January 21, 2015 - Power Point Presentation

“See then that you walk circumspectly, not as
fools but as wise, redeeming the time,
because the days are evil.” (Eph 5:15-16)
The Church attempts to give purpose or
meaning to every aspect of human existence
Chronos vs Kairos
What I Intend to Cover Tonight (both the what
and the why):
◦ Basic structure of the daily cycle
◦ Details of each service within the daily cycle
 Vespers, Compline, Midnight Office, Matins, 1st, 3rd,
and 6th Hours, Liturgy, 9th Hour
“Then God said, ‘Let there be light’; and there
was light. And God saw the light, that it was
good; and God divided the light from the
darkness. God called the light Day, and the
darkness He called Night. So the evening and
the morning were the first day.” (Gen 1:3-5)
◦ God defines “a day”
◦ Evening begins the day, followed by morning
◦ Jews followed this custom (e.g., Sabbath begins at
sunset Friday evening)
◦ Christians note significance in light ending the day
 “The people who walked in darkness have seen a great
light; those who dwelt in the land of the shadow of
death, upon them a light has shined.” (Is 9:2; Mt 4:16)
Liturgical cycle of the church begins in the
At Vespers we begin the hymns for what, in
modern times, is the next calendar day
◦ e.g., Saturday evening hymns for the Resurrection
The daily cycle and commemorations
continue through all the services, including
the 9th Hour, and then “reset” again at
hespera (Greek) or vesper (Latin) simply
means “evening”
Service offered at the setting of the sun
◦ Note: in ancient monastic tradition the time of the
service is movable based upon the setting of the
sun (i.e. seasonal changes)
Inaugurates the beginning of a new day
◦ Saint celebrated at Vespers would be on the next
calendar day of our civil calendar
Historical connection to the ceremonial
lighting of the seven lamps in the Old
◦ Hence the seven prayers of the priest during Ps 103
May serve Great Vespers or Daily Vespers
Structure of the service follows the biblical
narrative (creation - fall - redemption)
◦ Psalm 104 (“creation Psalm”/3rd account of creation)
◦ Psalm 141 (fallen humanity crying to the Lord),
followed by Pss 142, 130, and 117
◦ Hymns of the Resurrection on Saturday evening
 Hymns of saints combined with them on Saturday
 Hymns of daily commemoration/saints on other days
“O Gladsome Light”
◦ St Basil the Great (d. 379) called this “an ancient
hymn of the Church”
Old Testament Readings
◦ Used to be at the Divine Liturgy, but moved here
Prayer at the Bowing of Heads
◦ Protection for the approaching night/from evil
◦ “…the fearful Judge, who yet loves mankind…”
St Simeon’s Prayer
◦ Luke 2:29-32
Tonsuring of Readers or Taper-Bearers
Dismissal Hymn(s)
◦ Primary hymn(s) of the day
apodipnon (Greek: “after dinner”) or
completorium (Latin: prayers at completion of
the day)
Word first used (to our knowledge) in St
Benedict’s Rule
May be served as Great or Little Compline
◦ Services are quite different, but each focus on
asking forgiveness for sins committed during the
day, for peaceful/undisturbed sleep, and spiritual
Little Compline structure
Most days of the year Little Compline is served
Psalms 51, 70, 143
The Little Doxology (“Glory to God in the highest”)
The Nicene Creed
Troparia (varies by tradition)
Prayer of the Hours (“O Thou Who at all times…”)
Prayers to the Mother of God and Christ for rest and
◦ Prayer to Guardian Angel (in some traditions)
◦ If served with a priest, a litany of intercessory
Great Compline structure
◦ Primarily served during Great Lent
 In parish tradition, primarily on Mondays
 May be served during other fasting seasons
Psalms 4, 6, 13, 25, 31, 91 (the funeral Psalm)
“God is with us” (selections from Isaiah) by choir
Antiphonal intercessory prayers by choir
Various troparia
Prayer of St Basil before bed
Psalms 51 and 102
Prayer of Manasseh, King of Judah
Psalms 70 and 143
Little Doxology
Great Compline structure
◦ “O Lord of hosts” (w/selections from Psalms) by
◦ Essentially conclude with the ending of Little
 Prayers to the Mother of God and Christ for rest and
Essentially part of the Hours services
◦ Inspired by Ps 119:62: “At midnight I will rise to
give thanks to You…”
◦ Also inspired by Mt 25’s parable of the wise and
foolish virgins
Sometimes prayed as a separate, midnight
service, but more often combined with Matins
in modern-day monastic practice
Four different structures to the service; one
each for weekdays, Saturday, Sunday, and
Great and Holy Saturday
◦ Reading of Psalm 119, the longest in the Bible
◦ Hymn: “Behold, the Bridegroom cometh at
midnight…” (used at Bridegroom Matins during
Holy Week as well)
◦ Psalms 65-70 replace Psalm 119, which is read at
Matins instead
