Infrastructure Development and Policy Issues in Afghanistan

Report
ANDS, Infrastructure
Development & Corruption in
Afghanistan
Hamdard Hamdullah (MEP13211)
Infrastructure Development Advisor,
Ministry of Finance,
The Islamic Republic of Afghanistan
Date: 18 July 2014
Afghanistan Development Framework
Socio-Economic Development in the Short, Medium and
Long term
2005-2020
15 Years
Millennium Development Goals
2008-2013
5 Years
National Development Strategy
2006-2010
5 Years
Afghanistan Compact
2006-2010
3 Years
Medium Term Fiscal Framework
Annual
1 Year
1387 Budget
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By Hamdard Hamdullah, MEP13211
2
Importance of the ANDS
•
•
•
•
Donors will not channel their funds through the
Government’s core budget if there is no prioritized
strategic plan or implementation arrangement.
This means that the Government doesn’t have access to
donor funded programs/projects and has no control over
them.
Importantly, the bilateral implementation of projects
without consultation or approval from Government
ministries/agencies has meant that a number of the
programs/projects have been conducted repeatedly and
inefficiently in different parts of the country which is a
waste of time and resources.
Many development priorities have to date been defined by
donors and not by the Government of Afghanistan.
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Importance of the ANDS …
•
•
•
In the absence of sectorial strategies, national programs and
implementation arrangements, the Government has not been
able to ensure that donor countries align their funding with the
Government’s plans to increase effectiveness and efficiency.
The Government has been continually criticized by the
international and donor community of corruption, low capacity
and not having a National Strategy in which priorities are
identified, programs/projects defined, implementing agencies
introduced and sources for implementation identified.
This absence of a clear policy, vision and plan has created
problems for the three branches of the Government; the judicial,
constitutional and executive branches. Balance and coordination
among the three branches depends on a national plan to provide
specific guidance for all branches.
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By Hamdard Hamdullah, MEP13211
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Our Vision for Afghanistan’s Future
By the solar year 1400 (2020), Afghanistan will be:
• A stable Islamic constitutional democracy at peace with itself and its
neighbors, standing with full dignity in the international family.
• A tolerant, united, and pluralist nation that honors its Islamic
heritage and deep aspirations toward participation, justice, and
equal rights for all.
• A society of hope and prosperity based on a strong, private sectorled market economy, social equity, and environmental sustainability.
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By Hamdard Hamdullah, MEP13211
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Afghanistan National Development Strategy
The ANDS is a Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)based plan that serves as Afghanistan’s Poverty Reduction
Strategy Paper (PRSP). It is underpinned by the principles,
pillars and benchmarks of the Afghanistan Compact.
ANDS
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By Hamdard Hamdullah, MEP13211
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ANDS Institutional Structure
President
Cabinet
Oversight Committee
ANDS/JCMB
Secretariats
Governance
Economic and Social Development
Private sector
development
Social
Protection
Health
Education
Agriculture and
rural development
Infrastructure and
national
resources
Good
governance and
rule of law
Security
security
Under each of the above pillars, TWGs of the ministries and donors have come together to develop ANDS implementing benchmarks and
monitor them. In order to achieve Afghanistan CompactBEnchmarks, they evaluate policies and strategies.
Who were involved in the development
process of the ANDS?
•
•
•
•
•
•
The Government of Afghanistan: The president, cabinet, ministries,
independent departments and commissions, municipalities, governors,
provincial development committees, provincial departments of line
ministries, district councils, embassies of Afghanistan in the other countries.
The Government of Afghanistan: National Assembly (Upper and Lower
Houses), provincial councils, elected councils at the district and village level.
Civil society: local development councils, unions, organizations, political
parties, NGOs, associations and private sector.
Academics: universities, scientific and professional organizations and
councils, science academy
The International Community: United Nations, Embassies, Donors, NGOs,
international private sectors, PRTs
And also: minorities, Kuchis (nomads), disabled and war victims, Afghan
residents and refugees outside of the country, national and international
media
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ANDS Participatory Process
17 Sector
Strategie
s
39 Ministry/Agency
Strategies
34 Provincial Development Plans
(PDPs)
345 District Development Plans (DDPs)
17500 Community Development Plans (CDPs)
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More than 17000 afghans (46% women) participated in the Sub
National Consultation process
Public Awareness Campaign in 27 provinces
during 2006
First Pilot Round of Sub National Consultations,
March 2007
Second Round of Sub National Consultations,
jun-Sep 2007
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By Hamdard Hamdullah, MEP13211
Third Round of Sub National Consultations,
10 Feb
2008
Role of the National Assembly in the
Development Process of the ANDS
•
•
•
•
Active participation of both male and female parliamentarians in
the sub national consultation process of the ANDS
Significant contribution in the consultative meetings on provincial
development plans
Significant involvement in the meetings on integrating the PDP
priorities in the ministries strategies.
