Multiphase Study on Firefighter Safety and the Deployment

Report
Multiphase Study on Firefighter
Safety and the Deployment of
Resources
High-Rise
Field Experiments
High-Rise Toolkit
What’s inside?
• Full Report
• Dept. of Commerce release
notes
• 10 Fact Sheets
• Executive Summary
• DVD of photos
• Contact information for requests
Subjects of Further Discussion
• Timing Performance in
Experimental Search
• Generating % comparison
tables
• Time-to-Task Data
• Determining design fire for
model
• FED Model Results
Experimental Search Data
pages 64-68
Reading Button Plots
18
19
6
17
20
7
8
21
9
5
16
4
22
15
3
14
2
13
12
11
23
1
10
24
3-Person 10th Floor Search
8
6
4
2
22
Button Number
Floor 10 Outside Loop
Button Number
Button Number
Floor 10 Inside Loop
24 26 28
Time (minutes)
30
20
15
10
35
40 45 50 55
Time (minutes)
20
15
10
Inside Loop
Outside Loop
5
0
10
20
30
40
50
Time (minutes)
60
70
4-Person 10th Floor Search
8
6
4
2
25
30
35
Time (minutes)
Button Number
Floor 10 Outside Loop
Button Number
Button Number
Floor 10 Inside Loop
20
15
10
40
45
50
Time (minutes)
55
20
15
10
Inside Loop
Outside Loop
5
0
10
20
30
40
50
Time (minutes)
60
70
5-Person 10th Floor Search
8
6
4
2
18 20 22 24 26 28
Time (minutes)
Button Number
Floor 10 Outside Loop
Button Number
Button Number
Floor 10 Inside Loop
20
15
10
20
25
30
Time (minutes)
20
15
10
Inside Loop
Outside Loop
5
0
10
20
30
40
50
Time (minutes)
60
70
6-Person 10th Floor Search
8
6
4
2
18 20 22 24 26 28
Time (minutes)
Button Number
Floor 10 Outside Loop
Button Number
Button Number
Floor 10 Inside Loop
20
15
10
20
25
30
Time (minutes)
35
20
15
10
Inside Loop
Outside Loop
5
0
10
20
30
40
50
Time (minutes)
60
70
Comparison Time Data
pages 138-146
Generating % Tables
Starting with synthetic data…
Differences are found by
subtracting the row time data
from the column time data.
Generating % Tables
Divide differences by the
time value of the column.
Generating % Tables
Convert to % by
multiplying previous by
100.
Fire Out Comparison
Floor 10 Search Comparison
Overall Time Comparison
Time-to-Task Data
pages 69-83
Reading the Graphs
Attack Line Pathway
Stop
Attack Stair
Lobby
Elevator
Enter Core
Evac Stair
Enter Fire Floor
Start
Advance Attack Line
Advance Second Line
Fire Out
Search Patterns: Fire Floor
Search and Rescue Fire Floor
(10th Floor)
Victim #1 Found (Fire Floor)
Search Patterns: Floor Above Fire
Search and Rescue Floor Above
the Fire (11th)
Victim #2 Found
Floor Above the Fire
3-person Crew Operations
4-Person Crew Operations
5-Person Crew Operations
6-Person Crew Operations
Fire Modeling and the
Fractional Effective Dose
pages 84-95
Design Fire
3.5
Cook County
Slow
Medium
Fast
Heat Release Rate (MW)
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
0
6
12
18
Time (min)
24
30
Fire + Suppression
20
18
Heat Release Rate (MW)
16
Slow
Medium
Fast
Water On Fire
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
0
6
12
18
Time (min)
24
30
Water on Fire / Fire Out
Crew Size
Ascent Method Average Water
on Fire Time
(MM:SS)
Average Fire
Out Time
(MM:SS)
3
Stairs
18:48
28:04
4
Stairs
17:01
26:22
3
Elevator
15:45
26:48
5
Stairs
15:19
24:33
6
Stairs
14:52
21:17
4
Elevator
14:47
24:02
5
Elevator
14:21
23:20
6
Elevator
12:10
19:32
Tenability: FED
FED Value
Range
Estimated
FDSPopulation Range Smokeview
of Incapacitation
Coloring
0.0 < FED ≤ 0.3
0.0 < % ≤ 11
0.3 < FED ≤ 1.0
11 < % ≤ 50
1.0 < FED ≤ 3.0
50 < % ≤ 89
FED > 3.0
% > 89
Tenability During Search: Stairs
18
19
6
17
20
7
8
18
21
9
19
6
17
5
20
7
8
21
9
5
16
16
4
4
15
15
3
3
14
14
2
13
12
23
1
10
11
2
13
24
12
19
6
17
20
7
8
10
11
24
4-Person Crews
3-Person Crews
18
23
1
21
18
9
19
6
17
5
20
7
8
21
9
5
16
16
4
4
15
15
3
3
14
14
2
13
12
11
23
1
10
5-Person Crews
24
2
13
12
11
23
1
10
6-Person Crews
24
Tenability During Search: Elevator
18
19
6
17
20
7
8
18
21
9
19
6
17
5
20
7
8
21
9
5
16
16
4
4
15
15
3
3
14
14
2
13
12
23
1
10
11
2
13
24
12
19
6
17
20
7
8
10
11
24
4-Person Crews
3-Person Crews
18
23
1
18
21
9
19
6
17
20
7
8
21
9
5
5
16
16
4
4
15
15
3
3
14
14
2
13
12
11
23
1
10
5-Person Crews
24
2
13
12
11
23
1
10
6-Person Crews
24
Tenability / Search Complete
Crew Size Comparison
Conclusions
1) When responding to medium growth rate
fire on the 10th floor, 3-person crews
ascending to the fire floor confronted an
environment where the fire had released
60% more heat energy than the fire
encountered by the 6-person crews doing
the same work.
