Science & Technology in Brunei Darussalam Hazri Kifle, Yeoul

Report
Science, Technology & Innovation
Indicators
Brunei Darussalam
Dr Hazri Kifle, Prof. Yeoul Hwangbo & Dr Abby Tan
Faculty of Business, Economics and Policy Studies
Universiti Brunei Darussalam
South East Asian Regional Workshop on Science, Technology and Innovation Indicators
5-8 December 2011
1
Content
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
General Information of Brunei Darussalam
National Economic Development Plan: Vision 2035
Science, Technology & Innovation Key Indicators
STI Research
Conclusion
2
Brunei Darussalam
• Population about 401,890
(July 2011 est.)
• Heavy reliance on the oil
and gas sector - accounts
for more than 70 % of GDP
• Per capita – US$48,714 in
2010
• Brunei Vision 2035 –
dynamic and sustainable
economy
3
Economic Activities
Gross domestic product (GDP)
BND 20,397.9 million
GDP per capita
BND 51,251.0
Oil and gas sector
BND 14,300.0 million
Non-oil and gas sector
BND 6,097.9 million
<Source> International Monetary Fund, IMF Country Report No.10/134, May 2010
The economy was still very much dependent on the oil and gas sector, of which
contribution to GDP was 70.1 %.
4
Brunei Vision 2035
Aims to make Brunei Darussalam, by 2035, as a nation
which will be widely recognised for the accomplishment of:
• its educated and highly skilled people as measured by the
highest international standards
• quality of life that is among the top 10 nations
• a dynamic and sustainable economy with income per capita
within the top 10 countries in the world
5
Current Scenario
[Source: Brunei Long Term Development Plan, 2007]
 Economic growth has not kept pace with population growth
 The public sector can no longer absorb the growing numbers
of young people wishing to enter the work force each year
 There is a widening gap between the expectations and
capabilities of the nation’s youth and the employment
opportunities currently being created
 The oil and gas sector employs < 3% of the work force
 The local business community continues to be weak and is
unable to create the employment opportunities required
6
Roles and Responsibilities
• National Science and Technology Committee (NSTC) established in 1994 under the Ministry of Development
• Brunei Research Council (BRC) – reformed in 2011
• Provide funding for all research done by Government agencies
7
STI Survey
• A preliminary survey was done in 2005/2006
8
STI Survey
Brunei R & D Indicators
1995
1996
2000
2001
2002
2003
20041
Gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD):
Gross domestic expenditure on R&D -- GERD (million current
1.0 PPP $)
1.1906 1.5016 4.7999
1.a GERD (Million B$)
1.666
2.0 GERD as a percentage of GDP
0.022 0.0255 0.053
3.0 GERD -- (million 1995 dollars -- constant prices and PPP)
1.2921 1.5623 4.5404
3.a GERD -- Compound annual growth rate (constant prices)
4.0 GERD per capita population (current PPP $)
5.0 Estimated Civil GERD as a percentage of GDP
6.0 Basic research expenditure as percentage of GDP
2.104 4.9247
NA
20.9
190.6
3.49
4.30
13.34
0.0218 0.0255 0.0531
0.00
0.00
0.0055
99.00
98.00
50.8
NA
-1.0
-48.2
8.0 Total researchers per thousand total employment
0.66
0.65
0.32
8.a Total researchers per thousand labour force
0.63
0.62
0.31
R&D Personnel (FTE):
7.0 Total researchers (FTE)
7.a Total researchers -- Compound annual growth rate
9.0 Total R&D personnel (FTE)
9.a Total R&D personnel -- Compound annual growth rate
140.00 140.00 101.9
NA
0.0
-27.2
10.0 Total R&D personnel per thousand total employment
0.93
0.92
0.64
10.a Total R&D personnel per thousand labour force
0.89
0.88
0.62
GERD by source of funds:
11.0 Industry-financed GERD as a percentage of GDP
0.0019 0.0034
12.0 Government-financed GERD as a percentage of GDP
0.0198 0.0222 0.0489
13.0 Percentage of GERD financed by industry
8.840
6.664
0
1.58
9
Key Indicators for R&D Activities 2002-2004
(Source: Brunei Darussalam Long-Term Development Plan, 2007 & Ministry of Development)
2002
2003
2004
Gross Expenditure on R&D- GERD (BND million PPP)
1.19
1.50
4.80
GERD as a % of GDP
0.02
0.03
0.05
Total R&D Personnel per Thousand Labour Force
0.89
0.88
0.62
Higher Education Expenditure on R&D – HERD
(BND million PPP)
0.37
0.58
0.36
Business Enterprise Expenditure on R&D –BERD
(BND million PPP)
0.00729 0.03512
0.0
• Although there was an increase in the gross expenditure on R&D, the amount of
investment on R&D in higher education and businesses were still low.
