Saint Louis Ozone Garden Project: the beginnings of a network in

The St. Louis Ozone Garden Project:
The Beginnings of a Network in 2013
Jack Fishman1,2 and Kelley Belina2
1Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences
2Center for Environmental Sciences
Saint Louis University
St. Louis, Missouri
6th Air Quality Applications Science Team Meeting (AQAST-6)
Houston. TX
January 15-17, 2014
What is an Ozone Garden?
-A public education and outreach exhibit with plants that are sensitive to ozone air pollution.
-With ozone (O3) and weather monitoring equipment.
-Panels describe ground-level O3 air pollution and its effects on plants.
-Leaf damage data is collected.
The increasing levels of background O3 air pollution and its effects on the environment are little
know components of global change.
Trend in St. Louis O3 Concentrations 1980-2012:
Dirty Air is Getting Cleaner, Clean Air is Getting Dirtier
Youth Exploring Science (YES) student
collecting O3 injury data on cutleaf coneflower
leaves in the Saint Louis Science Center/Forest
Park garden in summer 2013.
Despite the fact that urban air has gotten
cleaner, average background concentrations of
O3 are now above the threshold where damage
to plants can now be observed
Highlights in 2013
Three Ozone Gardens in St Louis in 2013
-Saint Louis Science Center (SLSC) – 2nd year
-Grant’s Farm – 1st year
-Southwestern Illinois College (SWIC) – 1st Year
St. Louis
Science Center
Grant’s Farm
Highlights in 2013
More Ozone-injury Observed at the SLSC garden in 2013 Despite
Considerably Lower O3 Concentrations
Common Milkweed in 2013:
2012: 40 O3 Days, 170 Exceedances
2013: 7 O3 Days, 15 Exceedances
• Stippling gradually progresses to become prominent dark areas
• Older leaves show more advanced symptoms than younger leaves
• After stippling, leaves can become chlorotic (yellow) and/or necrotic (cell
death) and often drop early from the plant
Common Milkweed in 2012:
Only minimal damage observed in
2012, and none until September
Cutleaf Coneflower
La Chipper Potato:
Both plants exhibited
damage in 2013
Highlights in 2013
Observable and Measurable Differences in Sensitive and
Tolerant Soybean Cultivars Planted in 2013
Average dried pod weight, grams
Dried pod weights (g) from soybeans at
the Grant’s Farm 1n 2013
Ozone tolerant
Ozone sensitive
Sensitive soybean cultivar (A.K. Harrow, front) and tolerant
cultivar (Williams 82,rear) planted at SWIC in 2013
From June 2012 AQAST Meeting
A National Network of Ozone Gardens Using AQAST Members
Status of National Network of Ozone Gardens in 2014
Open in 2013
Planned for 2014
Visualizing the Impact of Global Change on the Environment:
The St. Louis Ozone Garden
Jack Fishman1,2,3 Kelley M. Belina,2,3 and Cindy H. Encarnaciòn4
1Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences
2Center for Environmental Sciences
3Center for Sustainability
Saint Louis University
St. Louis, Missouri 63108
4Saint Louis Science Center
St. Louis, Missouri 63110
Bulletin American Meteorological Society
February, 2013
Revised August, 2013 (response to referees)
2nd Revision October, 2013 (editor requested shift with more education focus)
Forwarded to BAMS Editor-in-Chief
Still Waiting for Formal Acceptance!
From Jeff Rosenfeld (Editor-in-chief):
2 December 2013
Hi Jack,
Peter asked me to take a look at the manuscript and I have done so. I was very close to making some recommendations to you and
then got completely derailed with an unexpected health issue before Thanksgiving.
I'm sure you'll hear from me, or from another editor, soon. The delay will be worth your while, even if it doesn't seem like it at
the moment.
Part II:
Can Information on Crop Spectral
Signatures Be Used by Agribusiness to
Improve USDA Commodity Forecasting?
