### Mixed Section

```Solution for Bridges Design
and Analysis
The state-of-the-art technology for
the civil engineering world
Main Features
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Concrete Creep and Shrinkage
Bridge layout modeling (in plan and
elevation view)
Utilities for generating common bridge sections
and layout design
Geometric and finite element model generation
with both Beams (1D) and Solid elements (3D)
• Utility for Prestressing forces input
Simulation of the construction process
Concrete Creep and Shrinkage
•
•
Effects of Creep and Shrinkage relative to concrete maturity can be easily
considered
Allows to obtain the deformed
shape as well as the forces,
moments and stresses in the model
Bridge Layout Modeling
• This utility allows to generate the geometry and the finite element
model of the bridge from common engineering blueprints. It
works as a “layout program”, allowing to define the layout design
in both plan and elevation views
• The procedure used for the bridge layout definition is the
following:
• Definition of the mileage points (MP’s) that represent the
structure axis
• Definition of plan and elevation layout
• All the input data to create the layout and their corresponding
results can be later retrieved with a single command (~CFGET)
Bridges Layout in Plan View
• In plan view, the mileage points line is a succession of userdefined stretches:
• straight segments
• circular arcs
• clothoid arcs
(xf ,y f )
Rf
ycl
Ri
Clothoid
axis
s
s = s + Long

(xi ,yi )
xcl
i
Caso R i =/ R f : Definition of the section elements
Bridge Layout in Elevation View
• In elevation view, the mileage points line is a succession of userdefined stretches:
• straight segments
• parabolic arcs
z
Parabolic fillet
zf
z i
sf
s
if
Straight section
si
Straight section
ii
f
s
f
i
s
L
T
Vertical fillet
Bridge Cross Sections
• This module includes a library of typical bridge cross sections,
which are defined by the outline of the section:
• Slab cross sections
• Box cross sections
BTOP
TTOP
RS
DEPTH
BM
y
DEPTH
TBOT
TF
a2
BBOT
z
B
t 22
Trapezoidal section with flanges
Rectangular section
p22
BTOP
BTOP
TTOP
TTOP
TS
DEPTH
TM
BM1
BBOT
1
vU
1
vUr
vCU
vCUr
hCU
BM2
TBOT
t 21
p21
PS
DEPTH
BBOT
hCUr
hUr
hU
t 31
t 41
b1
1
Polygonal section with two bends
Trapezoidal section
s31
hL
hCL
hCLr
axis
BTOPL
BM2L
DEPTHL
TML
BM1L
vL
BTOPR
TMR
BM1R
p12
p11
a1
PA
Polygonal Asymmetric with two bends
Bridge Section Types
DEPTHR
TBOTR
BBOTR
1
TTOPR
BM2R
TBOTL
BBOTL
vCL
Note: The upper line (deck) is always
horizontal. The slope must be later
defined with the section’s bank.
vCLr
t 11
1
a0 /2
Tri-cell box section definition
Slab Concrete Sections
• It’s possible to define holes
• The sections can be symmetric or asymmetric
• Sections and the hole diameters might vary along the bridge
Box Sections with Variable Depth
• Any generic box section can be easily defined
• All the necessary input parameters can be introduced either by
menu or using the corresponding command (allows performing a
parametric design of cross sections, creating macros, etc).
y
a2
z
t 22
p22
t 21
1
vU
1
vUr
p21
vCU
vCUr
hCU
hCUr
hUr
hU
t 31
t 41
b1
1
s31
hL
hCL
vL
vCL
1
p12
p11
a1
hCLr
vCLr
t 11
1
a0 /2
Tri-cell box section definition
Assigning Attributes
• For the automatic generation of the geometrical and FEM
model, the defined cross sections are assigned to the mileage
points (MP’s) forming the bridge layout
• The transition of sections between MP’s can be defined using
straight segments and splines
Trans = 0
Section's transition definition
Trans=1
Assigning Attributes
• The cross sections may have the following attributes:
• Offsets
• Banks
• Skew
• Hollow or solid sections
MP,s line
y
Zoffs
Yoffs P
z
Bank (Rotation's center P)
Model Generation
•
Once the layout and cross sections are defined the geometrical and FEM
model generation can be automatically performed by the program
Model Generation
•
Once the layout and cross sections are defined the geometrical and FEM
model generation can be automatically performed by the program
Model Generation
•
Just by specifying an element type, a Solid finite element model or a Beam
finite element model can be generated
Solid element model
Beam element model (shape option)
Model Generation
•
From this version on, generation of Box Bridges using SHELL elements is
supported
Model Generation
•
From this version on, generation of Box Bridges using SHELL elements is
supported
Model Generation
•
•
•
Allows for a trial and error process using beam elements (less CPU
and engineer time).
