
SS-TED Aru ’82
128.4
41.15
3.4
34.07
SS-TED Dolak ’82
196.6
45.65
9.3
33.09
SS-TED Arafura ‘97
219.9
64.2
3.2
21.9
14.95 – 96.27
5 - 60
0.34 – 1.55
13 - 59
SS-TED Northern
Jawa ‘02
SS-TED Arafura ‘07
19.5
32.9
These results still could not prove the potential benefit of the SS-TED,
because high loss of shrimp catch occurred. However the construction
of SS-TED simpler than BED and easy to handle
Spesification frame of SS-TED in Java Sea fishing experiment
12 mm
125 cm
10 mm
110 cm
4,6,8,10,12 cm
Data collecting method
Cover net
Exit hole
codend
funnel
Frame
top cover over the window
(Wileman et al., 1996)

Mahiswara (2004) reported that:
TED super shooter decreased bycatch/towing/ hour by
5% (12 cm grid space) and by 60% (4 cm grid space).
TED performance (815 shots, 3 years period)
turtle reduction
stingray reduction
large shark reduction
sponge reduction
shrimp loss
Ari Purbayanto, Prof.Dr.
99%
96%
80%
80%
2–
38%
Source: Eayrs (2006)
Experiment result on the use of JTED on mini trawl
at Northern Java waters
80
Juvenile fish
60
%
67 %
40
33 %
20
0
Retained
Kantong
Escaped
Lolos
JTED (bar 1.75 mm) save fish of 33 % (Widodo & Mahiswara, 2007)
Conclusion
The ratio of by catch and shrimp as target species are
fluctuated depend on fishing areas. The catch of bigger size of
fish tend to decrease in the recent year.
Result from experimental fishing indicated that technically BRD
and SS-TED were effective enough in reducing by-catch.
The use of by-catch excluder devices is compulsory on board
for shrimp trawlers in Arafura Sea. In general, the fishing
operators have still not perceived the benefit from using the
devices because some loss of shrimp.
Research for improving by-catch excluder devices should be
carried out, include to study of soft BRD (square mesh and fish
eye) and JTED.
Thank You

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