Paris Peace Settlements

Report
Paris Peace Settlements
Sean Corcoran and Christine Shin
Versailles
• Creation of the League of
Nations
• Germany must concede
Eupen-Malmédy to
Belgium, the Hultschin
district to Czechoslovakia,
and Poznan, West Prussia
and Upper Silesia to
Poland.
• Saar, Danzig and Memel
were given self
determination by the
League of Nations
Treaty of Versailles (cont)
• Germany must return
Alsace-Lorraine to France
• Germany must give up all
lands acquired in the Treaty
of Brest-Litovsk (created
the states of Estonia,
Lithuania, and Latvia)
• 15 year occupation of the
Rhineland by the allies
• All Germany overseas
colonies became League of
Nations Mandates
• Danzig becomes a free city
Versailles (cont.)
• Article 231 – War Guilt
Clause
– Germany accepts complete
responsibility for initiating
WWI
– Germany is liable for all
damages and must pay
reparations (£6,600 million)
• Germany’s army limited to
100,000 men
– (no conscription)
• Germany’s navy limited to
vessels under 100,000 tons
– No submarine fleet
Versailles (cont)
• Germany was forbidden
to maintain an air force
• Ban on the union of
Germany and Austria
• Required trials against
the Kaiser and other
officials for war crimes
– Most of them were
acquitted
– Called the Liepzig trials,
seen as a sham
Versailles (cont.)
• German government
and people referred to
the treaty as Diktat, or
dictated peace
• The treaty didn’t cause
the problems from
pre-WWI
• Treaty harmed the
ability of European
countries to work
together
Versailles (cont)
• Losing powers made
it a part of their
foreign policy to NOT
follow the treaty
• Created the Weimar
government in
Germany and got rid
of the Kaiser
Treaty of St. Germain-en-Laye
• September 1919
• Treaty between the
allies and Austria
• Formally dissolved the
Austro-Hungarian
empire
• Recognized the
independence of
Yugoslavia, Poland,
Czechoslovakia, and
Hungary
Treaty of St. Germain (cont)
• Galicia was given to
Poland
• Bukovina was given to
Romania
• Bohemia and Moravia
were given to
Czechoslovakia
• South Tyrol, Trieste,
Trentino, Istria, and some
of the Dalmatian Islands
were given to Italy
Treaty of St. Germain (cont)
• Austria could not unite
politically or
economically with
Germany
• Austria was forbidden
to go by the name
“German Austria”
• Austrian army was
limited to 30,000 men
Treaty of St. Germain (cont)
• Austria must pay
reparations
– Starting in May 1921,
must pay for 30 years
– Austria never actually
paid reparations except
in farm animals (cows
and bulls to Italy,
Romania, and Yugoslavia)
• Treaty left Austria land
locked and with just 1/5
of its previous population
and ¼ of its land area
Treaty of Trianon
• June 1920
• Treaty between the
allies and Hungary
• Acknkowledged the
dissolving of the
Austro-Hungarian
Empire
• 75% of Hungary’s land
was lost and it became
a landlocked nation
Treaty of Trianon (cont)
• It was not given self
determination and many
Hungarians were put into
other countries
• Lost most of her
resources such as iron
ores
• Vienna, where all of
Hungarian banking took
place, was now outside
of its borders
Treaty of Trianon (cont)
• Slovakia and Ruthenia
were given to
Czechoslovakia
• Transylvania was given
to Romania
• Burgenland was given
to Austria
• Slovenia and Croatia
were given to
Yugoslavia
Treaty of Trianon (cont)
• Hungarian army is
reduced to 35,000 men
with no conscription
• Hungary could not have a
navy or an air force
• Hungary was against the
treaty and flew their flags
at half mast until 1938 on
government buildings
because of it
Treaty of Neuilly
• November 1919
• Treaty between the
allies and Bulgaria
• Western Thrace was
given to Greece
• Dobrudja was given
to Romania
Treaty of Neuilly (cont)
• Northern Macedonia
was given to
Yugoslavia
• Reparations were
required (£100 million)
• Bulgaria legally
recognizes Yugoslavia
(former Serbia)
• Bulgarian army limited
to 20,000 men
Treaty of Sevres
• August 1920
• Treaty between the
allies and Turkey
• The Straits of
Dardanelles would be
controlled by the
allies
• The British took over
Iraq
Treaty of Serves (cont)
• Saudi Arabia gained
independence
• Turkey lost rights to
Sudan and Libya
• Eastern Thrace and some
of the Aegean islands
were given to Greece
• Mesopotamia, Palestine,
and Syria became League
of Nations mandates
Treaty of Sevres (cont)
• Kingdom of Hejaz given
autonomy
– Contained Mecca and
Medina
• Armenia given autonomy
• Dodecanese islands were
given to Italy
• Failed to create Kurdistan
• Ottoman army limited to
50,000 men
Treaty of Sevres (cont)
• Air force was forbidden,
Navy limited to 13 boats
• Allies could supervise the
Ottoman military
• Control of finances and the
Ottoman economy were
handed over to the allies
• Ottoman Empire is
forbidden to have
economic collaboration
with any of the members of
the triple alliance
• Turkey rejected the treaty
Treaty of Lausanne
• 1923
• Amended the treaty of
Sevres
• Expelled the Greeks
• Turkey recovered Eastern
Thrace, the Aegean Islands,
Smyrna, and a strip of land
along the Syrian border
• No reparations
• No limitation on Turkish
military establishments
outside the Zone of the
Straits
Works Cited
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"IB History Notes - Terms Of The Paris Peace Treaties 1919-20: Versailles, St
Germain, Trianon, Neuilly, Sevre." IB Guides - Free International Baccalaureate
Study Guides, Notes, Videos and Powerpoints. Web. 05 Oct. 2011.
<http://www.ibguides.com/history/notes/terms-of-the-paris-peace-treaties-191920-versailles-st-germain-trianon-neuilly-sevres-lausanne-1923>.
"The Treaty of Neuilly." History Learning Site. Web. 05 Oct. 2011.
<http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/treaty_of_neuilly.htm>.
"The Treaty of Sevres." History Learning Site. Web. 05 Oct. 2011.
<http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/treaty_of_sevres.htm>.
"The Treaty Of St. Germain." History Learning Site. Web. 05 Oct. 2011.
<http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/treaty-st-germain.htm>.
"The Treaty of Trianon." History Learning Site. Web. 05 Oct. 2011.
<http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/treaty_of_trianon.htm>.
"Treaty of Versailles, 1919." United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Web. 05
Oct. 2011. <http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10005425>.
"The Treaty of Versailles." History Learning Site. Web. 05 Oct. 2011.
<http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/treaty_of_versailles.htm>.

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