Skeletons from freeform - Department of Engineering Design

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Introduction to Music Mridangam
M. Ramanathan
Department of Engineering Design,
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
http://ed.iitm.ac.in/~raman/
Introduction to Music,
IIT Madras
Lecture on Mridangam
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Brief history
Importance of rhythm
Why Mridangam – importance of layam
Parts of mridangam,
Variations – size, kappi/kutchi
Thaalam
Role of mridangam in a concert
Thani avarthanam
Other percussion instruments
Introduction to Music,
IIT Madras
Lecture on Mridangam
Sample carnatic concert
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Play sample concert 1 – Mine
Play sample concert 1 – Mandolin
Play sample concert 2 – M.S.
Tabla and Thavil also has been used – esp.
by Srinivas
Introduction to Music,
IIT Madras
Lecture on Mridangam
History
• traced to an archetypical mridang
• both masculine and feminine characters
• Brahma as an accompanying Taala
instrument while Lord Paramashiva wa
dancing after Thripura samharam
• was first played by Lord Ganesha?
• Lord Nandi (the Bull God), the escort of
Lord Shiva was a master percussionist
(during Taandav).
Introduction to Music,
IIT Madras
Lecture on Mridangam
Rhythm
• Esp. in carnatic music – allows innovations
and variations
• Shruti Mata Laya Pita
Introduction to Music,
IIT Madras
Lecture on Mridangam
Parts of mridangam
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Jack tree or Rosewood
Left, middle and right
Left – Rava mixed with water is used.
Right – Meetu and Chappu skins.
Karanai – mixture of manganese powder,
rice and iron powder
• Strips connecting the two.
Introduction to Music,
IIT Madras
Lecture on Mridangam
Variations in mridangam
• Large/smaller right diameter, length. Dia
inversely proportional to pitch.
• Thagu Shruthi (24 to 26 in. and dia 6.5 to
7.5) and the other is Sthaayi Shruthi (20 to
22 in., and dia. 6 to 7).
• Kuchi (used typically by Sivaraman, vellore
Ramabhadram) – with slender grass pieces
that are inserted for better sound quality,
which kappi does not have (mostly K. Mani,
Raghu,
Introduction
to Music,TK Moorthy
Lecture onuses)
Mridangam
IIT Madras
Thaalam
• Tool for measuring the tempo and also to
some extent the structure of the song.
• Maintaining the rhythm or the beats of a
song constant.
• Reflects the mood of that song.
Introduction to Music,
IIT Madras
Lecture on Mridangam
Thaalam construction
• SasapthaKriyai and NisapthaKriyai
• Sasapthakriyai part in a thaalam produces
sounds
• (Demonstration)
• Shadangaas and Shodashaangaas
Introduction to Music,
IIT Madras
Lecture on Mridangam
Thaalam
• Thattu - the downward beat with the palm
facing down
• Veechchu - the wave (sometimes the
downward beat with the palm facing up)
• Finger Counts - counts start with the little
finger and the no. of counts depends on the
type of the thaalam.
• Aksharam - Each beat of a thaalam is
termed as "One Aksharam” (depends!).
Introduction to Music,
IIT Madras
Lecture on Mridangam
SHADANGAA - Six Angaas"
• Laghu - A Laghu is one thattu followed by a
specified number of counts.
• Dhrutham - It is one thattu followed by one
veechu.
• Anudhrutham - It consists of just one thattu.
Introduction to Music,
IIT Madras
Lecture on Mridangam
Other three
• Guru - It consists of a thattu and for the
remaining aksharas(depends on the type of
Thaalam) hand (closed one) will be rotated
in a circular motion.
• Plutham - It consists of one thattu, one
krishyai and one sarpini.
• Kakapaadham - It consists of one thattu,
One padhagam, one krishyai and one
sarpini.
Introduction to Music,
IIT Madras
Lecture on Mridangam
• 1 krshyai - Has 4 aksharams and is
represented by waving the hand towards
left.
• 1 sarpini - Has 4 aksharams and is
represented by waving the hand towards
right.
• 1 pathakam - Has 4 aksharams and is
represented by raising the hand vertically.
