Developmental Progressions - Missouri State University

Report
Progressions in
Psychomotor
Development
Birth through 9
years
From 2 – 2.5 years
• A child can
– Jump from a height of 12” with one foot
leading
– Jump off the floor with both feet
– Balance on one foot
– Takes short running steps on toes
– Throws a 9.5 ball 4-5 feet
From 2.5 – 3 years
• A child can
– Jump from a height of 18” with one foot
leading
– Stands on a walking board 6 cm. wide
– Attempts to step while on walking board
– Catches a 16.25 inch ball with arms
straight
From 3 – 3.5 years
• Child can
– Walk backwards easily
– Walk UP stairs alternating feet, no rails
– Make sharp turns while running
– Jump forward and land on both feet
– Rises to feet from a kneeling position in a mature
pattern
– Climb on playground equipment
– Jumps down from 8 inch elevation with both feet
together
– Demonstrates elementary hopping pattern – 1 foot
From 3.5 to 4 years
• Child can
– Walk down stairs, alternating feet, WITH use
of rail
– Jump from a height of 12” with feet together;
– Performs 3 consecutive hops on preferred
foot
– Throw a tennis ball for distance (8-9 feet)
using a forward stance
– Identify body planes
– Catches a 16.25 inch ball with elbows in front
From 4 – 4.5 years
• Child can
– Stand/balances on one foot for 4-8 seconds
– Walk on the balance beam
– Balance while changing direction, from the
trunk
– Walk up and down stairs WITHOUT rail,
alternating feet
– Run smoothly, at alternating speeds
– Jump forward, 8-10 inches; running jump 22-33
inches
– Jump over a rope 2 inches high
4 – 4.5 years - continued
• Child can
– Catch a large ball with arms flexed at the
elbow
– Throw a tennis ball overhand with trunk
rotation
– Bounce a large playground ball
– Kick a large playground ball with accuracy
– Ride a tricycle expertly
– Turn a forward summersault
From 4.5 – 5 years
• Child can
– Jump backward
– Jump over a stationary rope 4” high
– Slide down a playground slide
– Swing on a playground swing
From 5 – 5.5 years
• Child can
– Stand on one foot without visual feedback
– Walk the balance beam forward, sideways and
backwards
– Run 35 feet in 10 seconds
– Hop 45 feet in 10 seconds
– Throw a tennis ball with trunk rotation and
forward weight shift (step)
– Catch a bounced tennis ball with hands
From 5 – 5.5 yrs. - continued
• Child can
– Hit a T-ball with a bat
– March, keeping time to the music
– Use skates, sled, wagon or scooter well
– Gallop leading with both preferred and
non-preferred leg
– Kicks a soccer ball through the air a
distance of 8-11.5 feet
– Alternates feet in basic skipping
movements
From 5.5 – 6 years
• Child can
– Throw a 9.5 inch ball 14-15 feet
– Catch a 16.25 inch ball with elbows at
the side of the body
From 6 to 7 years
• Child can
– Skip at an intermediate level
– Throw a softball for distance
• Boys - 34.1 feet
• Girls - 19 feet
– Walk on a balance beam 4 cm wide and 2.5
meters long in 9 seconds stepping off less than
once per trial
– Run
• Boys - 4.2 yd/sec.
• Girls - 4.1 yd/sec.
6 – 7 years - continued
• Child can
– Perform a standing broad jump
• Boys - 37+ inches
• Girls - 36+ inches
– Perform a standing high jump of 8 inches
– Kick a soccer ball in the air a distance of 10-18
feet
– Perform 2-2 hopping pattern and skip in
mature pattern ~ 6.5 yrs [Girls].
– Hop 15 ft. on right and left feet [Boys]
6 – 7 years - continued
• Child can
– Visually fixate on and pursue (track) an
object through all meridia and cross the
mid-line smoothly
• while Keeping the head/neck in a fixed
position
– Can cross mid-line in gross and fine
motor activities in a differentiated
[smooth and easy] fashion
From 7 – 8 years
• Child can
– Run
• Boys – 4.6 yd/sec.
• Girls – 4.4 yd/sec.
– Throw softball for distance
• Boys – 45+ feet
• Girls – 25+ feet
– Perform a standing broad jump
• Boys – 41+ inches
• Girls – 40 inches
7 – 8 years - continued
• Most girls can perform 3-2 hopping
pattern
• Both boys and girls Mature skip in
mature fashion
From 8 – 9 years
• Child can
– Throw a softball for distance
• Boys – 59 ft.
• Girls – 34 ft.
– Run
• Boys - 5.1 yd/sec.
• Girls – 4.6 yd/sec.
