Global Change and Its Impact on Tour*sm

Global Change and Its Impact on Tourism
N.G. Sunara Samsudeen
LL.B, LL.M, Pgd. in Human Rights Law (New South Wales) Pgd. in Peace Research (Oslo),
UNITAR Fellow (Geneva), Hague Academy Fellow(Hague), Diploma in International
Relations (Specialization in Public International Law inc. International Environmental Law)
(Attorney-At-Law, Notary, Company Secretary, Commissioner of Oaths)
Senior Programme Officer
Equal Access to Justıce Project
United Nations Development Programme
Sri Lanka
Areas of Discussion
• What are implications of global change that are to the
negative effect of industry of tourism and to what extent?
• What are measures and steps taken prevent and to what
• What are the measures have taken to the positive effect
and how far thus those have been resulted positively?
• What are the gaps and how far those gaps could be
addressed and through what adaptation could it result to
the positive effects globally and regionally?
Discussed Global Changes
• Scientist Arthur C. Clarks perditions
• Climate Change; Weather change; Elnino, Lanino; Heat &
Colder - human made & natural
• Sea level rise -human made & natural
• Tsunami-natural
• Pollution
Models – measuring tools
• Changed and extended version of the Hamburg Tourism Model
• Hamilton et al., 2005a,b study (total holiday demand –
domestic and international)
• Bigano et al.—Tourism simulation study on economic cost
• Tourism version –climate index on Human comfort
Main impacts on tourism as global industry
• Firstly physical natural environment and
• Secondly on the income generated to the national economy
Why global change is an impact on tourism?
• It is being the dependent industry
• Human behavior – attractiveness, change of patterns
Natural resources influences and wider impact on its
development and sustainability due to change of natural
Why climate is an important factor or greater impact?
• Destination of choice
• climate change would shift patterns of tourism towards higher
altitudes and latitudes, warmer and colder
• Internationally – larger impact
• Domestically – very little impact
• Increases expenditures
• Food & Security , Health risks
• Impact on population and economic growth
The basis for impact assessments are climate models, in particular the IPCC
scenarios and regional downscaled model variations.
Tourist projections
• "Climate change would drive tourists towards the poles and,
for those not interested in sea and sand, up the
mountains.“(UNWTO data)
• Asia will take the lead
Sea level rise
• Coral reefs
• Natural coast or beaches
• Vanishing of Islands
Challenges to be addressed
Protection of environment
Increase attractiveness; wild life, biodiversity
Facilities; cultural attractiveness, adventurous
health risks
Water conservation
Organic farming
Nature friendly tourism
Mitigating bottlenecks – Policies, Law reforms, structural
adjustment, Action plans and adapterbilities
• More towards small islands, higher altitudes and latitudes
• Assess through number of tourists
• Bottle neck and red tapes-Economic impacts, other difficulties
laws and regulations; immigration , cost effectiveness, distance
,purpose of visit
• Decision making, Lack of implementation, policies and
• Structural changes, policies and adaptations, statutory
Own threats
• UN’s World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) 2008
“Our report underscores the threats and the opportunities. It
confirms the fact that tourism contributes some 5% of
greenhouse gasses – in line with its global impact and way
below its development contribution in poor countries. It
identifies institutional change directions for transport,
accommodation and all tourism service providers, as well as
the users – business and leisure.” (UNWTO Assistant SecretaryGeneral Professor Geoffrey Lipman)
Best Practices
• Lipman reaffirmed UNWTO’s Davos Declaration Process of 2007, which
undertakes to support the UN’s Bali Roadmap that provides a broad
direction for all tourism stakeholders. “Now it’s all about implementation,”
also stated that “We will increase our collaboration within the UN family
and our efforts to bring the public and private sector’s full capacity to bear
on this issue. Innovation is the big opportunity.
“In this regard, UNWTO is pleased to announce a collaborative
arrangement with ICAO, whereby UNWTO will promote the application of
the new ICAO Carbon Emissions Calculator, a tool for calculating CO2
emissions from air travel. The Calculator is unbiased, transparent and was
vetted by the international aviation community.”
“We are confident of our sector’s ability to play its part in the
establishment of an effective and comprehensive global climate response
network. We have been working in close collaboration with UNEP and
WMO for many years to analyze the impacts, the stress points and the lines
for an effective response in both the long and the immediate term.
“We also know that climate change cannot be addressed without losing
sight of other humanitarian and development priorities, particularly
tourism’s overall contribution to economic growth and to the UN
Millennium Development Goals. We are making all efforts to ensure that
tourism will manage to reduce its contribution to GHG emissions at a
faster rate than the growth rate of international and domestic tourist
movements, thus continuing to play a key role in the fight against poverty
and serve as a tool for developing countries’ economic and social growth.”
( UNWTO’s Secretary-General- Francesco Frangialli)
International measures and attempts
• UN Supported-The intergovernmental panel on climate change
2007 – see-a level rice that may submerge small islands
• UN study on climate change on the development prospects of
the least developed countries and small island developing
states, UNOHRLLS,2009
• United Nations framework Convention on Climate Change,
• Millennium development goals (UNMDGs) in mitigating and
protection of environment
• ICAO is currently in the process of developing a methodology
for its Carbon Calculator. intending that the calculator should
be used as the primary tool for calculating aviation emissions
for use in the UN’s Climate Neutral Initiative. It will also be a
source of data for use in carbon offset programs.
Source: UNWTO
Challenges to be addressed
• Long term policy implementations ( long term climate projections- green
house gas, carbon neutrality etc.)
• Mitigation of policies and measures that effect any environmental
• Sustainable mechanism in mitigating effects
• Adaptability and strategies
• Individual and common efforts-national adaptation and initiatives, action
• Develop biases
• Ratifications, law enactments for Enabling statuses countries following
dualistic approach (non binding nature), reservations - legal bottlenecks –
Sınharasa SC Sri Lanka case
• International negotiations (Developed countries up to their responsibilities
when it is not affect equally – watch dog, raise a voice
• Resources
The UNWTO-UNEP report 2008 on Climate Change and Tourism: Responding to Global
Challenges and the seminar report of UNEP, the Oxford University and UNWTO on Climate
Change Adaptation and Mitigation in the Tourism Sector: Frameworks, Tools and Practices
provide a pool of mitigation measures for a wide-range of tourism stakeholders.
Andrea Bigano & Jacqueline M. Hamilton & Richard S.J. Tol, 2006. "The Impact of Climate
Change on Domestic and International Tourism: A Simulation Study," SSRN, Working Papers
2006.86, pp. 26-49 Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei. : File URL:
accessed 11 February, 2012
Bigano et al, Tourism simulation study, IAJ, Vol. 7, Iss. 1, 2007
The study on climate change on the development prospects of the least developed countries
and small island developing states, UNOHRLLS,2009
Climate Change: Impacts, vulnerabılıtıes and adaption in developing countries, United
Nations framework Convention on Climate Change, UNFCCC, 2007
Thank you

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