Applying Policy Governance® in Faith

Report
www.broadbaker.com
www.governancecoach.com
Applying Policy Governance® in
Faith-Based Organizations
Policy Governance ® is a
registered trademark of John
Carver
First, Who’s the Owner?
• Organizations have human “owners” (real, legal,
moral, and/or spiritual)
• Do faith-based organizations also have a divine
Owner*?
• What are the criteria for ownership?
– The owners are the source of the board’s
legitimacy, i.e., the Board has a moral obligation to
them
– Board governs on their behalf,
– Board is able to have dialogue with owners
primarily related to Ends issues.
*The presenters’ experience is with Christian organizations, so our examples assume a belief in a
personal God with which one can communicate, and this presentation will use examples from a
Christian perspective throughout.
Ownership Linkage Policy
Example – Wycliffe Canada [WC]
The Sovereign Owner of Wycliffe Canada is God. The
human owners, operating under God's authority, are
members of the Canadian Church who demonstrate
passion for and participation in the Ends of Wycliffe
Canada, including voting members and all other
Wycliffe Canada personnel.
Ownership Example
Avant Ministries [AV]
Avant Ministries International is not a memberbased organization and the board determined
that the human spiritual owners are those who
contribute/invest in some manner, including
missionaries.
Experiences in Ownership Linkage
• Wycliffe Canada [WC]
– Experience in moving from the view of “members”
as sole owners to “the church” as owners
– Experience in linkage with God as “Sovereign
owner”
– Work in progress to become a community of
discernment
• Avant Ministries [AM] (Not a membership org.)
– Missionaries, supporters, and churches
(participating in some form as a partner)
Servant-Leadership
• More than just words on paper
• While servant-leadership is increasingly
espoused in the business and secular
communities, for Christian organizations it is
closely linked to faith
• “Whoever would be great among you must be
the servant of all” (Jesus Christ)
Characteristics of the ServantLeader (Greenleaf)
•
•
•
•
•
Stewardship
Listening Receptively
Empathy
Healing
Persuasion
•
•
•
•
Awareness
Conceptualization
Foresight
Commitment to Growth of
People
• Building Community
Intentionality
• How can a board be intentional about
translating the faith-based values of its
owners, including faith-based values - Biblical
values, denominational values - in policies and
governance practices?
• How does a board assure doctrinal
adherence?
Intentionality in Protecting Doctrine
• The board must thoroughly understand the doctrinal
positions of the organization, why they are considered
important, and the risks of departing from them. This
generally means that the board will need expert
grounding, especially if it is an academic organization.
• Seek outside expert input from like-minded people.
• Board “homework” regarding the doctrinal position of a
potential CEO is crucial.
• Ensure board policies re: doctrine are in sufficient detail
that any reasonable interpretation will be acceptable to
the board.
Doctrine - Monitoring and Vigilance
• Stringent monitoring.
– For a college, make sure that, when values of owners are
included/translated in policies, monitoring is about assessing
that these policies are met in the organization (e.g. in the
classroom and intellectual products if that is where proof is
expected to be found).Faculty’s willingness to sign a doctrinal
statement is not necessarily adequate.
• Avoid too short board member terms, to ensure “board memory.”
• Be sure that key values are in policies.
• Place doctrinal statements in Bylaws rather than policies – can
make harder to amend.
• Consider using a like-minded “Board of Reference” or board of
advisors.
Servant-Leadership and Intentionality
Related to Ends
• Greenleaf’s Test of Servant-Leadership:
“Those served, while being served, grow as
persons — become healthier, wiser, freer,
more autonomous, and more likely
themselves to become servants”
• Ends focus on the effect of the organization’s
efforts on people – how will they change,
grow as described by Greenleaf
An Ends Example [WC]
The necessary personnel with appropriate attitudes, skills, and
knowledge, are available at the right time to enable Operating
Partners to fulfil their part in Bible translation and related
ministries. *
1. Personnel are equipped to build intercultural communities of
trust.