Contribution and participation of NA members on the national
budget 1387 which were based on the ANDS
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Clusters for Achieving ANDS Results
Overview
Structural Composition
• Clusters designed to enable strong leadership that
facilitates ministries to deliver concrete results over
the next 18-24 months
• Clusters prioritize ANDS around key criteria - jobs
and service delivery -- through bankable programs
• Donors support government priorities at 80% of
their budgets, improving coordination
• Ministerial Clusters will operate at strategic
(decision making) level
• Cluster Working Level will include Deputy
Ministers, Director Generals and STAs
• Cluster Secretariat will be staffed by
MoF/ANDS
• Cluster Coordinating Committee will provide
oversight and integration role
Planning Process for Kabul
March: Clusters define goals, strategy and key
interventions against the stated criteria:
•
•
•
•
Ability to deliver jobs, directly and indirectly
Nationwide coverage
Builds on existing interventions
Ability to attract more investment
April: Analyze bankable programs to determine:
• Top up or scale-out of existing programs
• Re-design of programs to meet criteria
• Scale-down of poor performing or nonaligned programs
• Outline of new programs to fill gaps
May: Integrate plans, receive Cabinet and JCMB
endorsement and deliver at Kabul Conference
Cluster Planning Process
February
1
Cluster
Coordinators
& Ministers
Ministry
Working
Level Staff
2
3
March
4
1
3
4
2
3
4
Bankable Program
Decision Meetings
Validate Cluster
Objectives & Goals
Review Strategy &
Interventions
Review Cluster
Objectives & Goals
2
3
Endorse Integrated
Cluster Plan
Review Cluster
Plan
Review of Bankable
Program Analysis
Prepare Strategy &
Interventions docs
Prepare Materials
Explanation of
Cluster process
1
Send Plan to Cabinet
for Endorsement
Prepare Bankable
Program Analysis
Donor
Meetings
1
May
Validate Strategy &
Interventions
Prepare Ministry &
Sector Analysis
Cluster
Secretariat
2
April
Present Cluster Vision,
Strategy, Interventions
Prepare
Integrated
Cluster Plan
Present Bankable
Programs & Outline
Cluster Plan
JCMB Review & Endorse
at Kabul Conference
4
Bankable
Program
Decision
Tree
NO
Has currently
committed
funds
YES
3
PARTLY
1
YES
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YES
4
NO
YES
Terminate
Program
NO
Re-Allocate Funds
to Qualified Program
Considered
Viable
Program
NO
Considered
Viable
Program
Considered
Viable
Program
Re-Design Program
to Meet Criteria
2
NO
NO
Meets
Cluster
Criteria
Funds cans be
re-committed or
re-allocated
YES
2
YES
2
Program
can be redesigned
Can Scale
Up in
Volume
Continue
Program
Allocate More
Resources
YES
3
YES
3
NO
By Hamdard Hamdullah, MEP13211
(or Not Needed)
Can Scale
Out
Regionally
YES
4
NO
14
(or Not Needed)
Government of Afghanistan Structure for ANDS Clusters
Coordination
President & Cabinet
Joint Coordination and
Monitoring Board
Cluster Coordination
Committee (CCC)
(Chair Min. Zakhilwal)
Cluster Coordinators
CCC Secretariat
(Director - DM Policy)
Policy Directorate
DM for Policy
Office Support
Strategic Implementation
Directorate
Civilian Technical
Assistance Directorate
Operations Directorate
Agriculture & Rural
Development Cluster
[
]
Cluster
Secretariat
(2-4 ppl)
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Cluster
Ministers
(plus 1 DM
& 1 TA per
ministry)
Human Resource
Development Cluster
[
]
Cluster
Secretariat
(2-4 ppl)
Cluster
Ministers
(plus 1 DM
& 1 TA per
ministry)
Infrastructure and Economic
Development Cluster
[
]
Cluster
Secretariat
(2-4 ppl)
By Hamdard Hamdullah, MEP13211
Cluster
Ministers
(plus 1 DM
& 1 TA per
ministry)
15
Cluster 1
Core Cluster Participation
(Coordinator)
Cluster 1 Cluster 1
Ministers
Secretariat (plus 1 DM
(2-4 ppl) & 1 TA per
ministry)
Cluster Coordinator
Ministry Support
Secretariat
Minister 1
Minister 2
Minister 3
Minister 4
Ministry 1 Deputy Minister