Larger fires expose firefighters to greater
risks and are more challenging to suppress.
Conclusions
2) Larger fires produce more risk exposure
for building occupants.
In general, occupants being rescued by
smaller crews and by crews that used the
stairs rather than the elevators, were
exposed to significantly greater dose of
toxins from the fire.
Standards of Cover
• Resource distribution is associated with
– geography of the community
– travel time to emergencies
• Distribution is typically measured by the
percent of the jurisdiction covered by the firstdue units.
• Concentration is also about geography
– arranging of multiple resources,
– spacing them so that an initial "effective response
force" can arrive on scene within time frames
established
Conclusions
3) Properly engineered and operational fire
sprinkler system drastically reduces the
risk exposure for both the building
occupants and the firefighters.
According to NFPA:
• ~ 40% of buildings are NOT sprinklered
• Sprinkler systems fail in about one in 14 fires
Fire departments should be prepared to
manage the risks associated with
unsprinklered high-rise building fires.
Next Steps
1) Urban Fire Forum High Rise
Implementation Guide
a. 1st Edition – Community Risk Assessment
(Residential- Low Hazard)
b. 2nd Edition – Community Risk Assessment:
High-Rise Implementation Guide
2) NFPA 1710 Committee
a. Proposed language – Public Comment closed
May 16, 2014.
b. Revision scheduled for release May 2015
Next Steps
2nd Edition –
Community Risk
Assessment:
High-Rise
Implementation
Guide
Matching Resources to Risk
If fire department resources (both
mobile and personnel) are deployed
to match the risk levels inherent to
hazards in the community, it has
been scientifically demonstrated that
the community will be far less
vulnerable to negative outcomes in…
• firefighter injury and death
• civilian injury and death
• property loss
Matching Resources to Risk
• Following a community hazard/risk assessment,
Chiefs must prepare a plan for timely and
sufficient coverage of each hazard and the
adverse risk events that occur….Standard of
Response Coverage. (Standards of Cover)
– Total number of fires occurring annually should NOT
be the sole driver of crew size, overall staffing or on
scene assembly needs.
•
Standards of response coverage is defined as
the written policies and procedures that establish
the distribution and concentration of fixed and
mobile resources of an organization
Matching Resources to
Risk
• Response time goals for first-due
units (distribution) and …
• Response time goals for the total
effective on-scene emergency
response force (concentration) …
• …Drive fire department objectives
like fire station location, apparatus
deployed and staffing levels.
Explaining to Decision
Makers
• If response times and force
assembly times are low, …
– it is an indicator that sufficient
resources have been deployed and
outcomes from risk events are more
likely to be positive.
• Conversely, if response times and
force assembly times are high,
– it is an indicator of insufficient
resources and outcomes from risk
events are more likely to be negative.
Fire Service Leaders Faced
with Decisions
• Decisions must be based on
understanding of
– relationship between community hazards
and associated risk,
– basic emergency response infrastructure,
including fire department response
capability
– outcomes of emergency incidents
• Considering these three elements AND
the tools available to decision makers, a
basic community vulnerability formula
Vulnerability Formula
Risk Level
Too few resources (-)
= (-) Outcome
Risk Level
Appropriate Resources (+)
= (+) Outcome
High-Rise Guide (pg 15)
• High-Rise/High Hazard
• Dispatch 4 engines, 4 trucks, 3
ambulances, 2 BCs
• With 5 or 6 FF per company
• Initial response total 50 – 58
• First engine in 4 minutes
• Full initial alarm in 8 minutes
What’s Next?
• Fire Prevention and Safety Grant
award pending
– Vulnerability Assessment Tool

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