2. Personnel are servant-leaders, team players and capacity
builders.
3. Personnel have the necessary skills to fulfill their roles, including
language-related and support roles.
4. Personnel demonstrate a commitment to life-long learning in
spiritual, professional and cultural domains.
5. Personnel are prepared to adopt an appropriate Biblical
lifestyle.
*Note: This is a second-level End. The Global End contains all 3
elements of Ends, including “what cost.”
Ends Policies
[Example: Grace International School (GIS)]
GIS students will demonstrate Christ-like character, and
every aspect of their lives will be suffused with a Biblical
worldview. *
Accordingly, students will:
1. Pursue a genuine relationship with God;
2. Know essential biblical truths and concepts;
3. Understand our personal identity from God’s perspective;
4. Critically assess issues and world-views in terms of biblical
truths;
5. Impact their world by applying biblical truth;
6. Serve others compassionately and advocate for the
oppressed; and
7. Exhibit genuine respect and cultural sensitivity.
*This End is missing the “at what cost” statement.
Ends Policies [Example: Avant Ministries]
1.0 Because of Avant… there will be Developing Churches Where There Is
No Church.
1.1 Churches will be developed where most needed.
1.1.1. Peoples or areas with no available church will receive the highest priority
for service.
1.1.2 The primary geographic concentration of ministry will be outside the
United States and Canada.
1.1.3 Peoples of different cultures and languages will receive priority of
emphasis.
1.2 Churches will be Biblically healthy, defined as or when:
1.2.1 Unsaved people are brought to Christ
1.2.2 Believers are discipled toward maturity
1.2.3 No longer being dependent on the mission or missionaries
1.2.4 There is inter-dependence & partnering with other churches
1.2.5 Missionaries are sent out cross-culturally
Servant-Leadership and Intentionality
Related to Executive Limitations
• If servant-leadership is a value, the board
would find it unethical for people (those
served, employees) to be treated in ways
inconsistent with that value.
• Executive Limitations can be used to restrict
behaviour that is unethical.
Limitations Policies
[Examples – Global EL Policy]
The Superintendent shall not allow any organizational
circumstance that is either unlawful, imprudent, or in
violation of Christian principles and professional ethics,
jeopardize Thai, ACSI and WASC accreditation, or violate
the Bylaws. [GIS]
The President shall not cause or allow any activity,
decision, or organizational circumstance that is unlawful
or imprudent, that violates Wycliffe Canada by-laws,
Scriptural imperatives, or commonly accepted business
and professional ethics. [WC]
Possible Language for the Global EL If
You Operate Internationally
“The CEO shall not cause or allow any practice,
activity, decision, or organizational
circumstance which is unbiblical, imprudent,
unethical, in violation of commonly accepted
business and professional ethics and practices
(or …of the agreed values and policies of
Xxxxxxxx), unlawful in the United States or
Canada, or unlawful in any other country,
(except insofar that specific Biblical authority
is to the contrary; e.g., Acts 5:29).”
Treatment of People - Examples
• With respect to current or potential students,
families and member organizations, the
Superintendent shall not allow conditions which are
unsafe, unbiblical, undignified or unfair, or are
harmful to an organizational culture of excellence.
• With respect to current or prospective staff members
and employees, the Superintendent shall not allow
conditions which are unsafe, unbiblical, undignified,
disorganized or unfair [GIS]
[Discussion point: is “unbiblical” necessary – could a
reasonable interpretation of the global statement be
made that was unbiblical?]
Servant-Leadership and Intentionality
Related to Board-Management Delegation
Using “standard” principles of Policy
Governance is consistent with:
• Commitment to the growth of people,
• Real, not bogus empowerment,
• A mentality of “leading leaders,”
• Tolerance for reasonable risk,
• Fostering personal & professional growth of
everyone in the organization.
Intentionality in Recruiting New CEO
From the prior policy regarding protecting doctrine…
• The board must thoroughly understand the doctrinal positions of the
organization, why they are considered important, and the risks concerning
them. This generally means that the board will need expert grounding,
especially if it is an academic organization.
