### Precipitation Reactions and Titrations

```Precipitation Reactions and Titrations(1)
213 PHC
7th Lecture
(1) Gary D. Christian, Analytical Chemistry, 6th edition.
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Titration Curves
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By the end of the lecture the student should
be able to :
- Explain the stages of precipitation titration curves.
- Calculate the pX at these stages.
- Select a suitable indicator for a particular reaction.
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Titration Curves
-
Titration of Cl with stdandard AgNO3
solution:
The titration curve is constructed by plotting
pCl against the volume of AgNO3.
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The smaller the Ksp, the larger the break at the
equivalence point (sharper end point).
AgI has the lowest solubility, so [I-] beyond
equivalence point is smaller and pI is larger.
The Ksp of AgCl = 1x10-10
AgBr = 1x10-13
AgI = 1x10-16
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At the equivalence point [X-] is smaller for the
smaller Ksp values and pX is larger for a
saturated solution of the salt.
Beyond the equivalence point [X-] is smaller
when Ksp is smaller resulting in a large jump in
pX.
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The overall effect is:
A larger pX break at the equivalence point
when the compound is more insoluble (Ksp
small).
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Detection of the end point
(indicators)
Two types of indicators are employed:
o The 1st type forms a colored compound with
the titrant when it is in excess.
o The 2nd type called the adsorption indicator,
precipitate at the equivalence point.
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1. Indicators reacting with
the titrant
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Mohr method:
The Cl- is titrated with std. AgNO3 solution.
NaCl + AgNO3  AgCl + NaNO3
white
ppt.
A soluble CrO42- salt is added as the indicator. This
produces a yellow solution. When the
precipitation of Cl- is complete, the first excess
of Ag+ reacts with the indicator to precipitate red
silver chromate.
K2CrO4 + 2AgNO3  Ag2CrO4 + 2KNO3
Yellow sol.
red ppt.
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Volhard method:
It is an indirect titration for determining
anions that precipitate with Ag+ (Cl-, Br-,
SCN ), and performed in acid solution
(HNO3).
A measured excess of AgNO3 is added to
precipitate the anions, and the excess Ag+
is determined by back-titration with
standard SCN- solution.
KBr + AgNO3  AgBr + KNO3 + excess Ag+
Yellow ppt.
Excess Ag+ + SCN-  AgSCN
White ppt.
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The end point is detected by adding iron (III) as
a ferric alum (ferric ammonium sulfate),
which forms a soluble red complex with the
first excess of titrant.
Fe3+ + SCN-  Fe(SCN)2+
red sol.
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The indicator reaction takes place on the
surface of the precipitate. The indicator,
which is a dye exist in solution as the
ionized form, usually an anion, In-.
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e.g. titration of Cl- with Ag+
Before eq. point, Cl- is in excess and the 1ry
(counter) is cation.
AgCl:Cl- ::Na+
Beyond eq. point, Ag+ is in excess with the 1ry
layer being Ag+. This will attract the indicator
anion and adsorb it in the counter layer.
AgCl:Ag+ ::InThe color of the adsorbed indicator is different
from that of the unadsorbed indicator, and
this difference signals the completion of the
titration.
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These indicators are usually weak acids, and
if the pH is too low (highly acidic) they will
not strongly adsorbed on the ppt.
If the indicator is a stronger acid, it can be
adsorbed over a wide pH range.
e.g. Fluorescein, Eosin
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Also, the indicator must not be too strongly
adsorbed , or it will displace the anion of
the precipitate in the 1ry layer before the
eq. point is reached.
The degree of adsorption of the indicator
can be decreased by increasing the acidity.
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Questions?
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Summary:
- Precipitation reactions titration curves.
- Types of indicators used in precipitation
titrations.
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THANK YOU
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