Sampling Considerations Complete records are often cumbersome and cannot be obtained easily. A representative sample of behavior can often be generalized. Situation Sampling Time Sampling Event Sampling Types of Observation Naturalistic Observation Deliberate and planned recording of observations in a natural environment, in which the behavior of the Ss is essentially unaffected by the observation process Unobtrusive recording of behavior in a natural environment Naturalistic Observation The case for Naturalistic Observation External Validity Ethical limits on experiments Weak facsimile environments Some things can’t be experimented upon at all Naturalistic Observations using Participant Observation Participant Observation- The observer attempts to assume a natural role within the social situation that she is investigating to observe from the “inside out” Jane Goodall John Howard Griffin “Black Like Me” Structured Observations Records behaviors that are difficult to observe using naturalistic observation Observations that involve some kind of intervention Types of Structured Observations Field Experiment Observations Researchers manipulate one or more independent variables in a natural setting to determine effect on behavior Laboratory Observations Researchers manipulate one or more independent variables in an artificial setting or facsimile environment to determine effect on behavior Example of Structured Observation Simons and Levin(1998)- Change blindness study using confederates that were switched out by use of a distraction. Only half of subjects noticed switch Whether Natural or Structured all Research Observations should be Systematic Careful observation of one or more behaviors in a particular setting 3 things make it systematic: 1) interested in only specific behaviors 2) quantifiable 3) hypothesis-driven Systematic Observational Study in Rhesus Monkeys Collecting ethnographic data Using a systematic chart to determine behavioral criteria Ethogram States (Code) Definition Ventral-Ventral Contact (VC) another subject. Ventral surface of the focal infant contacts ventral surface of Ventral-Ventral Contact Sleep (LV) Ventral surface of the focal infant contacts ventral surface of another subject while asleep Ventral-Ventral Contact Groom (VG) Ventral surface of the focal infant contacts ventral surface of another subject while also receiving groom Sleep Contact (SL) animals. Sleep Proximity (LP) Focal animal is asleep while in proximity with other animals. Sleep Solo (SO) animals) Extended Groom (EG) One animal examines, picks, or licks at the other animal’s fur or body part for longer than 3 seconds (while not in breast or ventral contact) Extended Contact (EC) Any physical contact between focal infant and other subject not described as ventral or groom contact. Proximity (PR) Proximity is scored when the focal animal is within arm’s reach of another subject, but not in physical contact (proximity with an adult = length of adult arm, proximity with another infant = length of infant arm). Extended Play (EP) Focal animal is asleep while in contact (most likely huddle contact) with other Focal animal is asleep while non-social (not in proximity or contact with other Any instances of play lasting for longer than 3 seconds. Extended Mount (EM) than 3 seconds. Mounting (complete or incomplete) that lasts for more Extended Negative (EN) seconds. Any instances of aggression that last longer than 3 Extended Stereotypy (ES) The focal infant is engaged in stereotypic behavior for longer than 6 seconds Extended Toy Play (ET) The focal infant is playing with a toy for longer than 6 seconds. (NOTE: if the focal infant is in a social state (i.e., proximity) score the social state over the extended toy play state). Extended Oral Explore (EO) The focal infant is oral exploring the cage for longer than 6 seconds. (NOTE: if the focal infant is in a social state (i.e., proximity) while oral exploring, score the social state over the extended oral explore state). Social Activity (SA) The infant is not in proximity or contact with one specific subject, but is actively moving among the group within arm’s reach or contact of the other subjects. Change state to Nonsocial Activity if 3 seconds pass without a social interaction with another subject. Nonsocial Activity (NA) The infant remains out of proximity, contact, and social activity for more than 3 seconds, but has head up, looking around or actively walking around the cage. Nonsocial Inactivity (NI) The infant remains out of proximity, contact and social activity for more than 3 seconds and is showing passive behavior (head down, not exploring cage/objects, not looking at other subjects). Facial Expression Events Fear Grimace (FG) Exaggerated grin with teeth showing is given by subordinate animals to dominate animals. Lipsmack (LI) Rapid lip movements with pursed lips, usually accompanied by smacking sounds. Threat (TH) Components of threat include open mouth stare, lunge, head bobbing, vocalization bark, and ear flaps. Play Threat (PT) Scored when open mouth threats, ear flaps, lunges or head bobs occur when animals are engaged in Rough and Tumble play Exploration Events Manual (ME) Specifically oriented manual exploration of the cage or other objects (do not score manipulation of food items or other animals). Oral (OE) Specifically oriented oral exploration of the cage or other objects (do not score manipulation of food items or other animals). Anogenital exploration (AE) Oral, olfactory or manual exploration of anogenital area. NOTE: if an animal sniffs in order to anogenital explore, score both the anogenital explore event and the sniff event Sniff (SN) Animal noticeably sniffs or muzzles another animal. NOTE: if an animals contacts the other animal upon a sniff, score both the sniff and the contact event Movement Events Approach (AP) Scored when an infant moves within arm’s reach of another subject. Do not score if the infant walks past the second infant without directly approaching the second infant (approach must be