– Perform a standing broad jump
• Boys – 46+ inches
• Girls – 46 inches
Also from 8-9 years
• Most boys can perform 2-2 hopping
pattern
Developmental
Parameters of
Vision
VISION
• TWO TYPES:
– REFRACTIVE
(focal vision) …
VERSUS ORTHOPTIC (related to
depth perception and balance)
• THESE ARE THE CRITICAL
COMPONENTS OF VISION AND
VISUAL DEVELOPMENT
–The critical subcomponents of
vision and visual development
–VISUAL ACUITY
• REFRACTIVE
–FIGURE-GROUND PERCEPTION
• ORTHOPTIC
–DEPTH PERCEPTION
• ORTHOPTIC
–VISUAL-MOTOR COORDINATION
• OPTHOPTIC
• Visual Acuity 
- Static Vision (pick out
detail in stationary objects,
Snellen chart: 20/20)
- Dynamic Vision (pick
out detail in moving
objects)
- Developmental aspects  (rapid
improvement 5-7, plateau 7-8, mature 1012)
• Figure-Ground
Perception
 where
- Figure (specific object)
- Ground (background object(s))
- Developmental aspects  (slow
improvement 3-4, rapid improvement
4-6, mature 8-12)
• An element of depth perception
• Depth Perception  judging
distance
- accomplished via depth cues
- (monocular = size, texture,
distance, shading etc.)
- (binocular = retinal disparity,
convergence)
- Developmental aspects  (frequent
errors 3-4 yrs., few errors 5-6 yrs., rapid
improvement 7-11 yrs., mature 12 yr.)
• Visual-Motor Coordination  the
ability to coordinate vision with body
movements
-
A.K.A. Object tracking & interception
- Developmental aspects  (rapid
improvement 3-7 yrs., slow improvement, 7-9
yrs., mature 11-12 yrs.)
Development of Body
Image
• Identification of Body
Parts
• Understanding the
Function of Body Parts
• Efficient Utilization of
Space
• Right-left and Bi-Lateral
Discriminations during
Movement Function
A child from birth through 3
can visually/verbally identify
these body parts
• Birth 
• Can watch the hand move
• 1 year 
• Stomach, head , parts of
face, limbs, hands, fingers
and toes
• 3 years 
• Objects in relation to body
planes, e.g., “things are in
front, to the back or to the
side of ..”
Also …. a child at age 3
• Knows the words “right” and “left,”
but not that they are on
opposite sides of the body
A child from 5 through 7 can
visually/verbally identify
these body parts
• 5 years 
• 6 years 
• 7 years 
• Shoulders, elbows, knees; middle
and ring fingers
• Trunk appears in drawings; thighs,
forearms, etc. identified
• Wrists, ankles, shins, parts of
limbs
Left-right identification 5 – 9 years
• 5 years 
• 6 years 
• 7 years 
• 8 years 
• 9 years 
• Knows right and left are on opposite
sides but is unable to tell which is
which
• Some left-right judgments made
accurately
• More correct right-left judgments on
self and in letters, numbers etc.
• Can identify the left-right of others
when facing them
• Can describe the left-right
movements of others while watching
them
Fine Motor Skill
Progressions
Note  Critical Developmental
Skills of Prehension, Grasping
and Releasing
– Prehension  grasping and releasing
e.g. tennis ball, pencil, etc.
•Effective grasping (9 mos.)
•Thumb opposition (9-10 mos.)
•Object release (18 mos.)
Manipulating a
Writing Instrument
– Sequence = supination,
pronation, dynamic tripod
(7 yrs.)
–Posture, hand position
Continued - Fine Motor
Manipulative Behavior
• Drawing and writing
Stages of
Drawing and
Writing
Stage 1 
– Scribbling  developing
hand-eye coordination  (15-20
MOS.)
Stage 2
• Development of
Diagrams and
combinations of
diagrams ~ 1-2 yrs.
Stage 3 
• Combine stage  basic
geometric figures (spirals,
crosses)  to more
precise figures, e.g.,
circles, squares, etc. ~ 2
yrs
• ~ 2 yrs.
Stage 4 
– Aggregate stage  combines
diagrams and figures into
combinations (3+) resulting in
more complex drawings 3/7 yrs.
Stage 5
– Pictorial stage  increased
precision and complexity ~ 8-9
yrs.
Fine motor
development – printing
and writing patterns
• 4 yr. olds  may be able to print
recognizable letters/numbers
• No particular organizational
pattern for numbers/letters
• 5-6 yrs. = name printing
–5 yrs. = ½ - 2” upper case
letters
–Letters become larger toward
end of name
–6 yrs. = similar with occasional
reversals – may include
surname
–By 7 letters are ~1/4 inches –
lowercase letters may continue
to be difficult
By 3 rd grade
• Single stroke letters easier (I, c, l)
• Horizontal-vertical letters follow (E,
T)
• Letters with Slants (horizontalvertical) follow
– (K, B, Z)
• Spacing (9 yrs.)

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