Chapter 2: Managing Personal Stress

Report
Chapter 2: Managing
Personal Stress
How can you control your own stress,
and the stress of your employees?
Managing Stress:
Objectives
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Eliminate stressors
 Develop resiliency
 Cope temporarily with stress
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Stress
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Reduces national economy by $500
billion
 Leaves almost half of all adults with
health problems
 Causes between 60 and 80 percent of
industrial accidents
 In workplace, is primarily caused by
incompetent management
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Managers Who Experience
Stress...
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selectively perceive information
fixate on a single approach to a problem
overestimate how fast time passes
adopt a crisis mentality
consult and listen to others less
rely on old habits
are less able to generate creative
thoughts
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Stress as a Force Field
Current Level
of Functioning
Driving Force A
Restraining Force A
Driving Force B
Restraining Force B
Driving Force C
Restraining Force C
Driving Force D
Restraining Force D
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Reactions to Stress
Alarm – increase in anxiety, fear, sorrow
or loss
 Resistance – attempt to control stress
using defense mechanisms
 Exhaustion – stop trying to defend
against stress. Stress related pathology
occurs in this stage
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Stress Defense Mechanisms
Aggression – attack stressor directly
 Regression – use behavior that was
successful at an earlier time
 Repression – deny that stress exists
 Withdrawal – leave stressful situation
 Fixation – persist in response regardless
of effectiveness
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Experiencing Stress
STRESSORS
•Anticipatory
•Encounter
•Time
•Situational
REACTIONS
•Physiological
•Psychological
RESILIENCY
•Physical
•Psychological
•Social
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Types of Stressors
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Time Stressors
 Work overload
 Lack of control
Encounter Stressors
 Role conflicts
 Issue conflicts
 Action conflicts
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Types of Stressors
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Situational Stressors
 Unfavorable working
conditions
 Rapid change
Anticipatory Stressors
 Unpleasant
expectations
 Fear
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Consequences of Stress
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Physiological
 Immune response
 Coronary disease
 Viral infection
Psychological
 Burnout
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Stress as a Person/
Situation Interaction
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Assumption: Events trigger stress, but
people respond to stress differently
Resiliency factors moderate stress
Without
Resiliency
Reaction
Stressors
With
Resiliency
No Reaction
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Resiliency Factors

Physical: cardiovascular health, dietary
control, rest
 Psychological: emotionality, self-esteem,
hardiness
 Social: close emotional ties, common
experiences, supportive interactions,
mentors, teams
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Managing Stress
Enactive
Strategies
Eliminate
stressors
Proactive
Strategies
Develop
resiliency
Reactive
Strategies
Temporary
coping
Effects
Permanent
Long term
Short term
Approach
Enactive
Proactive
Reactive
Time
Required
Long
Moderate
Immediate
Purpose
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Eliminating Stressors
Type of Stressor
Time
Encounter
Situational
Anticipatory
Elimination Strategy
Effective time management.
Efficient time management.
Delegating
Collaboration and team building
Emotional intelligence
Work redesign
Goal setting
Small wins
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Managing Time Effectively

Spend time on important, not urgent,
matters
 Identify what you feel is important vs.
what you feel is urgent
 Focus on results, not methods
 Don’t feel guilty for saying “no”
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Types of Activities That
Determine Time Use
URGENCY
HIGH
HIGH
IMPORTANCE
LOW
1
Crises
Customer
Complaints
2
Mail
Ringing Telephone
Unscheduled
Interruptions
LOW
3
Developmental
Opportunities
Innovating
Planning
4
Escapes
Routines
Arguments
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Personal Principles
for Time Use

