Chapter 5 Synchronous Sequential Logic

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Synchronous Sequential Logic
Chapter 5
Sequential Circuits
• Combinational circuits + storage (store binary
information)
• Binary information stored defines the state of
the sequential circuit
• External input + present state determine the
binary value of outputs and change state in
storage elements
Sequential Circuits
Block diagram of a sequential circuit
Sequential Circuits
• Synchronous sequential circuit is a system
whose behavior can be defined from the
knowledge of its signals at discrete instants of
time
• Asynchronous sequential circuit is a system
whose behavior depends on the input signals
at any instant of time and the order in which
the inputs change
Storage elements in synchronous
sequential circuits
• Latches: Operate on signal levels
– Level-sensitive devices
• Flip-Flops: Controlled by a clock transition
– Edge-sensitive devices
• Latches are the basic circuits from which all
flip-flops are constructed
Sequential Circuits
Synchronous clocked sequential circuit
Storage Elements: Latches
What do you observe in this circuit?
Exercise: Group discussion.
Suppose that Q=1 and Q’=0. What happens with the circuit if S is set to 1 and
R is set to 0?
What happens if S and R are both set to 0?
What happens if S is set to 0 and R is set to 1?
What happens if S and R are both set to 0?
What happens if S and R are both set to 1?
Storage Elements: Latches
Set state
Reset state
SR latch with NOR gates
Storage Elements: Latches
Exercise: Group discussion.
Suppose that Q=1 and Q’=0. What happens with the circuit if S is set to 1 and
R is set to 0?
What happens if S and R are both set to 1?
What happens if S is set to 0 and R is set to 1?
What happens if S and R are both set to 1?
What happens if S and R are both set to 0?
Storage Elements: Latches
Reset state
Set state
SR latch with NAND gates or R’S’ latch
Storage Elements: Latches
Exercise: Group discussion.
Suppose that Q=1 and Q’=0.
What happens with the circuit if S is set to 1, R is set to 0 and  = 0?
What happens with the circuit if S is set to 1, R is set to 0 and  = 1?
What happens if S is set to 0, R is set to 1 and  = 0?
What happens if S is set to 0, R is set to 1 and  = 1?
What does  do?
Storage Elements: Latches
SR latch with control input
Storage Elements: Latches
Compare these two latches. What advantage(s) could have one over the other?
D latch (transparent latch)
D latch
Storage Elements: Latches
Graphic symbols for latches
Storage Elements: Flip-Flops
Latch
Trigger
Flip-Flop
Compare the two types of trigger signals.
Clock response in Latch and Flip-Flop
Storage elements: Flip-Flops
Master-slave D flip-flop
Analyze the operation of this circuit. Assume initially Q=0, D=1, Clk=0.
What happens when Clk changes to 1? What happens while Clk remains
at 1? What happens when Clk changes to 0?
Other edge-triggered D flip-flop
Discuss with your neighbor
classmate the operation of this
circuit. Assume some initial
conditions.
D-type positive-edge-triggered flip-flop
Edge-triggered D flip-flop
Graphic symbol for edge-triggered D flip-flop
Other flip-flops
JK flip-flop
Let   be the state of output  at time . Analyze what happens to the
output at time  + 1 for all the different combinations of the  and  inputs.
Use the table on the following slide.
Table for the analysis of  flip-flop
For the analysis of the  flip-flop fill in the following table.


0
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
Input function to D flip-flip input:  = ′ +  ′ 
( + 1)
Other flip-flops
T flip-flop (Toggle)
Fill in the following table for the Toggle flip-flop

0
1
( + 1)
Characteristic tables
Direct inputs
D flip-flop with
asynchronous reset
1
1
Characteristic equations
• Describe logical properties of a flip-flop, just
like a characteristic table, e.g.:
• For a D flip-flop:   + 1 = 
• For a JK flip-flop:   + 1 =  ′ +  ′ , and
• For a T-flip-flop:   + 1 =  ⊕  =  ′ +
′
Analysis of Clocked Sequential Circuits
• Describes what a circuit will do under certain
operating conditions
• Behavior depends on inputs, outputs, and the
state of flip-flops
• Outputs are function of inputs and present
state
• Analysis obtains a table or diagram for the
time sequence of inputs, outputs and internal
states, and includes time sequence
State equations
  + 1 =     +   ()
  + 1 = ′   
  = [  +   ]′ 
  + 1 =  + 
  + 1 = ′
 = ( + )′
State table
State table
State table
• Exercise: Compare tables 5.2 and 5.3. What
makes the difference?
• Compare any of the state tables (5.2 or 5.3)
with the state equations. How do you relate
equations and table? How do you obtain one
from the other?
State diagram
0/0
/
1/0
0/1
00

