CSS for Styling - Web Programming Step by Step

Report
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CSS for Styling
CS380
The good, the bad and the… ugly!
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<p>
<font face="Arial">Shashdot.</font>
News for <b>nerds!!</b> You will <i>never</i>, <u>EVER</u>
be
<font size="+4" color="red">BORED</font> here!
</p>
HTML
Slashdot. News for nerds!! You will never, EVER be
here!
BORED
output


Tags such as b, i, u, and font are discouraged in
strict XHTML
Why is this bad?
CS380
Cascading Style Sheets (CSS)
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
Describes the appearance, layout, and presentation
of information on a web page
 HTML


describes the content of the page
Describes how information is to be displayed, not
what is being displayed
Can be embedded in HTML document or placed
into separate .css file
CS380
Basic CSS rule syntax
4
selector {
property: value;
property: value;
...
property: value;
}
CSS
p {
font-family: sans-serif;
color: red;
}
CSS



A CSS file consists of one or more rules
Each rule starts with a selector
A selector specifies an HTML element(s) and then applies style
properties to them

a selector of * selects all elements
Attaching a CSS file <link>
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<head>
...
<link href="filename" type="text/css" rel="stylesheet" />
...
</head>
HTML
<link href="style.css" type="text/css" rel="stylesheet" />
<link href="http://www.google.com/uds/css/gsearch.css"
rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" />
HTML

A page can link to multiple style sheet files

CS380
In case of a conflict (two sheets define a style for the same HTML
element), the latter sheet's properties will be used
Embedding style sheets: <style>
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<head>
<style type="text/css">
p { font-family: sans-serif; color: red; }
h2 { background-color: yellow; }
</style>
</head>
HTML


CSS code can be embedded within the head of an HTML page
Bad style and should be avoided when possible (why?)
CS380
Inline styles: the style attribute
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<p style="font-family: sans-serif; color: red;">
This is a paragraph</p>
HTML
This is a paragraph
output



Higher precedence than embedded or linked styles
Used for one-time overrides and styling a particular element
Bad style and should be avoided when possible (why?)
CS380
CSS properties for colors
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p {
color: red;
background-color: yellow;
}
CSS
This paragraph uses the style above
output
property
description
color
color of the element's text
background-color
color that will appear behind the
element
CS380
Specifying colors
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p { color: red; }
h2 { color: rgb(128, 0, 196); }
h4 { color: #FF8800; }
CSS
This paragraph uses the first style above
This h2 uses the second style above.
This h4 uses the third style above.
output

color names: aqua, black, blue, fuchsia, gray, green, lime, maroon,
navy, olive, purple, red, silver, teal, white (white), yellow

RGB codes: red, green, and blue values from 0 (none) to 255 (full)

hex codes: RGB values in base-16 from 00 (0, none) to FF (255, full)
Grouping styles
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p, h1, h2 {
color: green;
}
h2 {
background-color: yellow;
}
CSS
This paragraph uses the above style.
This h2 uses the above styles.
output


A style can select multiple elements separated by commas
The individual elements can also have their own styles
CS380
CSS comments /*…*/
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/* This is a comment.
It can span many lines in the CSS file. */
p {
color: red; background-color: aqua;
}



CSS
CSS (like HTML) is usually not commented as rigorously as
programming languages such as Java
The // single-line comment style is NOT supported in CSS
The <!-- ... --> HTML comment style is also NOT supported in
CSS
CS380
CSS properties for fonts
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property
description
font-family
which font will be used
font-size
how large the letters will be drawn
font-style
used to enable/disable italic style
font-weight
used to enable/disable bold style
Complete list of font properties (http://www.w3schools.com/css/css_reference.asp#font)
CS380
font-family
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p {
font-family: Georgia;
}
h2 {
font-family: "Courier New";
}
CSS
This paragraph uses the first style above.
This h2 uses the second style above.
output

Enclose multi-word font names in quotes
CS380
More about font-family
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p {
font-family: Garamond, "Times New Roman", serif;
}
CSS
This paragraph uses the above style.
output




We can specify multiple fonts from highest to lowest priority
Generic font names:
 serif, sans-serif, cursive, fantasy, monospace
If the first font is not found on the user's computer, the
next is tried
Placing a generic font name at the end of your font-family
value, ensures that every computer will use a valid font
CS380
font-size
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p {
font-size: 24pt;
}
CSS
This paragraph uses the style above.
output

units: pixels (px) vs. point (pt) vs. m-size (em)
16px, 16pt,

vague font sizes:
smaller,

1.16em
xx-small
,
x-small
,
small
, medium, large, x-large, xx-large,
larger
percentage font sizes, e.g.: 90%, 120%
CS380
font-size
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p {
font-size: 24pt;
}
CSS
This paragraph uses the style above.
output



pt specifies number of point, where a point is 1/72 of an inch
onscreen
px specifies a number of pixels on the screen
em specifies number of m-widths, where 1 em is equal to the
font's current size
CS380
font-weight, font-style
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p {
font-weight: bold;
font-style: italic;
}
CSS
This paragraph uses the style above.
output

