8 Intervention Approaches & Precursor Variables - ACCESS

Report
R2D2
Center
R eh abilitation R esearch
Design & Dis ability
University of
W isconsin–Milwaukee
Universal Design in
Higher Education
Begin Presentation
Presentation
Begin
Go to Accessibility Instructions
© 2007 Rehabilitation Research Design & Disability (R2D2) Center, UW-Milwaukee, www.r2d2.uwm.edu
ACCESS-ed =
Accessible
Campus Climate Environment
Support System for Education
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© 2007 Rehabilitation Research Design & Disability (R2D2) Center, UW-Milwaukee, www.r2d2.uwm.edu
Overview of Presentation
1. Our current campus system of individual
ACCOMMODATIONS.
2. UNIVERSAL DESIGN in EDUCATION (UDE) –
What is it and why?
3. How you are already using the concepts of
universal design in education and how to build.
4. Role of the Departmental Accessibility Resource
Coordinator (DARC)
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© 2007 Rehabilitation Research Design & Disability (R2D2) Center, UW-Milwaukee, www.r2d2.uwm.edu
The A3 Model
Advocacy
Accommodation
Accessibility
Conceptual model for how organizations
address the needs of people with disabilities
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© 2007 Rehabilitation Research Design & Disability (R2D2) Center, UW-Milwaukee, www.r2d2.uwm.edu
A3 Model
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© 2007 Rehabilitation Research Design & Disability (R2D2) Center, UW-Milwaukee, www.r2d2.uwm.edu
Advocacy in the A3 Model
 This person is
waving, yelling,
and knocking to
draw attention
to herself, to let
others know
that she needs
assistance to
get into the
building.
Knocking of the door in the background
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© 2007 Rehabilitation Research Design & Disability (R2D2) Center, UW-Milwaukee, www.r2d2.uwm.edu
Accommodation in the A3 Model
 We anticipate
a need. Here,
a person waits
by the door to
assist people
who need
help.
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© 2007 Rehabilitation Research Design & Disability (R2D2) Center, UW-Milwaukee, www.r2d2.uwm.edu
Accessibility in the A3 Model
 This automatic
doorway opens
when rolled or
walked upon,
making the
doorway
accessible to
everyone.
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© 2007 Rehabilitation Research Design & Disability (R2D2) Center, UW-Milwaukee, www.r2d2.uwm.edu
In What Stage?
Drumroll when the bar moves to the right
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© 2007 Rehabilitation Research Design & Disability (R2D2) Center, UW-Milwaukee, www.r2d2.uwm.edu
Introduction to Universal Design
“Universal design is the process of creating
products
(devices, environments, systems, and
processes)…..
which are usable by people with the widest possible
range of abilities…..
operating within the widest possible range of
situations (environments, conditions, and
circumstances).”
(Vanderheiden, 1996)
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© 2007 Rehabilitation Research Design & Disability (R2D2) Center, UW-Milwaukee, www.r2d2.uwm.edu
Universal Design: A Concrete Example
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© 2007 Rehabilitation Research Design & Disability (R2D2) Center, UW-Milwaukee, www.r2d2.uwm.edu
Expanding Upon the Idea

The concept of UD in education applies to:


Facilities
Academic applications
 Classroom instruction
 Distance learning courses
 Laboratory and fieldwork

Websites
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© 2007 Rehabilitation Research Design & Disability (R2D2) Center, UW-Milwaukee, www.r2d2.uwm.edu
“It is a dreadful irony that students with
disabilities have better access to school
buildings than they do to the curricula
within them.”
(Dolan & Hall, 2001)
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© 2007 Rehabilitation Research Design & Disability (R2D2) Center, UW-Milwaukee, www.r2d2.uwm.edu
“Universal design principles can be applied
to the overall design of instruction as well
as to specific instructional materials,
facilities, and strategies such as lectures,
classroom discussions, group work, Webbased instruction, labs, field work, and
demonstrations.
