May 5 Ch. 8

Report
© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc.
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Chapter 8
Managing Strategic Organizational
Renewal
Instructor presentation questions: [email protected]
© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc.
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Chapter 8 Outline
 HR’S role in organizational change
 Managing organizational change and
development
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What to change
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Strategic change
Cultural change
Structural change
Changes in people, attitudes, and skills
Technological change
Leading change: Lewin’s process
© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc.
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Chapter 8 Outline
 Managing organizational change and
development
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A ten-step change process
Using organizational development
 Human process applications
 Technostructural interventions
 Human resource management applications
 Strategic applications
© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc.
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Chapter 8 Outline
 Instituting total quality management programs
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What is quality?
Total quality management programs
HR’s role in quality management
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High-performance insight
HR and Six Sigma
HR and Baldrige awards
HR and ISO 9000
© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc.
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Chapter 8 Outline
 Creating team-based organizations
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The nature of self-directed teams and worker
empowerment
How HR helps to build productive teams
 High-performance insight
 Strategic HR
HR and employee involvement programs
© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc.
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Chapter 8 Outline
 HR and business process reengineering
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What is business process reengineering?
HR’s role in reengineering processes
 Building teams
 Redesigning compensation
 Redesigning the work itself
 Moving from controlled to empowered jobs
© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc.
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Chapter 8 Outline
 Flexible work arrangements
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Flextime and compressed workweeks
 Conditions for success
 Compressed workweeks
 Research insight
Other flexible work arrangements
HR.Net
 Summary
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© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc.
After Studying This Chapter
You Should Be Able To:
 Explain and illustrate the steps in the
change process
 Reduce employee resistance to change
 Describe the basic process for managing
organizational change & development
 Give specific examples of HR’s role in
total quality management programs
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© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc.
After Studying This Chapter
You Should Be Able To:
 Show how companies use HR methods
to create team-based organizations
 Discuss the critical role of HR in
business process reengineering
 More effectively implement an
organizational change
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© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc.
Strategic Overview
 Select, train, and organize employees
 Previously focused on the training and
management development methods
 Concepts and skills you need to more
successfully implement organizational
changes
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© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc.
Managing Change – What
Do We Change?
 Strategic change – a company’s strategy,
mission and vision
 Cultural change – a company’s shared
values and aims
 Structural change – reorganization
 Developmental change – people’s
attitudes and skills
 Technological change – work methods
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© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc.
Cultural Change
 Five ways to achieve cultural changes
Make it clear to employees what you pay attention to,
measure, & control
React appropriately to critical incidents & organizational
crises
Deliberately role-model, teach & coach the values you want
to emphasize
Communicate priorities by how you allocate rewards & status
HR procedures & criteria consistent with values you hold
© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc.
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Technological Change
 Technology is a powerful engine of change
 Creates change by modifying the work methods
organizations use to do tasks
 Results in reengineering work process
 Must apply HR methods:
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Teamwork
New job descriptions
Boosting skill & knowledge levels
More flexible work arrangements
© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc.
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Lewin’s Process
Leading Change
 3 steps
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Unfreezing
Moving
Refreezing
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Ten-step Change Process
Urgency
Mobilize
commitment
Create a
guiding coalition
Develop a
shared vision
Communicate
that vision
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Ten-step Change Process
Monitor progress
& adjust vision
Anchor new ways
in culture
Consolidate
gains
Generate
short-term wins
Help make
the change
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© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc.
An Example of Change
PECO Energy
 Visioning event
 List five critical processes
 Town hall meetings with all HR groups
 Resulted in changes to five processes
 Organizational design event
 Implementation
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© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc.
Using Organizational
Development
 Organizational development is a special
approach to organizational change in
which the employees themselves
formulate the change that’s required and
implement it, often with the assistance of
a trained consultant
© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc.
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Four Distinguishing
Characteristics of OD
1.
2.
3.
4.
Action research
Behavioral science knowledge
Attitudes, values and beliefs
Changes organization in a direction
© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc.
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Four Types of OD
Applications
 Human process applications
 Technostructural interventions
 Human resource management
applications
 Strategic applications
OD interventions
& organizational levels
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© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc.
Human Process
Applications
 Aim first at improving human relations
skills
 Provide insights and skills required to
better analyze behaviors
 A facilitator uses survey research to
solve problems & plan action
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© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc.
Human Process Applications
 Sensitivity, laboratory, or T-group
training are used minimally today
 Team building can improve
effectiveness
 Confrontation meetings resolve
misconceptions
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© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc.
Using OD to Increase
Productivity
 Technostructural interventions
 HR management applications use action
research
 Strategic applications harmonize
© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc.
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TotalQualityManagement
 Total quality management (TQM) is a
type of program aimed at maximizing
customer satisfaction through continuous
improvements
Continuous
improvement
Zero defects
Kaizen
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© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc.