1/0
0/1
0/1
10
1/0
0
1
01
11
1/0
Flip-flops input equations or excitation
equations



 =  + 
Flip-flops input equations
Input equations
 =  + 
 = ′
Output equation
 = ( + )′
Analysis of circuits with flip-flops
State table has four sections:
Present state
Inputs
Next state
Outputs
Analysis of circuits with flip-flops
• Determine the flip-flop input equations in
terms of the present state and input variables
• List the binary values of each input equation
• Use the corresponding flip-flop characteristic
table to determine the next-state values in the
state table
Analysis with D flip-flops
 =  ⊕  ⊕ 
( + 1) =  ⊕  ⊕ 
Analysis with JK flip-flops
Input equations
 = 
 = ′
 = ′
 =  ⊕  = ′  + ′
Analysis with JK flip-flops
  + 1 = ′ +  ′ 
  + 1 = ′ +  ′ 
Substituting the values of  and  for , and  and  we obtain:
  + 1 = ′ +  ′ ′  = ′  + ′ + 
  + 1 =  ′ ′ +  ⊕  ′  = ′  ′ +  + ′ ′
Analysis with JK flip-flops
Analysis with JK flip-flops
Analysis with T flip-flops
Analysis with T flip-flops
Characteristic equation of T flip-flop
  + 1 =  ⊕  =  ′  + ′
Input Equations
 = 
 = 
Output Equations
 = 
State Equations
  + 1 =  ′  +  ′ = ′ +  ′ + ′ 
( + 1) = ⨁
Analysis with T flip-flops
Mealy and Moore models of finite
state machines
State Reduction and Assignment
• Analysis of sequential circuit starts with circuit
and finishes with state table or diagram
• Design starts with state table or diagram
• State reduction aims at exhibiting the same
input-output behavior but with a lower
number of internal states
• Fewer internal states leads to fewer flip-flops
• May lead to use more gates
State reduction
An infinite number of input sequences can be
applied to a circuit, for example, the one whose
state diagram is shown
State
a
a
b
c
d
Input
0
1
0
1
0
Output
0
0
0
0
0
Algorithm for state reduction
• Two states are said to be equivalent if:
– For each member of the set of inputs they give
exactly the same output and send the circuit to
either
• The same state or
• An equivalent state
• When two states are equivalent, one of them
can be removed
State reduction
Change g by e, which is the equivalent state
Exercise: go through Table 5.6 and try to find equivalent states applying the algorithm
described before.
State reduction
State reduction
State reduction
Equivalent state diagrams
State assignment
• Assign a unique code for each state
• For a circuit with  states use  bits, where
2 ≥ 
• For states remaining use “Don’t care” to help
reduce circuit.
State Assignment
What code assignment would you choose? Why?
State Assignment
Draw the state diagram for this assignment.
Design Procedure
1. From the word description and specifications of
the desired operation, derive a state diagram for
the circuit.
2. Reduce the number of states if necessary
3. Assign binary values to the states
4. Obtain the binary-coded state table
5. Choose the type of flip-flops to be used
6. Derive the simplified flip-flop input equations
and output equations
7. Draw the logic diagram
Design Procedure
• Design a circuit that detects a sequence of
three or more consecutive 1’s in a string of
bits coming through an input line (input is a
serial bit string) 0
0
S0/0
0
S1/0
1
1
0
1
S1/0
1
S1/0
Synthesis using D flip-flops
  + 1 =  , ,  =
(3,5,7)
  + 1 =  , ,  =
(1,5,7)
( , ,  =
(6,7)
Synthesis using D f flip-flops
Maps for sequence detector
Exercise: Draw the logic diagram of sequence detector
Synthesis using D flip-flops
Excitation tables
• With D flip-flops design is straightforward
• With JK and T flip-flops input equations must
be derived indirectly from the state table
• Need to derive a functional relationship
between the state table and the input
equations
Excitation tables
Synthesis using JK flip-flops
Question: Why the “Don’t cares”?
Synthesis using JK flip-flops
Synthesis using JK flip-flops
Synthesis using T flip-flops
Design an -bit binary counter.
Use  flip-flops
Can count from 0 to 2
State diagram of three-bit binary counter
Synthesis using T flip-flops
Discuss with your neighbor classmate this table
Synthesis using T flip-flops
Maps for three-bit counter
Synthesis using T flip-flops
Logic diagram of three-bit counter
Homework assignment
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•
•
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5.5
5.8
5.9
5.12
5.19

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