(From Universal Design of Instruction: Definition, Principles,
and Examples by Sheryl Burgstahler, Ph.D.)
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© 2007 Rehabilitation Research Design & Disability (R2D2) Center, UW-Milwaukee, www.r2d2.uwm.edu
Employing universal design principles in
education does not eliminate the need
for individual accommodations for
students with disabilities.
(yet)
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© 2007 Rehabilitation Research Design & Disability (R2D2) Center, UW-Milwaukee, www.r2d2.uwm.edu
For example,
You may need to provide a sign
language interpreter for a
student who is deaf.
(Accommodation)
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© 2007 Rehabilitation Research Design & Disability (R2D2) Center, UW-Milwaukee, www.r2d2.uwm.edu
However . . . . . .
Not all students with hearing impairments use sign
language.
Live captioning also provides access to deaf
students
And also may be
A BENEFIT TO WHO ELSE?
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© 2007 Rehabilitation Research Design & Disability (R2D2) Center, UW-Milwaukee, www.r2d2.uwm.edu
English as a Second Language
Hidden Disabilities
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© 2007 Rehabilitation Research Design & Disability (R2D2) Center, UW-Milwaukee, www.r2d2.uwm.edu
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© 2007 Rehabilitation Research Design & Disability (R2D2) Center, UW-Milwaukee, www.r2d2.uwm.edu
Design for Disability is Better
Design for Everyone
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© 2007 Rehabilitation Research Design & Disability (R2D2) Center, UW-Milwaukee, www.r2d2.uwm.edu
Hidden Disabilities
 What are the issues?
 Statistics in colleges everywhere are commonly
reflecting that the majority of students with
disabilities are students with learning disabilities
 Disclosure issues
 Never been diagnosed formally
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© 2007 Rehabilitation Research Design & Disability (R2D2) Center, UW-Milwaukee, www.r2d2.uwm.edu
Hidden Disabilities
What are they?
 Learning disabilities, such as dyslexia
 ADHD
 Mental health impairments, such as depression or
anxiety disorders
 Chronic illnesses, such as cancer, HIV, diabetes
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© 2007 Rehabilitation Research Design & Disability (R2D2) Center, UW-Milwaukee, www.r2d2.uwm.edu
Learning Styles
All of us have some obstacle to
our learning and natural
preferences with our own
learning style.
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© 2007 Rehabilitation Research Design & Disability (R2D2) Center, UW-Milwaukee, www.r2d2.uwm.edu
Basic Styles of Learning
 Auditory
 Visual
 Kinesthetic-tactile
Chimes in the background when the word auditory comes up
and a typewriter sound in the background when the word
kinesthetic-tactile comes up
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© 2007 Rehabilitation Research Design & Disability (R2D2) Center, UW-Milwaukee, www.r2d2.uwm.edu
UD and Learning Styles Theory
All students have unique learning styles






ESL students,
international students,
non-traditional students,
students with older computer technologies,
students with disabilities,
students with a learning style that differs from the
instructor,
 all students
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© 2007 Rehabilitation Research Design & Disability (R2D2) Center, UW-Milwaukee, www.r2d2.uwm.edu
Applying Universal Design Concepts In
Course Planning
 Assures full access to the content for most
students
 minimizes the need for special
accommodations
For example, designing Web resources in accessible
formats as they are developed means that no
redevelopment is necessary if blind students enroll in the
class or if students are primarily auditory learners.
Planning ahead saves time in the Detailed
run.
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© 2007 Rehabilitation Research Design & Disability (R2D2) Center, UW-Milwaukee, www.r2d2.uwm.edu
What are you already doing
that might be an exemplar
model for universal design?
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© 2007 Rehabilitation Research Design & Disability (R2D2) Center, UW-Milwaukee, www.r2d2.uwm.edu
1. Open Class Climate
Adopt practices that reflect high values with
respect to both diversity and inclusiveness
For example:
Put a statement on your syllabus inviting students to meet
with you to discuss disability-related accommodations
and other special learning needs.
