### The Scientific Method

```Problem Solving Lab
Purpose
Can the pieces be arranged to make 5 squares that are all the same size?
Materials
One packet of 15 pieces of paper (per group)
Procedure
Take all 15 pieces out of your packet.
Arrange all pieces to make 5 squares that are the same size
Draw your results on a separate sheet of paper.
Rules
No talking is allowed
Use all 15 pieces
Eyes only on your own table; no cheating!
Created by Liz Bartimus
The Scientific Method is a
series of steps that are
used to investigate a
natural occurrence.
Step 1-Problem/Question: The
scientific method starts when you
that you observe: How, What,
When, Who, Which, Why, or
Where?
And, in order for the scientific method
to answer the question it must be about
something that you can measure,
preferably with a number.
Step 2-Observation/Research:
Make observations and
research your topic of interest.
THINK ABOUT THE NEXT FEW QUESTIONS
YOU WILL SEE.
ARE THEY SOMETHING THAT CAN BE
MEASURED AND TESTED
SCIENTIFICALLY?
1. Are there more seeds in Fugi Apples or Washington Apples?
2. What types of apples grow in Missouri?
3. Why do people smoke?
4. How does talking to a plant affect a plants height?
5. Where are whales found in the world?
6. What happens if you do not eat breakfast?
7. Which planet is the most interesting one to study?
8. Which objects are attracted by a magnet: paperclip, penny, foil?
9. Will larger or smaller seeds germinate faster?
10. Do larger or smaller seeds make prettier flowers?
11. Do flying saucers really exist?
12. Which pill design – tablet, caplet, or capsule – will dissolve
faster?
13. Does the color of a surface affect its temperature?
15. How does the size of a helicopter’s blade length affect the
speed and number of rotations?
16. Does the temperature of a classroom affect student
performance?
17. How does talking to a plant affect the plant?
JOURNAL SM1
Write:
1. An observation
2. A problem question
observation that you
can study.
Step 3-Develop a Hypothesis:
Predict a possible answer(an educated guess) to
the problem or question. It must be testablesomething that can be proved right or wrong
AND easily measured. Use if
and then
statements.
Example: If soil temperatures rise, then plant
growth will increase because warmer soil
makes plants grow more.
JOURNAL SM2
Write a hypothesis based on this question:
“ Will empty trucks use the same amount of
gas as heavily loaded trucks?
Step 4-Experiment: a test to used to see
if your hypothesis is right.
They follow a procedure ( a set of detailed
steps) and include a detailed materials
(what you will use) list. The outcome
must be measurable (quantifiable with
numbers).
>With experiments comes a LOT of vocabulary:
• Variable-something that is can change in an
experiment. To keep things straight, remember
DRYMIX
• Dependent Variable-what you measure; it changes
because of the independent variable; it is also called
the…
• Responding
variable because it responds to a change
in something else. It is graphed on the …….
• Y axis on a graph
• Manipulated variable
is the one and only thing you
change and test ON PURPOSE. Also called….
• Independent
• X axis
Variable which is graphed on the…
JOURNAL SM 3
We conducted two labs related to writing a
hypothesis. Develop three variables for each
lab:
Möbius Strip
1
2
3
Coin Conundrum
1
2
3
• Control Group-An experimental group that has no
changing variable during the experiment. Used
for comparison.
• Constants-the variables that are the same for
everything . For example if we wanted to see if
more class time to start HW made a difference
in grades we would keep the amount and type of
HW the same for everyone. Only the time in
class to do the HW would be diferent.
• Trial-a task that should be repeated several
times to be sure your results are consistent or
similar
JOURNAL SM 4
Using the information you wrote down for SM 3,
identify the following for each lab.
Möbius Strip
Independent Variable:
Dependent Variable:
Constants:
Coin Conundrum
Independent Variable:
Dependent Variable:
Constants:
JOURNAL SM 5
Write these questions down then analyze the
data on the next slide.
1. Identify the independent and dependent
variable.
2. As the temperature increases, what happens
to the number of chirps per minute?
3. How many chirps per minute would you
expect when the temperature is 10 0C?
JOURNAL SM 5
Analyze the data:
Cricket
15 0C
20 0C
25 0C
1
91
135
180
2
80
124
169
Average Chirps vs.
Temperature
180
160
140
3
89
130
176
4
78
125
158
120
100
80
5
77
121
157
Average
Chirps
83
127
168
60
40
20
0
0
5
10 15 20 25
Step 5-Collect and Analyze Results:
Modify the procedure if needed.
Confirm the results by retesting.
Include tables, graphs, diagrams and
photographs.
Step 6-Conclusion: A decision based on results. The
conclusion is important because it explains the results of
the lab and what you learned by doing it.
1.
State the facts. Exact numbers, details, variables,
etc. .
2.
Say WHY!....Explain why something did or did not
happen.
3.
Wrap It Up! Talk about what you could do
differently, sources of error, future tests.
NOT INCLUDING A CONCLUSION PARAGRAPH WILL
AUTOMATICALLY DROP A LAB GRADE!
Step 7-Communicate the results
by writing a report or telling
somebody. Be sure that you do
not include your personal bias or
opinion. Just state the facts.
It is important that you know the steps
of the scientific method in order.
JOURNAL SM 6
Analyze the data:
1. Does the data support
the hypothesis that chirp
more in warmer
temperatures? Explain
2.What would you do next
if this were your data?
3.Can you draw a conclusion
from this data? Why or
why not?
Cricket
15 0C
20 0C
25 0C
1
98
100
120
2
92
95
105
3
101
93
99
4
102
85
97
5
91
89
98
Average
Chirps
96
92
103
AFTER EXPERIMENTING
When an experiment can be repeated proving a
hypothesis true over and over, the hypothesis
can become a theory. A theory is a welltested explanation for a lot of observations
or experimental results.
A scientific law can be the final result of
testing. Usually that describes patterns that
are observed in nature that are true ALL the
time-like the Law of Gravity.
SCIENTIFIC METHOD
STEPS-Do you know
them?
Identify
the
Problem
Research/
Gather
Info
Form a
Hypothesis
If…… then…..
statement
Test the
Hypothesis
Retest!
Hypothesis
is right
Analyze
and
Conclude
Communicate
Results
If your
hypothesis
is wrong
JOURNAL SM 7
1. If your hypothesis was incorrect. What
should you do?
2. Is only one trial of an experiment enough to
base a conclusion on ? Why or why not?
3. Why is a conclusion important?
4. Contrast a theory and a law.
```