Ask yourself:
 What do I stand for?
 What do I care passionately about?
 What do I want to be remembered for?
 What do I want to have accomplished 20
years from now?
 What principles do I want everyone in the
world to follow?
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Managing Time Efficiently –
20 Rules for Everyone
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Read selectively
Make a list of things to
accomplish
Have a place for everything
Prioritize your tasks
Do several trivial things
simultaneously
List five 10-minute tasks
Divide up large projects
Determine critical 20
percent of tasks
Save best time for
important matters
Limit others’ access to you
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Don’t procrastinate
Keep track of time
Set deadlines
Do something productive
while waiting
Do busy work at one set time
Reach closure on one thing
per day
Schedule some personal time
Don’t worry on continuing
basis
Write down long-term goals
Be alert for ways to improve
your time management
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Managing Time Efficiently –
20 Rules for Managers
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Hold routine meetings at
end of day
Hold short meetings
standing up
Set a time limit
Cancel meetings sometimes
Have agendas, stick to
them, and keep track of time
Start meetings on time
Prepare meeting minutes
and follow up
Insist that subordinates
suggest solutions to
problems
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Meet visitors in doorway
Go to subordinates’ offices
Don’t overschedule your day
Have someone else answer
phone and e-mail
Have a place to work
uninterrupted
Do something with each
piece of paper
Keep workplace clean
Delegate work, identify
amount of initiative granted,
and give others credit for their
success
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Collaboration

Maintain an “emotional bank account”
 Make deposits by treating people with
kindness, courtesy, honesty and
consistency
 Minimize withdrawals made by not
keeping promises, not listening, not
clarifying expectations, or not allowing
choice
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Work Redesign
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Lack of freedom is most important
contributor to stress
Use job redesign model to reduce stress
 combine tasks
 form identifiable work units
 establish customer relationships
 increase decision-making authority
 open feedback channels
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Eliminating Anticipatory
Stressors through Goal Setting
1. Establish a Goal
2. Specify Actions
and Behavioral
Requirements
4. Identify Criteria
of Success and a
Reward
3. Generate
Accountability and
Reporting
Mechanisms
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Small Wins Strategy
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Identify something under your control
 Change it in a way that leads toward
desired goal
 Find another small thing to change and
change it
 Keep track of changes made
 Maintain the small gains made through
change
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Developing Resiliency
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Some stressors will not go away
Resiliency increases capacity to
withstand negative effects of stress
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Balance Life Activities
Cultural
Activities
Work
Activities
Intellectual
Activities
Physical
Activities
Spiritual
Activities
Family
Activities
Social
Activities
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Increase Cardiovascular
Conditioning
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MOVE! Exercise:
 Lowers blood pressure
 Increases heart efficiency
 Lowers triglyceride levels
 Lowers cholesterol
 Increases energy
 Reduces anxiety and depression
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Take Control of Your Diet
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Eat a variety of foods
 Maintain optimal weight
 Reduce fat intake
 Eat more whole foods
 Reduce sugar intake
 Reduce sodium intake
 Avoid alcohol and caffeine
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Improve Hardiness
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Take control of your life
Do something that you can be
committed to and involved in
Feel challenged by change, not
paralyzed
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Moderate Type A
Personality Syndrome
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Type A people:
 have a chronic, combative struggle
with the social and physical
environment
 are aggressive, hostile, impatient
 are subject to time demands, selfimposed pressure
 eat fast, walk fast, talk fast!
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To Moderate Type A
Behavior
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Focus on small wins
Use deep-relaxation strategies
 meditation
 yoga
 self-hypnosis
 biofeedback
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Increase Social Resiliency
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Maintain friendships and family relations
Find and use a mentor
 must be two-way relationship
Work in teams
 involve others in defining challenges
 encourage participation
 share resources broadly
 focus on team, rather than individual,
rewards
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Temporary Stress Reduction
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Muscle relaxation
 Deep breathing
 Visualization - Imagery and fantasy
 Rehearsal
 Reframing
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Managing Your Own Stress

Enactive, proactive and reactive
strategies
 Recognize and observe your own stress
reactions (e.g., irritability, muscle
tightness, fatigue, sleep disorder,
distractibility, confusion, etc.
 Learn to surf...reframe perceptions
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Managing Your Own Stress
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Build time management skills
Regularly revisit goals and priorities,
beware of reactivity
Learn to delegate. Trust and share your
work with others
Communicate and participate with
colleagues and employees
Find reason and time to laugh
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Managing Others’ Stress...
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attend to your own stress
 mentor and monitor time management:
set goals with time lines, check in
regularly
 redesign work: task demand, control,
intellectual challenge, clarified
responsibilities
 set boundaries and expectations: create
a healthy organizational culture
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Managing Others’ Stress...
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make time to play, celebrate small and
big wins, develop relationships, and
relax
don’t sweat the small stuff
communicate and participate
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