Based on
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© 2007 Rehabilitation Research Design & Disability (R2D2) Center, UW-Milwaukee, www.r2d2.uwm.edu
2. Optimize Physical Access,
Usability, and Safety
Assure that activities, materials, and equipment are
physically accessible to and usable by all students
and that all potential student characteristics are
addressed in safety considerations
For example:
• Develop safety procedures for all students, including
those who are blind, deaf, or wheelchair users
• Label safety equipment simply, in large print, and in a
location viewable from a variety of angles
• Repeat printed directions orally
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© 2007 Rehabilitation Research Design & Disability (R2D2) Center, UW-Milwaukee, www.r2d2.uwm.edu
3. Diversify Delivery Methods
Use multiple accessible instructional methods
For example:
Deliver content in a variety of ways - consider
• lectures,
• collaborative learning options,
• hands-on activities,
• Internet-based communications,
• educational software,
• field work, etc.
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© 2007 Rehabilitation Research Design & Disability (R2D2) Center, UW-Milwaukee, www.r2d2.uwm.edu
4. Use a Variety of Information Resources
Assure that course materials, notes, and other
information resources are flexible and accessible
to all students
For example:
Choose printed materials and prepare a syllabus early.
This allows students the option of beginning to read materials and work
on assignments before the class begins - or adequate time to arrange for alternate formats, such as books on
tape.
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© 2007 Rehabilitation Research Design & Disability (R2D2) Center, UW-Milwaukee, www.r2d2.uwm.edu
5. Encourage Interaction
Encourage effective interactions between students
and
between students and the instructor.
Assure that communication methods are accessible
to all participants.
For example: Assign group work where learners
must support each other and where the group
process places a high value on different skills
and roles.
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© 2007 Rehabilitation Research Design & Disability (R2D2) Center, UW-Milwaukee, www.r2d2.uwm.edu
6. Increase the Frequency and
Quality of Feedback
Provide specific feedback on a regular basis
For example:
Allow students to turn in parts of large projects for
feedback before the final project is due.
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© 2007 Rehabilitation Research Design & Disability (R2D2) Center, UW-Milwaukee, www.r2d2.uwm.edu
7. Diversify Assessment Tools
Regularly assess student progress using
multiple, accessible methods and tools and
adjust instruction accordingly
For example:
Assess group/cooperative performance as well as individual
achievement.
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© 2007 Rehabilitation Research Design & Disability (R2D2) Center, UW-Milwaukee, www.r2d2.uwm.edu
8.
Incorporate Accommodations as
Needed
Plan for accommodations for students for whom
the instructional design does not meet their
needs
For example:
Know how and where to get materials in alternate
formats, and arrange for other accommodations for
students with disabilities, as requested.
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© 2007 Rehabilitation Research Design & Disability (R2D2) Center, UW-Milwaukee, www.r2d2.uwm.edu
What’s wrong with this picture?
 In this example,
cages protect
computers in a public
location
 However, information
displayed was difficult
to read
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© 2007 Rehabilitation Research Design & Disability (R2D2) Center, UW-Milwaukee, www.r2d2.uwm.edu
Roles and Responsibilities of the
DARC (Departmental Accessibility Resource
Coordinators)
 Find nearby exemplars and recognize “achievers”.
 Be a departmental resource - provide basic information to staff
regarding universal design concepts and resources for inclusive
education/instruction. Web, printed materials, etc.
 Participate in periodic in-services.
 Take an active role in departmental meetings, activities, and
services to disseminate newly acquired information
 Advocate for accessibility to and within your department for
individuals with disabilities.
 Be a role model, willing to encourage others to think about
accessibility, universal design, and an inclusive campus climate.