Automatic discretization of the beam element cross- sections into
points and tessella (allows for analyzing the section’s internal behavior
using beam elements)
More accurate design can be performed using SOLID elements by
only changing the element type and running the analysis again.
Suspension Bridges Wizard
Suspension Bridge Generator windows can generate 3D
models for:
• Concrete Suspension Bridges
(with a CivilFEM bridge section)
• Steel Suspension Bridges
(with a CivilFEM 3D steel truss pattern)
• Generic Suspension Bridges
(with a CivilFEM generic cross section)
• Mixed section, two types of section:
- Concrete slab over I-section steel beams
- Concrete slab over a steel box section
Suspension Bridges Wizard
• By using this Wizard it is possible to easily introduce the
number of segments and the corresponding data to generate
the entire bridge model for both 3D beams and solid elements.
Suspension Bridges Wizard
• Concrete
Suspension Bridges Wizard
• Both concrete and steel truss suspension bridge models are
automatically generated for any generic configuration by just inputting a
few parameters.
• Steel
Suspension Bridges Wizard
• Steel
Suspension Bridges Wizard
• Any generic cross section from library and/or any 2D defined using
CivilFEM with ANSYS meshed drawing (capture utility) can be used as a
bridge cross section
• Optimization of the geometry
and initial tensions of cables
Suspension Bridges Wizard
• Mixed Section (type 1)
Bridge section is composed of a concrete slab over
I-section steel beams:
bSlab/2
z
fSR
hBeam
fSL
bSlab
tSlab
y
tWeb
tFL
nB
bB
Suspension Bridges Wizard
• Mixed Section (type 1)
Suspension Bridges Wizard
• Mixed Section (type 1)
Suspension Bridges Wizard
• Mixed Section (type 1) Example
Suspension Bridges Wizard
• Mixed Section (type 2)
Bridge section is composed of a concrete slab over
a steel box section:
bSlab/2
fSL
z
bSlab
fSR
tSlab
y
tboxL
alphaL
tboxR
tboxB
hBox
alphaR
Suspension Bridges Wizard
• Mixed Section (type 1)
Suspension Bridges Wizard
• Mixed Section (type 1)
Suspension Bridges Wizard
• Mixed Section (type 2) Example
Supported Bridges Wizard
•
Same parameters used in suspension bridges are also employed here, but only
the bridge deck is generated.
Suspension Bridges Wizard
• Supported Bridge Examples
Cable Stayed Bridge Wizard
• Generation window
Cable Stayed Bridge Wizard
• Model generation
• Cable arrangements:
HARP TYPE
FAN TYPE
(XT, ZT)
(XT, ZT)
XR1
XL...
XL2
XL1
z
x
ZT1
ZT2
ZT2
ZT3
ZT3
ZT...
ZT...
XR...
XR1
XL...
ZB...
ZB2
(XB, ZB)
XR2
ZT1
ZB1
XL2
XL1
z
ZB...
ZB2
x
(XB, ZB)
ZB1
XR2
XR...
Cable Stayed Bridge Wizard
• Model generation
• Towers: Unlimited in number, variable cross sections,
vertical or inclined with multiple cable arrangements
Cable Stayed Bridge Wizard
Cable Stayed Bridge Wizard
• Model Generation
• Different boundary conditions
and connection between
towers and deck
Cable Stayed Bridge Wizard
• Nonlinear Construction Process Analysis:
Y
Y
X
Z
Y
X
Z
X
Z
MN
Y
X
Z
MX
Cable Stayed Bridge Wizard
• Nonlinear Construction Process Analysis:
Cable Stayed Bridge Wizard
• Nonlinear Construction Process Analysis:
• Cable force optimization: Deflection
Cable Stayed Bridge Wizard
• Nonlinear Construction Process Analysis:
• Cable force optimization: Bending Moment
Arch Bridge Wizard
• Arch Bridge Generator (Beam Model)
Arch Bridge Wizard
• Depending on the position of the bridge deck
compared to the arch, there are different cases:
Arch Bridge Wizard
• Beam Model
Arch Bridge Wizard
Arch Bridge Wizard
• Shell Model
Bridge Components
• CivilFEM with ANSYS allows a detailed analysis of
piers, cross bracings, diaphragms, etc.