◦ Pslam 119 is replaced by a Canon to the Trinity
◦ Service is shortened (or even omitted in Russian
Great and Holy Saturday
◦ Usually the only time parishes serve Midnight Office
◦ Last service of the Lenten Triodion (service book for
Great Lent and Holy Week)
◦ After Ps 51, chanting of the Canon of Great and
Holy Saturday (“the harrowing of Hades”)
◦ After the dismissal, all lights in the church are
extinguished until the Paschal candle is brought out
orthros (Greek: “early dawn/daybreak”) or
matutinum (Latin: “of the morning”)
Service offered at the rising of the sun
◦ Note: in ancient monastic tradition the time of the
service is movable based upon the rising of the sun
(i.e. seasonal changes)
◦ Sunrise coincides with the Doxology: “Glory to Thee
who has shone us the light…”
May serve Daily or Festal Matins
In Russian tradition, Festal Matins is served as
part of the Vigil service on Saturday evening
instead of being served on Sunday morning
We will look closely at the structure of
Festal/Sunday Matins
Psalms 19 & 20 (the “Royal Psalms”)
◦ Usually omitted, with only the “Royal Troparia”
◦ Apolytikion, Kontakion, & Theotokion of the Cross
“Glory to the Holy, Consubstantial…”
Six Psalms (Pss. 3, 38, 63, 88, 103, 143)
◦ These recall the Final Judgment
◦ During the Psalms the priest reads 12 prayers
“God is the Lord…” and daily troparia
◦ Portions of Ps 118
Kathisma (readings from the Psalter)
◦ In Greek, literally means “seat”; so named because
sitting allowed during these readings
On Sundays: Evlogetaria
Hypakoe, Anavathmoi, Prokeimenon
◦ “Blessed art Thou, O Lord, teach me Thy statutes…”
◦ Selections from Ps 119
◦ Preparation for the Gospel
◦ “Hearken,” “Hymns of Ascent,” “that which
Matins Gospel
◦ Sundays: Eothinon (pertaining to the dawn; 11
resurrection stories)
◦ Feasts: the reading pertains to the feast itself
Psalm 51 (preceded by “In that we have
beheld the Resurrection…” on Sundays)
Great Intercessory Prayer (“O God save Thy
people and bless Thine inheritance…”)
The seasonal Canon
The Magnificat of Luke 1:46-55 (or seasonal
The exapostilaria (“being sent out”) of the
Gospel or feast
The Praises (Pss. 148-150) w/hymns &
doxastikon (“Glory hymn”)
The Great or Small Doxology
Special Forms of Matins
◦ Lenten: penitential hymns; Alleluia replaces “God is
the Lord”; biblical canon/odes; prayer of St Ephraim
◦ Great and Holy Friday: Twelve Passion Gospels
◦ Great and Holy Saturday: Lamentations
◦ Paschal: unique to Pascha and Bright Week; all
penitential aspects replaced with hymns of the
Correspond to the Jewish hours of prayer
◦ Acts 3:1: “Now Peter and John went up together to
the temple at the hour of prayer, the ninth hour.”
◦ Acts 10:9: “Peter went up on the housetop to pray,
about the sixth hour.”
Basically the same structure at each service
◦ Three Psalms open the service (5, 90, 101; 17, 25,
51; 54, 55, 91; 84, 85, 86)
◦ Troparia/Theotokia/Kontakia of the day
◦ The “Prayer of the Hours”: “O Thou who at all times”
◦ Final prayer of the Hour
 1st: Christ as the “True Light”; 3rd: Christ as Teacher
 6th: Suffering of Christ; 9th: Christ Hanging on the Tree
Four primary liturgies in use today
St John Chrysostom: most Sundays/feasts/weekday
St Basil the Great: Sundays of Lent/some feasts
St Gregory the Great/Pre-Sanctified
St James the Brother of God: October 23 in some
Opening Blessing
Dialogue between clergy/people addressed to
◦ Great Litany
◦ Many of the deacons’ parts are calls to worship to
which the people respond
So named because of antiphonal singing
Addition to the ancient liturgy proper
Russian tradition: taken from Typika
Greek tradition: taken from other services
Both have 2nd conclude with hymn from the 6th
century ascribed to Emperor Justinian
Little Entrance
◦ Origination
◦ Significance today
◦ “O come let us worship…”
◦ “Holy God, Holy Mighty, Holy Immortal”
◦ “As many as have been baptized…” (Gal 3:27)
◦ “Before Thy Cross we bow down in worship…”
Scripture Readings
◦ Epistle
◦ Gospel
◦ Sermon
Cherubic Hymn
◦ “We who mystically represent the cherubim…”
◦ Holy Saturday: “Let all mortal flesh keep silence…”
Great Entrance
◦ Origination
◦ Significance today
Nicene Creed
◦ See presentation from 1/7/2015
Lord’s Prayer & Bowing of Heads
“Holy Things are for the Holy”
◦ Important response
Communion Hymns/Prayers/Reception
Thanksgiving & Dismissal
The services are literally filled with Scripture
◦ Many Psalms
◦ Several extended passages from both OT and NT
◦ Specific, designated readings for day/season
With all of these services, Orthodoxy
attempts to penetrate every aspect of our
◦ Every time/season/hour is given a spiritual
◦ We hope to add meaning and significance to our

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