Introduction to Music,
IIT Madras
Lecture on Mridangam
Five jaathis – variations in
Laghu
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Chathurashra Jaathi – 1 + 3
Thisra Jaathi – 1 + 2
Kanta Jaathi – 1 + 4
Mishra Jaathi – 1 + 6
Sankeerna Jaathi – 1 + 8
Introduction to Music,
IIT Madras
Lecture on Mridangam
Various type of Thaalam
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Soolathi saptha thaalam
Desadhi and Madhyadhi thaalam
Chappu Thaalam
Navasandhi Thaalam
Simhanandhanam and Sarapanandhana
Thaalams
• Aparoopa Thaalam
Introduction to Music,
IIT Madras
Lecture on Mridangam
Soolathi Saptha Thaalam
• Dhruvam - laghu,dhrutham,laghu,laghu - 1011
- 14
• Matyam - laghu,dhrutham,laghu - 101 – 10
• Roopakam - dhrutham,laghu - 01 – 6
• Jhampa - laghu,anudhrutham,dhrutham - 1U0
– 10
• Thriputa - laghu,dhrutham,dhrutham - 100 – 7
• Ata - laghu,laghu,dhrutham,dhrutham - 1100 –
14
• Ekam - laghu - 1 - 4
Introduction to Music,
IIT Madras
Lecture on Mridangam
Small Exercise
Introduction to Music,
IIT Madras
Lecture on Mridangam
CHAPPU THAALAM
• Mishra chappu (3+4) - 3 swaras for first
thattu and 4 swaras for second thattu
• Kanta chappu (2+3)
• Thisra chappu (1+2)
• Sankeerna chappu (3+6)
Introduction to Music,
IIT Madras
Lecture on Mridangam
Aavarthanam and Two Kalai
• Adi Thaalam
• Two Kalai
Introduction to Music,
IIT Madras
Lecture on Mridangam
Create new Thaalam?
• Discuss its structure and aksharams.
Introduction to Music,
IIT Madras
Lecture on Mridangam
Basic strokes of Mridangam
• Tha, Thi, Thom, Nam (Palani and Tanjore)
Introduction to Music,
IIT Madras
Lecture on Mridangam
Basic strokes of Mridangam
• Ta, Dhim, Chappu – Full, Half
Introduction to Music,
IIT Madras
Lecture on Mridangam
Strokes of Mridangam
• Using Gumki on the left, one can create
different sounds.
Introduction to Music,
IIT Madras
Lecture on Mridangam
Nadai
• Combination of basic strokes
• Used for following (accompanying) a song
• Keezhkalam, Madhyama Kaalam and Mel
kaalam
• Chatushram, thisram, kantam, mishram and
sankeernam
Introduction to Music,
IIT Madras
Lecture on Mridangam
Korvai
• Poorvanga and Utahraanga
• Splitting the aksharams into different
patterns
• Basic math skill
• Karvai (not Korvai!!)
Introduction to Music,
IIT Madras
Lecture on Mridangam
Playing for a song
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Pallavi/Charanam
Swaram
Chitta-Swaram
Ragam Tanam Pallavi
Introduction to Music,
IIT Madras
Lecture on Mridangam
Typical Thaniavarthanam
• Chathurashra Nadai – Korvai (slightly
bigger – few avarthanams, repeated three
times)
• Thishra Nadai – Korvai
• Korappu (employed when more than one
percussionist involved)
• Mohra
• Mukthayam
Introduction to Music,
IIT Madras
Lecture on Mridangam
Eduppu vs. Samam
• Example – Endharo
• ½, 1, 1 ½, ¾
• In Thani – Eduppu to Eduppu or Samam to
Eduppu
Introduction to Music,
IIT Madras
Lecture on Mridangam
Other percussion
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Thavil
Chenda
Maddalam
Kanjira
Morsing
Tabla
Pakhawaj
Introduction to Music,
IIT Madras
Lecture on Mridangam
Movie songs where percussion
been employed
• Capture different Rasas
Introduction to Music,
IIT Madras
Lecture on Mridangam

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