10
GERD source of funds in Brunei Darussalam
[Source: Ministry of Development]
Source of Funds
2002
2003
2004
Industry-financed GERD as % of GDP
0.0019
0.0034
0
Government-financed GERD as % of GDP
0.0198
0.0222
0.0489
% of GERD financed by industry
8.840
6.664
1.58
% of GERD financed by Government
91.160
86.776
92.02
11
Comparisons of R&D personnel/ million people
(Source: Brunei Darussalam Long-Term Development Plan, 2007)
R&D Personnel per
million people
Brunei
Darussalam
Singapore
Korea
Japan
282
4,352
2,979
5,085
• Although there was an increase in the gross expenditure on R&D, the total number of
R&D personnel and the amount of investment on R&D in higher education and
businesses were still low.
12
Researchers
(Source: Brunei Darussalam Long-Term Development Plan, 2007)
Researchers (headcount)
2002
2003
2004
Total researchers in Business
Enterprise Sector
32
32
N/A
Total researchers in Government
Sectors
61
62
70
Total researchers in Higher
Education Sector
201
198
174
Total Researchers
(* Incomplete data)
294
292
244*
13
Issues and Challenges
(Source: Brunei Darussalam Long-Term Development Plan, 2007)
 Absence of a central agency to champion the STI development
and identification of specific objectives
 Issues in coordinating and integrating STI policy
 Lack of priority
 Higher Education Institutions tend to focus more of their
resources on teaching and training rather than research.
14
Issues and Challenges
(Source: Brunei Darussalam Long-Term Development Plan, 2007)
 The number of researchers involved in R&D was small
compared to other countries in the region.
 The percentage of the population pursuing higher
education was small compared to OECD countries.
 The proportion of the Brunei population with S&T
qualifications was also much lower than any of the OECD
countries, showing that R&D personnel per million
people are 292 and expenditure of R&D as % of GDP is
0.03% in 2003.
15
Issues and Challenges
(Source: Brunei Darussalam Long-Term Development Plan, 2007)
 The expenditure of R&D in this country as percentage of GDP
was the lowest.
 There was also minimal collaboration between higher
institutions and private sector in the area of R&D.
 This was partly due to the fact that majority of local
companies did not see a need for any R&D activities.
16
Efforts made for STI in 8th NDP
 8th National Development Plan (2001-2005) made explicit
reference to the crucial role of S&T and R&D for national
development.
– A sum of BND 125 million was allocated for the development
of S&T and R&D and about 57% of the total allocation was for
financing and feasibility studies
– Several promotional S&T programmes were organized by
various agencies such as the Oil and Gas Discovery Centre
(OGDC) and Science, Technology and Environment Partnership
Centre (STEP).
17
9th NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN
• 9th National Development Plan (2007-2012) – Science,
Technology and Innovation (STI) as the leverage to accelerate
growth and national competitiveness
• Brunei Darussalam aims to allocate 1% of its Gross Domestic
Product (GDP) to research over the next few years
• Brunei Research Council (BRC) to set the policy direction in
research and development and innovation, identifying priority
science and technology clusters for Brunei niche areas
• Brunei Economic Development Board (BEDB) to promote
foreign direct investment in the non-oil gas and sector, namely
health care, pharmaceutical, food and alternative energy
18
9th NDP (2007-2012)
Allocated
(BND$ Million)
Percentage
%
1. Industry and Commerce
1,025.0
10.8
2. Transport and Communication
1,067.0
11.2
3. Social Services
3,055.7
32.2
4. Public Utilities
1,492.7
15.7
5. Public Buildings
673.0
7.1
6. Science & Technology and Research and
Development
165.2
1.7
1,145.7
12.1
8. Security
596.8
6.3
9. Miscellaneous
278.9
2.9
Sectors
7. ICT
A total of BND 9.5 billion has been allocated for National Development Plan (2007-2012) to finance the
implementation of 826 projects within 257 programmes. As part of national development plans, S&T
and R&D sector are allocated BND 165.2 million which accounts for 1.7 per cent of the total scheme
value.
19
Funding and Infrastructure Development for
Universiti Brunei Darussalam
20
Specific Research 1
• Development of a comprehensive R&D indicators for Brunei
Darussalam based on Frascati Manual
• “In an era of rapid technological change, economic growth is
increasingly dependent on research and development (R&D).