Total Quality Management
Programs
 Quality is the totality of features & characteristics
of a product or service that bear on its ability to
satisfy given needs
 Quality measures how well a product or services
meets a customers needs
 ISO 9000 provides written quality standards to
which products must comply
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© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc.
HR’s Role in Quality
Management - Insight
 Friendly phone staff is key to customer
service at Lands’ end
 Result of extensive screening & training
 Must love to talk
 All aspects of phone etiquette trained
 Results in fast, friendly service
© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc.
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6
& Baldrige Awards
 6 Sigma aims for 3.4
defects per million
processes
 To achieve this can be
intense but very
rewarding
 Baldrige awards
determined by a board of
quality experts in 7 areas
© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc.
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Creating Team Based
Organizations
 82% of U.S. Companies use teams to perform
some tasks
 Self-directed teams have several
distinguishing characteristics:
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Perform naturally interdependent tasks
Use consensus decision making
Team’s members perform enriched jobs
Teams are also highly trained
Employers empower the teams & individual
members
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© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc.
Entrepreneurs + HR Empowerment
 Time Vision finds employee
empowerment works well in cases that
directly involve employees
 Team investigates which retirement
vehicle to use & has responsibility to
switch to it
 Finds empowerment requires right
employee and correct training
© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc.
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How to Build
Productive Teams
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Establish demanding performance standards
Select members for attitudes and skills
Train leaders to “coach,” not “boss”
Use positive feedback
Select those who like teamwork
Train, train, and train some more
Cross-train for flexibility
© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc.
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Insight – Product
Improvement Teams
Identify &
correct problems
Need to be
proactive
Achieve continuous
improvement
Roadmaps guide
progress
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Strategic HR – Signicast
Uses a Team Approach
Implement
ideas
Employee
suggestions
Validate with
employees
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© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc.
Employee Involvement
Programs
 An employee involvement program, a
team activity, is any formal program that
lets employees participate in formulating
important work decisions or in
supervising their own work activities
 Managers rank them as great
productivity boosters
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© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc.
How to Create a Culture of
Involvement & Participation
 Educate all regarding business plans
 Devote resources to build the
necessary HR systems
 Involve unions as partners
 Involve in designing and
implementing new systems
 Train in new technologies
© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc.
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How to Create a Culture of
Involvement & Participation
 Promote employees’ continuous
communication
 Involve employees in assessing effects
of new technology
 Use telecommunications
© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc.
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Extending Decision
Making Abroad
 Prior to extending the work team
approach abroad focus on these goals:
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Build trust
Be aware of cultural differences
Create blended strategies
© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc.
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Business Process
Reengineering (BPR)
“The fundamental rethinking and radical
redesign of business processes to achieve
dramatic improvements in critical,
contemporary measures of performance
such as cost, quality, service, and speed.”
… Quote by experts Michael hammer &
James Champy
“Why do we do what we do?”
Why do we do it the way we
do?”
© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc.
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Steps in BPR
Several jobs
combined into 1
Workers make
more decisions
Check out
Reduce checks,
controls to boost
efficiency
“Case manager”
approach
© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc.
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HR’s Role in Reengineering
Process
 Help build commitment
 Promote team building
 Redesign compensation
 Redesign the work itself
 Create empowered jobs
Visit
© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc.
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Flexible Work
Arrangements
 Organizational renewal does not
require massive change
 Flextime allows workers to build their
day around core midday hours
 Compressed workweeks offer longer
workdays but fewer of them
© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc.
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% employees on flextime
13%
34%
19%
34%
Manual labor
Administrative
Salespeople
Executive
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© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc.
How to Make Flextime
Successful
 Use supervisory indoctrination programs
 Most successful with clerical,
professional, & managerial jobs
 Most flexible programs are successful
 Use a project director
 A pilot program may be needed
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© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc.
Discussion – How Effective Are
Flexible Work Programs?
 What do you think?
 Do flextime and compressed scheduling
help or hurt workers?
 What about a 12- hour shift that Dupont
tried at its plants in Texas?
 Can you think of any other flexible work
options?
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© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc.
More Flexibility
 Job sharing – two or more people share
a single full time job
 Work sharing – a temporary group workhour reduction during economic
slowdowns
 Work from home or telecommuting –
using the internet to “phone in” your work
© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc.
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Telecommuting
 You can’t be a hermit when you
telecommute
 Its all about staying connected & in touch
by using PC’s & laptops, text pagers, cell
phones, e-mail, voice & fax messages, &
PDA’s
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© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc.
Summary of Chapter 8
 Managers lead by changing strategy,
culture, structure, tasks, technologies, or
attitudes
 Use a ten-step process for organizational
change
 We saw a number of OD applications to
promote change
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© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc.
Summary of Chapter 8
 Quality is key to success – use TQM
to achieve it
 Teamwork or super-teams boost
productivity
 Reengineering results in
fundamental changes
 The most flexible work
arrangements provide the greatest
benefit

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