Paris Peace Settlements Sean Corcoran and Christine Shin Versailles • Creation of the League of Nations • Germany must concede Eupen-Malmédy to Belgium, the Hultschin district to Czechoslovakia, and Poznan, West Prussia and Upper Silesia to Poland. • Saar, Danzig and Memel were given self determination by the League of Nations Treaty of Versailles (cont) • Germany must return Alsace-Lorraine to France • Germany must give up all lands acquired in the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (created the states of Estonia, Lithuania, and Latvia) • 15 year occupation of the Rhineland by the allies • All Germany overseas colonies became League of Nations Mandates • Danzig becomes a free city Versailles (cont.) • Article 231 – War Guilt Clause – Germany accepts complete responsibility for initiating WWI – Germany is liable for all damages and must pay reparations (£6,600 million) • Germany’s army limited to 100,000 men – (no conscription) • Germany’s navy limited to vessels under 100,000 tons – No submarine fleet Versailles (cont) • Germany was forbidden to maintain an air force • Ban on the union of Germany and Austria • Required trials against the Kaiser and other officials for war crimes – Most of them were acquitted – Called the Liepzig trials, seen as a sham Versailles (cont.) • German government and people referred to the treaty as Diktat, or dictated peace • The treaty didn’t cause the problems from pre-WWI • Treaty harmed the ability of European countries to work together Versailles (cont) • Losing powers made it a part of their foreign policy to NOT follow the treaty • Created the Weimar government in Germany and got rid of the Kaiser Treaty of St. Germain-en-Laye • September 1919 • Treaty between the allies and Austria • Formally dissolved the Austro-Hungarian empire • Recognized the independence of Yugoslavia, Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Hungary Treaty of St. Germain (cont) • Galicia was given to Poland • Bukovina was given to Romania • Bohemia and Moravia were given to Czechoslovakia • South Tyrol, Trieste, Trentino, Istria, and some of the Dalmatian Islands were given to Italy Treaty of St. Germain (cont) • Austria could not unite politically or economically with Germany • Austria was forbidden to go by the name “German Austria” • Austrian army was limited to 30,000 men Treaty of St. Germain (cont) • Austria must pay reparations – Starting in May 1921, must pay for 30 years – Austria never actually paid reparations except in farm animals (cows and bulls to Italy, Romania, and Yugoslavia) • Treaty left Austria land locked and with just 1/5 of its previous population and ¼ of its land area Treaty of Trianon • June 1920 • Treaty between the allies and Hungary • Acknkowledged the dissolving of the Austro-Hungarian Empire • 75% of Hungary’s land was lost and it became a landlocked nation Treaty of Trianon (cont) • It was not given self determination and many Hungarians were put into other countries • Lost most of her resources such as iron ores • Vienna, where all of Hungarian banking took place, was now outside of its borders Treaty of Trianon (cont) • Slovakia and Ruthenia were given to Czechoslovakia • Transylvania was given to Romania • Burgenland was given to Austria • Slovenia and Croatia were given to Yugoslavia Treaty of Trianon (cont) • Hungarian army is reduced to 35,000 men with no conscription • Hungary could not have a navy or an air force • Hungary was against the treaty and flew their flags at half mast until 1938 on government buildings because of it Treaty of Neuilly • November 1919 • Treaty between the allies and Bulgaria • Western Thrace was given to Greece • Dobrudja was given to Romania Treaty of Neuilly (cont) • Northern Macedonia was given to Yugoslavia • Reparations were required (£100 million) • Bulgaria legally recognizes Yugoslavia (former Serbia) • Bulgarian army limited to 20,000 men Treaty of Sevres • August 1920 • Treaty between the allies and Turkey • The Straits of Dardanelles would be controlled by the allies • The British took over Iraq Treaty of Serves (cont) • Saudi Arabia gained independence • Turkey lost rights to Sudan and Libya • Eastern Thrace and some of the Aegean islands were given to Greece • Mesopotamia, Palestine, and Syria became League of Nations mandates Treaty of Sevres (cont) • Kingdom of Hejaz given autonomy – Contained Mecca and Medina • Armenia given autonomy • Dodecanese islands were given to Italy • Failed to create Kurdistan • Ottoman army limited to 50,000 men Treaty of Sevres (cont) • Air force was forbidden, Navy limited to 13 boats • Allies could supervise the Ottoman military • Control of finances and the Ottoman economy were handed over to the allies • Ottoman Empire is forbidden to have economic collaboration with any of the members of the triple alliance • Turkey rejected the treaty Treaty of Lausanne • 1923 • Amended the treaty of Sevres • Expelled the Greeks • Turkey recovered Eastern Thrace, the Aegean Islands, Smyrna, and a strip of land along the Syrian border • No reparations • No limitation on Turkish military establishments outside the Zone of the Straits Works Cited • • • • • • • "IB History Notes - Terms Of The Paris Peace Treaties 1919-20: Versailles, St Germain, Trianon, Neuilly, Sevre." IB Guides - Free International Baccalaureate Study Guides, Notes, Videos and Powerpoints. Web. 05 Oct. 2011. <http://www.ibguides.com/history/notes/terms-of-the-paris-peace-treaties-191920-versailles-st-germain-trianon-neuilly-sevres-lausanne-1923>. "The Treaty of Neuilly." History Learning Site. Web. 05 Oct. 2011. <http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/treaty_of_neuilly.htm>. "The Treaty of Sevres." History Learning Site. Web. 05 Oct. 2011. <http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/treaty_of_sevres.htm>. "The Treaty Of St. Germain." History Learning Site. Web. 05 Oct. 2011. <http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/treaty-st-germain.htm>. "The Treaty of Trianon." History Learning Site. Web. 05 Oct. 2011. <http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/treaty_of_trianon.htm>. "Treaty of Versailles, 1919." United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Web. 05 Oct. 2011. <http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10005425>. "The Treaty of Versailles." History Learning Site. Web. 05 Oct. 2011. <http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/treaty_of_versailles.htm>.