• Seek outside expert input from like-minded people.
• Board “homework” regarding the doctrinal position of a potential CEO is
crucial.
• Ensure board policies re doctrine are in sufficient detail that any reasonable
interpretation will be acceptable to the board. And…
• Research the candidate’s past education, papers, articles,
talks, theses, and books, etc., besides the performance and
references of the candidate.
• Be sure those conducting the search are equally informed.
• Interview carefully.
Servant-Leadership and Intentionality
Related to Governance Process
• Board sees itself as a steward
• Board is obsessed with purpose. No
board meeting should go by without
debate or presentation on some facet of
the Ends development process
Culture of Accountability
• “Kingdom” accountability – demands
excellence of itself.
• Board culture is a climate of trust and candor
– have clear policies and expect them to be
followed.
• Board holds its members accountable.
Development of Wisdom
• Board strives to follow Biblical principles re: development of
wisdom
–
–
–
–
–
Humble receptivity
Teach-ability
Concern for sustaining virtue
Values excellence & diligence
Sensitivity to the Holy Spirit
• Board seeks foresight in decision-making
• Board accepts others and has empathy
– Frames questions from a place of not knowing all the answers
– Asks questions from a place of interest in and affection for others
• Board allots sufficient time for development of wisdom
• Board works to build community
• Board includes spiritual input and development as part of
discernment
Listening and Understanding
• Board is a receptive listener
• Board is aware – doesn’t settle for only
“academic knowledge” --obtains
experiential knowledge of those who are
affected and served [WC example of
board member field trips]
Conceptualization and Foresight
• Board can conceptualize the “bigger picture”
• Board exercises foresight
– Failure to foresee is an ethical failure (Robert
Greenleaf).
Governance Process Policies
Governance commitment example - GIS
“Operating under the Lordship of Jesus Christ,
the purpose of the Grace International School
Board, on behalf of its legal owner, Grace
International School Educational Foundation,
and its moral owners is to assure that Grace
International School achieves the Ends for
which it was established and avoids
unacceptable actions and situations.”
Governance Commitment - WC
“The purpose of the Board, on behalf of the
owners, is to see to it that Wycliffe Canada (1)
achieves appropriate results for appropriate
persons at an appropriate cost and (2) avoids
unacceptable actions and situations. In
fulfilling these governance functions, the
Board’s paramount desire is to glorify our
Sovereign Triune God.”
Governing Style and Values [GIS]
“Board governance shall be marked by biblicallybased integrity, outward vision . . ., collective
decision making through prayer and listening to
God for His wisdom.
• “If a majority of the board determines an
impending decision is of major consequence,
extended corporate prayer time will be
scheduled.”
Guarding Against Defection from Core
Beliefs
• Board Commitment – Policy requiring the Board to
assess every new policy against core values. Before
vote, it must be verified that it does not contradict
values/beliefs (GIS)
• Vigilant monitoring
• Another possibility: make it difficult to change
certain policies: e.g. 2/3 majority plus 1, change
requires two convened meetings, etc.
Ownership Linkage [WC]
“The Board recognizes the necessity of corporately
and individually communicating with God, Wycliffe
Canada's sovereign owner. The Board will set aside
planned times, including an annual retreat, for
corporately listening to God and seeking his direction
regarding Board issues through Bible study, prayer
and personalized fasting. Individually, members will
pray regularly about Board concerns at a minimum
the first Monday of each month. Spontaneous times
of prayer will be encouraged during Board meetings.”
Agenda Planning [GIS]
“To do its job effectively, the Board will follow an annual
agenda that completes a re- exploration of Ends policies
and Executive Limitations and continually improves board
performance through board education and enriched
input and deliberation. The agenda will reflect the
spiritual dimension of our school.
• “Effective leadership comes at the price of waiting on
and listening to God. In order to ensure this takes
place, the annual agenda will include a half day of
prayer during the annual retreat.”