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© 2007 Rehabilitation Research Design & Disability (R2D2) Center, UW-Milwaukee, www.r2d2.uwm.edu
Roles and Responsibilities of the
DARC (Departmental Accessibility Resource
Coordinators)
Please Provide us with on-going Feedback
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© 2007 Rehabilitation Research Design & Disability (R2D2) Center, UW-Milwaukee, www.r2d2.uwm.edu
12 Tips for Instructional
Accommodation &
Accessibility
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© 2007 Rehabilitation Research Design & Disability (R2D2) Center, UW-Milwaukee, www.r2d2.uwm.edu
Top 12 Tips
for Universal Design in the Classroom
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
Provide crisp, high contrast printed handouts.
Encourage optimum classroom physical environment
(lighting, noise, pathways, etc.).
Face the class when speaking.
Invite students to discuss any access issues with a statement
on your syllabus and in the first class.
Verbally describe images on all slides and overheads.
Use a microphone when speaking.
Repeat student questions and comments out loud.
Provide electronic handouts ahead of time.
Request electronic versions of textbooks when ordering.
Provide text descriptions for all graphical items in
instructional materials.
Consult the ACCESS-ed Website.
Consult your DARC (Department Accessibility Resource
Coordinator).
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© 2007 Rehabilitation Research Design & Disability (R2D2) Center, UW-Milwaukee, www.r2d2.uwm.edu
What can you do
to share
what you have learned today with
others in your department?
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© 2007 Rehabilitation Research Design & Disability (R2D2) Center, UW-Milwaukee, www.r2d2.uwm.edu
Summary
What have you learned today?
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© 2007 Rehabilitation Research Design & Disability (R2D2) Center, UW-Milwaukee, www.r2d2.uwm.edu
Review of Presentation
1. Our current campus system of individual
ACCOMMODATIONS.
2. UDE – What is it and why?
3. How you are already using the concepts of
UDE and how to build.
4. Role of the Departmental Accessibility
Resource Coordinator (DARC)
43
© 2007 Rehabilitation Research Design & Disability (R2D2) Center, UW-Milwaukee, www.r2d2.uwm.edu
R2D2
Center
R eh abilitation R esearch
Design & Dis ability
University of
W isconsin–Milwaukee
The Beginning
© 2007 Rehabilitation Research Design & Disability (R2D2) Center, UW-Milwaukee, www.r2d2.uwm.edu
R2D2
Center
R eh abilitation R esearch
Design & Dis ability
University of
W isconsin–Milwaukee
THANK YOU!
Last Updated 3/20/2007
klr
© 2007 Rehabilitation Research Design & Disability (R2D2) Center, UW-Milwaukee, www.r2d2.uwm.edu
Presenter Options, Including
Universal Access Features
 The “speaker notes” function in PowerPoint is used as a
universal access feature.
 The speaker notes contain text descriptions of the
graphics, because it was not feasible to do this with
PowerPoint’s ALT text function to provide access for
people with disabilities, including vision and cognitive
impairments.
 The notes can also be used to prepare a presenter for
delivering the slides.
 Where graphics repeat, the descriptions for graphics only
describe what has changed from the previous slide.
 Unfortunately, current versions of the free PowerPoint
Viewer do not support “speaker notes.”
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© 2007 Rehabilitation Research Design & Disability (R2D2) Center, UW-Milwaukee, www.r2d2.uwm.edu
Presenter Options – Viewing Speaker Notes
 Using the “Slide Show” view
 In Windows, right click on the slide in use or use the
context key to bring up the menu, and then select “speaker
notes”
 On a Mac, using Ctrl + Click on the slide and select
“speakers notes” from the menu.
 The notes can also be seen as a part of the “Normal” view or
directly by using the “Notes Page” view.
 When in “Normal” view, F6 can be used to switch between the
slide, notes, and outline panes respectively.
Go back to the opening presentation slide
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© 2007 Rehabilitation Research Design & Disability (R2D2) Center, UW-Milwaukee, www.r2d2.uwm.edu

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