Special Features
• Any of the bridge parameters (layout, sections, dimensions, etc.)
can be easily parameterized by the user, allowing very fast
sensitivity analysis, making use of some advanced features:
• Log files
the program stores in a file all the orders executed by the
program during a job. This file can be edited by the user
at any time and the model can be executed again by just
• Macros (APDL)
• Customization: users are able to create their own windows,
commands, etc, customizing the program as much as possible to
their own needs
• CivilFEM automatically
corresponding to the various
load hypotheses over a 2D or
3D structure, such as:
• Prestressing tendons
• Any kind of “user defined” loads
• “Smart” load combination of all
the analysis
• With the vehicle editor it is possible to create, import from library, modify,
copy, delete and list vehicles
Vehicle library: just choose the
vehicle and the corresponding
properties are automatically
defined
Property window
• Allows considering the braking or starting load (horizontal) for
each vehicle wheel
• One or more vehicles can be used at the same time
• Two different types of vehicles: Rigid (truck) or flexible (train,
automatically detected by the program
Assembly the bridges nodes and elements,
The tangency occurs in the point
(xLoc, yLoc) of the vehicle
Vehicle
trajectory
Assembly the bridges nodes and elements,
Vehicle trayectory
Dist
Lines component
line
components
KP,s
MP,s
Trajectory definition (Rigid vehicle)
Trayectory definition (adaptable to the trajectory)
• Definition of an overload grid over the deck
case scenarios
Assembly with the bridges nodes
and elements over which the
grid
s1
dm
d2
d1
KP,s
Lines
component
(Prestressing Cables)
• Definition of points along the cable’s path (automatic adjustment of
the points using splines)
• Introduce the tensile force at specific locations in the tendon’s path
• Automatic transfer of the cable action to the structure:
• the program calculates an equivalent system of forces at each
node of the element that equilibrate the system
P'
1
P'
P
N
O
T1
P2
P1
Pk
PN
Pk+1
R
1
z
MR
z
Pk+2
MR
fz
T2
c.d.g.
MR
R
x
Transmision of the cable actions to the model
3D spline generation
K
x
R
2
y
y
fy
fx
K
K
here, any other “user-defined” load can be applied to the
structure such as wind loads, snow, seismic (automatic
definition of spectrum according to codes) and so on.
• The automatic load generation feature, although is inside
the bridges module, can be applied to any other type of
structure simply by defining the surface over which the
Dynamic Analysis
• A transient analysis can be automatically performed.
• It is also possible to input speeds in the definition of the
• Where must be located the two engines to obtain the
maximum stresses at point P?
• What is the maximum bending moment at section A-A ?
• What are the corresponding concomitant values?
A ----- A
P
• In the bridge analysis process, a great number of load
steps are generated, which later on have to be combined
looking for the worst case scenario. CivilFEM includes
functionalities that can automatically handle all possible
• Obtains the envelop that considers the worst case
scenario for each structural point by specifying a target
• Concomitance at both global and element levels
• Variable load coefficients can be defined
• The program automatically combines them as an
“incompatible” load (which is the same as saying that a
vehicle can only be located at one position at the same
time)
• CivilFEM will automatically combine them as a
located at any possible position over the surface)
OBJECTIVE:
To obtain the envelop
of maximum vertical
displacements at all
nodes
• Combining the prestressing cable loads
• The program automatically combine them as an
the same time)
• The same procedure is applied simply by defining the
combination rule to be used (compatible,
incompatible, addition, selection, etc) to find the
combined results
Checking & Design
• Serviceability Limit State
• Cracking checking according to codes
Checking & Design
• Ultimate Limit State
• Check and design of the bridge reinforcement
according to codes, taking into account all the loads
applied to the structure.
Simulation of Construction Process
• The bridges module allows to simulate multiple types of
construction process
Normal Procedure
Simulation of Construction Process
• Cantilever construction
Sections
Not builded zone
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
11
10
12
3
2
2
1
1
2
13
14
15
3
1
Not live support
Live cable
H
Bridge section axis
Z
Y
Steps
X
Y
Pile section axis
Bridge plant
Pile Section: AreaU, I
yyU
,I
zzU
, AreaB, I
yyB
Live pile support
,I
zzB
,H
z
Puente construido mediante dovelas yuxtapuestas: Situación después del step #3
16
Simulation of Construction Process
• Push launching
4
3
2
1
3
2
1
En la etapa inicial nacen cuatro secciones
y solo una de ellas está "empujada" (la una)
4
En la segunda etapa se empuja una nueva sección (la 2), la sección 1 ha llegado
a un apoyo intermedio que al final de la construcción ocupará la 4
5
4
3
2
1
3
2
1
2
1
En la tercera etapa nace la sección 5, pero
no se empuja ninguna nueva
6
5
4
En la cuarta etapa el puente está completo, pero tan solo se empujan
dos secciones..
6
5
4
En la última etapa el puente está completo.
Las secciones 4 y 1 alcanzan sus apoyos definitivos.
Proceso constructivo de un puente empujado
3
Bridge Postprocessing
• CivilFEM with ANSYS performs a wide range of postprocessing
calculations: load combinations, results displays, check and
design processes, etc.
Bridges and Nonlinearities Module
```