Either of the above can be set to normal to turn them off (e.g.
headings)
CS380
CSS properties for text
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property
description
text-align
alignment of text within its element
text-decoration
decorations such as underlining
line-height,
word-spacing,
letter-spacing
gaps between the various portions of
the text
text-indent
indents the first letter of each
paragraph
Complete list of text properties (http://www.w3schools.com/css/css_reference.asp#text)
CS380
text-align
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blockquote { text-align: justify; }
h2 { text-align: center; }
CSS
The Gollum’s Quote
We wants it, we needs it. Must have the precious. They stole it from us.
Sneaky little hobbitses. Wicked, tricksy, false!
output

text-align can be left, right, center, or
justify
CS380
text-decoration
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p {
text-decoration: underline;
}
CSS
This paragraph uses the style above.
output

can also be overline, line-through, blink, or
none
effects can be combined:
text-decoration: overline underline;

CS380
The list-style-type property
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ol { list-style-type: lower-roman; }
CSS

Possible values:
i. none : No marker
ii. disc (default), circle, square
iii. Decimal: 1, 2, 3, etc.
iv. decimal-leading-zero: 01, 02, 03, etc.
v. lower-roman: i, ii, iii, iv, v, etc.
vi. upper-roman: I, II, III, IV, V, etc.
vii. lower-alpha: a, b, c, d, e, etc.
viii. upper-alpha: A, B, C, D, E, etc.
x. lower-greek: alpha, beta, gamma, etc.
CS380
others: hebrew, armenian, georgian, cjk-ideographic, hiragana…
Body styles
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body {
font-size: 16px;
}
CSS


Applies a style to the entire body of your page
Saves you from manually applying a style to each element
CS380
Cascading Style Sheets
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
Properties of an element cascade together in this
order:
 browser's
default styles
 external style sheet files (in a <link> tag)
 internal style sheets (inside a <style> tag in the page's
header)
 inline style (the style attribute of the HTML element)
CS380
Inheriting styles
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body { font-family: sans-serif; background-color: yellow;
}
p { color: red; background-color: aqua; }
a { text-decoration: underline; }
h2 { font-weight: bold; text-align: center; }
CSS
This is a heading
A styled paragraph. Previous slides are available on the website.
• A bulleted list


output
when multiple styles apply to an element, they are inherited
a more tightly matching rule can override a more general
inherited rule
CS380
Styles that conflict
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p, h1, h2 { color: blue; font-style: italic; }
h2 { color: red; background-color: yellow; }
CSS
This paragraph uses the first style above.
This heading uses both styles above.
output

when two styles set conflicting values for the same property,
the latter style takes precedence
CS380
W3C CSS Validator
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<p>
<a href="http://jigsaw.w3.org/cssvalidator/check/referer">
<img src="http://jigsaw.w3.org/css-validator/images/vcss"
alt="Valid CSS!" /></a>
</p>
CSS
output


jigsaw.w3.org/css-validator/
checks your CSS to make sure it meets the official CSS
specifications
CS380
CSS properties for backgrounds
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property
description
background-color
color to fill background
background-image
image to place in background
background-position
placement of bg image within element
background-repeat
whether/how bg image should be
repeated
background-attachment
whether bg image scrolls with page
background
shorthand to set all background
properties
CS380
background-image
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body {
background-image: url("images/draft.jpg");
}
CSS

background image/color fills the element's content area
CS380
background-repeat
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body {
background-image: url("images/draft.jpg");
background-repeat: repeat-x;
}
CSS

can be repeat (default), repeat-x, repeat-y, or no-repeat
CS380
background-position
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body {
background-image: url("images/draft.jpg");
background-repeat: no-repeat;
background-position: 370px 20px;
}

CSS
value consists of two tokens, each of which can be top, left,
right, bottom, center, a percentage, or a length value in px, pt,
etc.
value can be negative to shift left/up by a given amount

CS380
Aside: Favorites icon ("favicon")
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<link href="filename" type="MIME type" rel="shortcut icon"
/>
HTML
<link href="yahoo.gif" type="image/gif" rel="shortcut
icon" />
HTML

The link tag, placed in the HTML page's head section, can
specify an icon

CS380
this icon will be placed in the browser title bar and bookmark/favorite

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