Claire Lloyd
School of Education,Coleg Llandrillo,
[email protected]
Preparing Trainee Teachers to
Integrate Technology into Their Lessons
School of Education,Coleg Llandrillo,
[email protected]
“A crucial factor influencing new teachers’ adoption of technology is the quantity and quality of technology experiences in their teacher education programmes … Research continues to reveal that beginning teachers
feel they are not well-prepared to effectively use technology in their classrooms” (Tondeur et al. 20011;1)
Trainee teachers in the lifelong learning sector are expected
to engage with technology during their initial teacher
training in order to better support student learning.
Evidence suggests that many trainee teachers do not have
sufficient technological knowledge and skills to do this
(Jordan 2011).
Building on Shulman’s (1986) construct of Pedagogical
Content Knowledge (PCK), Koehler & Mishra (2009)
describe a framework for technology integration called
Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge
(originally TPCK, now known as TPACK).
The TPACK framework identifies the knowledge
teachers should have to effectively integrate
learning technology into their practice. As teacher
trainers, the question then becomes: “How can we support
this integration through our training programmes?” With
this question in mind, we decided to use the TPACK
framework to evaluate trainee teachers’ technological,
pedagogical and content knowledge at the end of a teacher
training programme.
An online questionnaire was designed and sent to trainee teachers in the
second year of a post-16 initial teacher training course.
The questionnaire included;
• A survey instrument devised by Schmidt et al (2009) to measure trainees’
perceptions of their technological knowledge and skills
• Questions about the learning technology tools trainee teachers were using in
their practice (Based on the UKISA 2014 National Survey of Technology
Enhanced Learning for Higher Education in the UK.)
• An evaluation of how effective trainee teachers felt the training course was
in supporting them to effectively integrate learning technology into their
practice. These were based on Tondeur et al’s (2001) key themes for
content and delivery methods that prepare trainee teachers to integrate
technology into their future classrooms.
Image credit: Matthew Koehler
Course Restructuring
Tondeur et al’s (2011) seven key themes provided a more
holistic, systematic way of preparing trainee teachers to
integrate technology into their lessons:
• Key theme 1: aligning theory and practice
• Key theme 2: using tutors as role models
• Key theme 3: reflecting on the role of technology
• Key theme 4: learning technology by design
• Key theme 5: collaborating with peers
• Key theme 6: scaffolding authentic technology
• Key theme 7: moving from traditional assessment to
continuous feedback
Built on the notion of a connection between 7 domains of
3 knowledge structures
• Pedagogical Knowledge (PK)
• Content Knowledge (CK)
• Technological Knowledge (TK)
the resulting intersecting of three pairs of knowledge
• Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK)
• Technological Content Knowledge (TCK)
• Technological Pedagogical Knowledge (TPK)
and one triad
• Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK)
Agyei, D. D., & Voogt, J. M. (2011). Exploring the potential of the will, skill, tool model in Ghana:. Computers & Education, 56, 91–100.
Drent, M., & Meelissen, M. (2008). Which factors obstruct or stimulate teacher educators to use ICT innovatively? Computers & Education, 51, 187–199.
Jordan, C. (2011).Beginning teacher knowledge: Results from a self-assessed TPACK survey. Australian Educational Computing 26(1), 16-26
Koehler, M., & Mishra, P. (2009). What is technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK)? Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 9 (1), 60–70.
Shulman, L. (1986). Those who understand: Knowledge growth in teaching. Educational Researcher, 15 (2), 4-14.
Tondeur, J., et al., (2011) Preparing pre-service teachers to integrate technology in education: A synthesis of qualitative evidence, Computers & Education, (2001), 1-11
To Foster Trainees’ Use of Technology, we need to continue to:
˗ embed and demonstrate learning technology applications throughout
the teacher training course,
˗ involve learning technology specialists in showing how technology can
support pedagogical and content delivery,
˗ provide authentic learning technology experiences.
We also need to give students more opportunities to apply their knowledge of
learning technology within their teaching practice.
Trainees’ Technological Knowledge (TK) needs further development.
• Could we require those entering teacher training to have a technology
qualification (e.g. ECDL) in the same way as we expect literacy and numeracy
• Could we provide more basic technology training during the course?
• Should we identify those with weak technology skills early and provide
In relation to TCK and TPCK, we need to improve trainees’ ability to
use technology in relation to their subject area.
• Create an individual, subject specific, Learning Technology Portfolio
(Tondeur et al, 2011) to sit within their Professional Development Plan (or
Excellent Practice Identified
• Providing tutor and peer support to design learning activities
• Creating opportunities to discuss and share technology practices and reflect
on the role of technology in education

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