Potential Future Collaboration with
Wasit (Ghulam) Wulamu (SLU)
Ongoing Research at Saint Louis University
Sustainable Agriculture under Changing Climate: Nutrient Uptake
and Grape Quality Study under Various Soil Moisture Conditions
Drought bed
Irrigated bed
Sensitive soybean cultivar (A.K. Harrow,
front) and tolerant cultivar (Williams 82,rear)
planted at SWIC Ozone Garden in 2013
Potential Tiger-Team Proposals:
Determine Spectral Signatures for
O3-Tolerant and O3-Sensitive
Soybean Cultivars
Grape plants under drought-stressed and irrigated
conditions exhibit different spectral signatures
Hyper-spectral remote sensing has been
used to differentiate cultivars of rice
(Tong et al., 2004)
Rice: 99-15
Rice: 5021
rice: 99-15
Future IPCC Scenarios Suggest Tropospheric O3 will Increase by 25%
no detec ble impact [38-53 ppbv]
(Fishman et al., 2010)
-0.92% ppbv-1 [48-60 ppbv]
(Fishman et al., 2010)
-1.64% ppbv-1 [56-70 ppbv]
(Morgan et al., 2006)
• Decrease in yield because of
increased O3 is an ongoing research
concern of St. Louis-based Monsanto
Future IPCC Scenarios Suggest Tropospheric O3 will Increase by 25%
no detec ble impact [38-53 ppbv]
(Fishman et al., 2010)
-0.92% ppbv-1 [48-60 ppbv]
(Fishman et al., 2010)
-1.64% ppbv-1 [56-70 ppbv]
(Morgan et al., 2006)
Future IPCC Scenario: Trop O3 +25%
Decreased Yield ~10%
• Decrease in yield because of
increased O3 is an ongoing research
concern of St. Louis-based Monsanto
Ongoing Research at SLU Focused on Growing Grapes
in an Urban Environment
(Emphasis on Urban Sustainability)
Spectral Measurements using PSR-3500
Spectral resolution 3.5nm (350-1000nm);
10nm @ 1500nm; & 7nm
@ 2100nm
Leaf Area Index (LAI) from
LAI-2200 Plant Canopy Analyzer
Purpose of SLU Research is to Characterize Differences in Spectral
Signatures for Two Different Grape Varieties under
Drought and Non-Drought Conditions
Ultimate Goal: Transform Vast Tracts of Urban Land (either currently vacant or
where derelict buildings stand) into Functional Vineyards
• But first we need to know which grapes grow best
• Information in the “red edge” portion of the spectrum provides insight into growth of plant
Application of TEMPO Air Quality Satellite Measurements to
Improve USDA Commodity Forecast Models
TEMPO will provide measurements
in the near-red (red edge) portion
of the spectrum that can be used to
measure chlorophyll fluorescence
Ongoing Research Project at Monsanto
Potential SLU-Monsanto Collaboration
• Initial Teleconference, January 2014
- Jack Fishman & Wasit Wulamu from SLU
-Marie Petracek & Mike Woods from Monsanto
• Mutual Interest in Understanding Impact of Ozone on Soybean Crop Yield
• Use of Monsanto Soybean Test Facility near Belleville IL (~40 km East of STL)
• Details for Future Plans to be Discussed
- Use of Test Facility to make ground-based spectral measurements on
multiple cultivars with known sensitivity to O3 (summer 2014)
- Use of Test Facility for future aircraft measurements (2015 and beyond)
2014 “Pre-Tiger Team Activity”
• Hand-held spectroscopic
measurements at 3 Local Ozone Gardens
• Establish first baseline soybean
spectral signature
• Determine spectral signature of O3
foliar damage
• Hand-held spectroscopic
measurements at Monsanto Field Site
2015 Tiger Team Proposal
• SLU aircraft to be available for in situ
and remote sensing over Monsanto Field
• Leverage SLU aircraft capability to
obtain spectral signatures over
Monsanto field site
• Compare airborne measurements with
ground-base spectroscopic signatures
Ozone Garden:
• Three Gardens in St. Louis, Three more started in 2013
• Two (or More) Planned for 2014
• Foliar Damage Clearly Identifiable at SLSC in 2013
- Annuals need one year to establish
- Soybean Species Introduced in 2013
Spectral Measurements (Unplanned Activity for Summer 2014)
• Provide Baseline Spectral Measurements of Ozone Sensitive and Ozone Tolerant
Cultivars at 2014 STL Ozone Gardens to Provide Baseline Spectral Signatures
• Expand Above Measurements to Monsanto Field Site in Illinois (not currently funded)
Use Findings for 2015 Tiger Team Proposal
Back-Up Slides
Production Estimates and Crop Assessment Division (PECAD) Model
Knowledge and Forecasts of Crop Production Important to U.S. Agribusiness
Production Estimates and Crop Assessment Division (PECAD) Model:
Currently: Only LCLU Satellite Data Used as Input
Production Estimates and Crop Assessment Division (PECAD) Model
Can Inclusion of
TEMPO Data Improve
Crop Forecasts?