Monitoring industry, government, and university R&D
programs is thus crucial to successful policymaking and
analysis”. (OECD, 2002)
21
Specific Research 2
• The combination of firms, organisations and institutions for
the purpose of innovation - the ‘national system of
innovation’
• The nature of the linkages between university, government
and industries is under-studied
• Collaboration between government agencies, industries and
researchers, although they may appear to be unlikely allies, is
important as they have a shared interest in innovation and
meeting future needs (Scherlis & Eisenberg, 2003).
22
Survey for S&T and R&D Activities
• Brunei had conducted the survey till 2004, but have not produced
data on S&T and R&D activities, with particular emphasis on (i)
Human Resources and (ii) R&D Expenditure since 2005.
• In 2012, Brunei to start conducting the survey to produce S&T
statistics and thereby provide S&T and R&D information for policy
maker.
– In order to make sure international comparison, the survey is
being conducted in accordance with Frascati Manual
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STI Survey Details
•
•
•
•
Reference period – 2004 to 2011
Type of survey – Qualitative and quantitative, Government funding
Industrial coverage - Oil and gas, Petro-chemical, and ICT industries
Data collection procedure - email, mail, in-person interview,
secondary data
• Sample size -all relevant Ministries, agencies, research institutes,
statutory body, universities, and industry
• Main challenges encountered when structuring and carrying out the
survey – survey on past periods between 2004 and 2009
• Timeline of the full process – expected completion in 2012/2013
24
Technical Support
• UNESCO
• Mentor Country
• Korean Advanced Institute for Science and
Technology (KAIST)
• Science and Technology Policy Institute (STEPI)
25
THANK YOU
26
S&T Survey Database and Decision Supporting
System (DSS)
Gathering
Policy
Information
Survey
Activities
Decision
Supporting DB
Survey DB
Decision
Supporting
System
Statistics
Information
System
• Survey results will be managed using Database and information system.
• IT system and DB will produce statistics of S&T and R&D
• The statistics from Survey DB will be converted into decision supporting
information for policy makers
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The Survey Temple: General Information
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The Survey Template: R & D Human Resource
1. R&D Human Resources
Definition of R&D Human Resource
- Researcher : Researchers are professionals engaged in the conception or creation of new knowledge, products, processes, methods and
systems and also in the management of the projects concerned.
- Research Assistant: researchers who are paid by research grants or contracts to work in collaboration with a professor within a faculty, an
affiliated research center or an institute. They are not permanent employees because their continued employment depends on continuing
support from research grants or contracts. They hold a PhD degree or an equivalent qualification (MD) that would be appropriate for
appointment as an assistant professor.
- Technician & equivalent staff : persons whose main task requires technical knowledge and experience in one or more fields of engineering,
physical and life sciences or social sciences and humanities. They participate in R&D by performing scientific and technical tasks involving the
application of concepts and operational methods, normally under the supervision of researchers. Equivalent staff perform the corresponding
R&D tasks under the supervision of researchers in the social sciences and humanities.
- Clerical staff: Other supporting staff including skilled and unskilled craftsmen, participating in R & D projects or directly associated with such
projects.
Reference- The Frascati Manual. It is a manual setting out the methodology for the collection of statistics regarding research and
development. It was prepared and published by the Organization for Economic cooperation and Development.
2. Age of Researcher
The Survey on female researcher is being conducted.
3. Researcher's Major and Degree
Engineering
Medicine,
Pharmacy
Civil engineering, Architecture
0
Electric, Electronic, Information,
Communication Engineering
0
Mechanical, Aerospace, Atomic
Engineering
Chemical Engineering
Metal, Material, Fiber Engineering
Medical Engineering
Environment, Resource, Marine
Engineering
Environmental Bio Engineering
Industrial Bio Engineering
Nano Technology
etc
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Medicine
0
Phamacy
0
Nursing, Health
0
etc
0
Agriculture, Forest, Marine
0
Zootechny, Zoology, Dairy
0
Veterinary
0
Agricultural Bio
0
etc
0
History
0
Language and Literature
0
Philosophy, Religion
0
Art
0
Physical Science
0
etc
0
Agriculture
Humanities
Psychology
0
Economics, Management
0
Education
0
Sociology,
Anthropology
Social Science
Social
Welfare,
0
Law
0
Politics, Public Administration, Policy
0
Region, Geography
0
Mass media, Libaray
0
ect
0
Total
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
4. Foreign Researcher
The Survey Template: R&D Expenditure
•
Fund Source of R&D Expenditure
Detailed R&D Expenditure
5. Detailed R&D Expenditure
THANK YOU
36

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