intentional) Avoid (AV) Animal leaves the area due to the arrival of another animal. Animal does not have to be directly displaced in order to score. (DO NOT SCORE WHEN ANIMALS ENGAGED IN PLAY) Flee (FL) Scored when the infant moves away (out of arm’s reach) from another subject based on that animal’s behavior. Often deliberate, intentional, and rapid, occurring when an animal approaches, looks at, or threatens another (often in a negative context) (DO NOT SCORE WHEN ANIMALS ENGAGED IN PLAY) Chase (CH) seconds. One infant chases, or is chased by another subject for more than 3 Follow (FO) Scored when an animal appears to be intentionally following another animal for more than 3 seconds. Displacement (DI) Scored when another subject approaches and “takes the place” of the other subject. Freeze (FZ) Scored when an animal does not move (crouching or sitting) for more than 3 seconds. Withdraw (WI) Scored when an infant moves out of arm’s reach of another subject after participating in a state of proximity or contact. Physical Contact Events Groom (GR) One animal examines, picks, or licks at the other animal’s fur or body part. (NOTE: Periods of groom lasting more than three seconds are coded as an Extended Groom state). Aggression (AG) Includes aggressive grabs, slaps, and bites. (NOTE: Periods of aggression lasting more than 3 seconds are coded as an Extended Negative state) Cling (CL) Animal is ventrally clinging to another subject Contact (CN) Incomplete Mount (IM) One or two, but not all of the following components include: positioning of partner, hands on back, foot clasp. Mount (MO) Rough and Tumble Play (RT) Contact play consisting of mounting, tumbling, and wrestling. (NOTE: Periods of play lasting more than 3 seconds are coded as an Extended Play state) Vocalization Events Coo (CO) Clear, soft sounds, moderate in pitch and intensity; usually sounds like “whooooooo”. Scream (SC) High-pitched vocalization, with extreme high intensity; sounds like “eeeeeeeeee”. Grunt (GT) Deep, muffled, low-intensity vocalization. Bark (BK) Low pitched, guttural sound. Bark vocalizations often precede an aggressive episode. This event is scored whenever physical, non-aggressive, intentional contact occurs Components include: positioning of partner, hands on back, foot clasp. Other Events Tantrum (TA,TW,TO) Violent shaking or spasms of the body often accompanied by a gecker vocalization. Subdivided into tantrums in response to another subject’s approach (TA), in response to another subject’s withdrawal (TW) or in response to something other (TO). Convulsive Jerk (CJ) Violent shaking or spasms of the body Crooktail (CT) Stiff-legged strut and tail held in stiff “?” shape. Cage Shake (CS) Vigorous shaking of cage bars or body slams against the cage. Present Groom (PG) One animal intentionally presents neck, belly, rump, limbs, back or flank to another animal. Present Mount (PM) Rigid posture with rump and tail elevated and oriented toward another individual. Self Clasp (SF) with arms). Unusual holding of body part or limb with another body part (example: grasping upper body Tooth Grind (TG) situations. Repetitive, audible rubbing of upper and lower teeth - usually seen in tense or aggressive Self Sex (SS) Anogenital exploration of self Self Bite (SB) Biting oneself Self groom (SG) Self grooming Toy-Play (TP) Scored when an animal is visibly playing with a toy Yawn (YA) Yawn Scratch (SR) Scratches own body… often seen when the animal is nervous Stereotypic Movements Salute (SU) Animal covers hand over eye or holds hand eyes--does not need to last 3 seconds in order to score over Spin (SP) Repetitive twirling or spinning for at least 2 rotations---does not need to last 3 seconds in order to score. Pace (PA) Repetitive undirected pacing with the same path repeated--must last longer than 3 seconds to score Bounce (BO) Repetitive hopping or bouncing in the same place---must bounce three times in a row in order to score Swinging (SW) Repetitive swinging in the same place must least 3 seconds to score Head-Twist (HT) Animal twists neck in a dramatic display; often when turning at corners and often seen in conjunction with Backflip (FP) times in a row Rocking (RO) pacing Animal is observed backflipping at least two Rocking back and forth… often combined with Other Stereo (ST) last at self clasp. Repetitive motor patterns not described by any of the above definitions seen Planning Observational Studies Much planning needed! What variables, what behaviors? Data recording techniques Sample design Area, time, population, settings, measurement techniques, data collection techniques Training of observers Pilot study needed Inter-rater reliability Techniques of Observation Blending In Don’t hide – just appear unremarkable, expected part of environment Doesn’t work well with animals How to record? Rely on memory, short-hand? Special attention to appearance, nonchalant manner Hiding Observe from hidden observation point Often used with animals One-way mirrors work well for children Much forethought required! Habituation Observer simply hangs around until people or animals are used to her and ignore her – then observes May require a long time No attempt at intervention or involvement Use Surveillance Devices Special instruments: tape recorders, video-cameras, etc. Equipment expensive, vulnerable Equipment needs to be reliable Inconspicuous placement of microphones, well concealed cameras Not that easy! Facsimile Environments Construct environment that simulates natural conditions? Advantage: Can Systematically introduce changes & observe effects of changes Limitations of Naturalistic Observation Susceptibility to Confounding Can’t control a host of extraneous variables Cause and Effect relations are always in doubt Data may not be easy to quantify Categorical data Narrative data Use of qualitative methods? Ethics People are being observed without their informed consent Invasion of privacy of people Not an issue with animals – as animals are usually not harmed at all. But can be greatly resented by humans!