Vitis riparia is also know as River Bank Grape. It produces dark fruit that are appealing to both
birds and people, and has been used extensively in commercial viticulture as grafted rootstock and
in hybrid grape breeding programs.
Vitis rupestris is a species of grape native to the Southern and Western United States that is known by
common names Sand Grape. It is used for breeding several French-American hybrids as well as many
root stocks. It has been listed as threatened or endangered by Indiana, Kentucky, Pennsylvania, and
Tennessee because Heavy use of grazing and herbicides have killed out much of the population.
The red edge of vegetation is an area usually centered around 720nm and represented by the typical sharp
rise in reflectance in the 680-760nm range of classic vegetation spectral signature.
When plants are healthy and are producing more chlorophyll, the red edge tends to shift toward the right
to longer wavelength. This is also accompanied by an increase in the absorption trough at 680nm as the
plant absorbs more energy in the photosynthetic process. When plant is stressed, such as in the case of
excessive heavy metals in the soil, temperature, or lack of water, the spectra tends to shift toward the left
and shorter wavelengths. Stress also tends to produce an increase in reflectance at 630nm absorption
trough because less slight is being utilized for photosynthesis and chlorophyll.
In our case, the red edge reflectance of river bank grape is always centered at the longer wavelength than
sand grape. Furthermore, the 680nm chlorophyll absorption trough is always lower than its counterparts.
So, it seems the river grape is healthier than sand grape in both condition throughout the growing season.
This is also visibly distinguishable in the field. I am not pretty sure which species is drought resistant
,but I assume sand grape is more resistant than the river bank grape based on its name and places it found
in nature. If this is the case, supposedly, the sand grape should grow healthier than the another due to its
genetic traits may be. However, due to wet weather or irrigation scheme plants might not get enough
stress that makes drought-resistant species survive, non-resistant suffer.
Reduction of Soybean Crop Production by Ozone (a Few Percent)
Costs Several Billions of Dollars to the American Farmer
Value of U.S. Soybean Crop
Crop Value
billion $$
Wild Plant Conservation
Milkweed is the monarch caterpillar’s
primary food source
Decreasing the amount of healthy
milkweed effects monarch butterfly
Common milkweed in the SLSC Ozone Garden in 2013
Monarch caterpillar on common
milkweed in the SLSC Ozone Garden
in 2012
Monarch butterfly
Milkweed flowers
National Crop Loss Assessment Network (NCLAN) Conducted
Studies in the 1980s to Assess Impact of Ozone on Crops
Many crops show decreased yield ~40 ppb
Analyses Conducted in 1980s and 1990s Confirm Hypothesis
that Tropospheric Ozone Has Increased during 20th Century
(from Marenco et al., J. Geophys. Res., 99. 1994)
Analyses Conducted in 1980s and 1990s Confirm Hypothesis
that Tropospheric Ozone Has Increased during 20th Century
Observations from
Measurement ~1900
Observations from
From Staehelin, et al., Atmos. Environ., 28, 75-87, 1994
Background Ozone Concentrations Still Increasing into
Beginning of 21st Century
Mace Head (Ireland)
Pacific Coast (US)
(From Cooper et al., Nature, 463, 2010)
Selection of water sensitive bands
Canopy reflectance:
Leaf Optics
Soil reflectance
Canopy structure
canopy ( ) 
image ( ) 
 ( )
1   2 ( )
canopy ( ) f ( )d 
f ( ) d 
 ( )
 ( )

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