Ministry 1 Senior Advisor
Ministry 2 Deputy Minister
Ministry 2 Senior Advisor
Cluster Manager
Senior Technical Advisor
Drafter / Organizer
• Ministerial participation
• Strategic guidance
• Oversight of process
• Endorsement of results
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• Knowledge of Ministry
• Programs and projects
• Technical planning skills
• Reach-in to Ministry
• Preparation of Ministry
plans within the Cluster
By Hamdard Hamdullah, MEP13211
• Facilitation of planning
• Background analysis
• Objective technical support
• Preparation of drafts
• Deconflict and synch plans
with other Clusters
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Infrastructure Development
There are four National Priority Programs in Infrastructure
Development Cluster
• NRRCP (Airports, Civil Aviation, Roads, Railway)
• NEIEP (Mining and Extractive Industries)
• NESP (HPPs, Renewable energy, Transmission Lines, Power
generation and electricity import)
• UMSP (urban development projects, construction of towns,
urban roads, and canalizations)
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Classification of External Assistance by ANDS Sectors (2011)
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Clusters Priorities & Objectives (Proposed)
Goal Statement: “The goal of the clusters is to increase collaboration between Ministries
and to develop and implement a clear, prioritized agenda aimed at addressing the key
development challenges of the sector.” (London paper on Economic Development)
Agriculture and Rural
Development Cluster
Objectives
Human Resource
Development Cluster
Objectives
Infrastructure and
Economic Development
Cluster Objectives
The GoA will build prosperous
rural communities through focus
on:
The GoA will prepare Afghans
for the labour market through
focus on:
The GoA will develop a
business climate that enables
private investment through
focus on:
1. Improving access to water
and irrigation
1. Increasing the number
and quality of University
Graduates
1. Increasing access to
energy
2. Improving access to rural
credit
2. Bridging gap between
graduation and recruitment
2. Creating a modern
transportation backbone
3. Improving applied research
and technology transfer
services for farmers & kuchis
3. Increasing number and
quality of vocational
education
3. Facilitating growth of
business and trade
4. Improving access to rural
energy
4. Utilizing public private
partnerships in the provision
of training
4. Preparing Afghanistan for
large-scale investment in the
extractive industries
Overall Financing Envelope for the ANDS 1387-1391 (2008-2013)
1387
2008/09
US$m
1388
2009/10
US$m
1389
2010/11
US$m
1390
2011/12
US$m
1391
2012/13
US$m
Total
US$m
Core + External Budget Funding
Domestic Revenue
887
1,104
1,351
1,611
1,911
6,864
Total Assistance from Donors*
6,513
4,960
4,814
4,398
3,908
24,593
Total Funding*
7,400
6,064
6,165
6,009
5,819
31,457
Security
3219
2585
2679
2790
2906
14179
Infrastructure
1781
3093
3681
4180
4451
17185
Agriculture and Rural Development
829
921
916
909
912
4486
Education and Culture
742
893
980
1077
1181
4872
Good Governance and Rule of Law
374
558
640
685
728
2985
Health & Nutrition
325
465
530
563
595
2478
Economic Governance & PSD
237
215
230
244
260
1186
Social Protection
192
359
394
421
449
1815
Others (Sub Codes)
205
198
185
170
157
915
7,903
9,286
10,236
11,038
11,637
50,100
Budgeted Core + External Expenditure
Total Expenditure
* Based on discussions with donors and the 1386 (2007) financial review
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Corruption & Infrastructure
Factors facilitating corruption in infrastructure, by Level
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Corruption vulnerabilities project cycle
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Vulnerabilities to Corruption in Afghanistan’s Road
Construction Sector
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