Addressing Conflicts Between Policy
and Ministry Beliefs or Values
• Potential conflicts between national law and
Biblical values, particularly International
missions where laws of the country may
conflict with values of the organization
…(see prior example:
…“unlawful in the United States or Canada, or
unlawful in any other country, except insofar that
specific Biblical authority is to the contrary; e.g.,
Acts 5:29.”
Induction of New Board Members
[WC]
• New board members attend the meeting prior to
their officially taking office as observers.
• At the end of that meeting, there is a short
“induction ceremony” in which they formally
make a commitment to serve, believing that God
has called them to this ministry. They make this
pledge, which is then followed by the whole
board making a commitment to support them,
and praying together with them.
What does
“Success” Look
Like?
• Using Avant
Metrics as an
Example of the
Development of
Results or Ends
Metrics
The Development of
Results/Ends Metrics and their
Display
The challenge for Management in any
ministry is measuring the apparently
subjective…
Recall: As part of the Ends, the Board of Avant
had further interpreted five characteristics that
must be present in a cross-culturally healthy
church :
1.2.1
Unsaved people are brought to Christ
1.2.2
Believers are discipled toward maturity
1.2.3
No longer being dependent on the mission or
missionaries
1.2.4 There is inter-dependence & partnering with other
churches
1.2.5 Missionaries are sent out cross-culturally
Avant International Board Policy Manual - Ends Policies
1.2 Churches will be Biblically healthy, defined as or when:
1.2.1 Unsaved people are brought to Christ
1.2.2 Believers are discipled toward maturity
1.2.3 No longer being dependent on the mission or
missionaries
1.2.3.1 Self-governing
1.2.3.2 Self-supporting
1.2.3.3 Self-propagating
1.2.4 There is inter-dependence & partnering with other
churches
1.2.5 Missionaries are sent out cross-culturally
• Avant management developed a measurement process to
assess those components, identifying 13 underlying “Biblically
irreducible” metrics.
• Developed a standardized survey instrument for on-location
missionaries and local church leaders
• Scoring “cascaded” up to a synthesized score for a given local
church - both for the 13 irreducibles and the final five ends
elements.
• They then created radar charts from those scores as the graph
of choice for presenting the data. (Radar charts are good for
presenting entity characteristics, but little else. Entities can be
then compared by pattern.)
Example - Ends Metrics - Avant
(A fairly young church)
Ends
Unsaved brought to Christ
10.0
5.0
Missionaries sent cross-culturally
Believers discipled toward maturity
0.0
Cooperating with other churches
Not dependent on mission or missionaries
Argentina - UME 2005
Irre d u c ib le s
P eople being s aved
10.0
C ros s -c ultural outreac h oc c urring
D is c iples hip prac tic ed
9.0
8.0
7.0
6.0
Interdependenc e exhibited
B elievers m aturing
5.0
4.0
3.0
2.0
P artnering taking plac e
B iblic ally qualified elders
1.0
0.0
C hurc h planting efforts underw ay
S c ripture as authority
B elievers s haring their faith
G overnanc e independent of m is s ionaries
C hurc h operations funded from loc al c ontributions
B ody life exhibited
Ar g e n tin a - UM E 2 0 0 5
(A mature church)
Ends
Unsaved brought to Christ
10.0
5.0
Believers discipled toward maturity
Missionaries sent cross-culturally
0.0
Not dependent on mission or missionaries
Cooperating with other churches
Austria - 2005
Irreducibles
People being saved
10.0
Cross-cultural outreach occurring
9.0
Discipleship practiced
8.0
7.0
6.0
Interdependence exhibited
Believers maturing
5.0
4.0
3.0
2.0
Partnering taking place
Biblically qualified elders
1.0
0.0
Church planting efforts underway
Scripture as authority
Believers sharing their faith
Governance independent of missionaries
Church operations funded from local contributions
Austria - 2005
Body life exhibited
The patterns are very revealing (the advantage
of the radar chart) and churches can be
compared and good questions asked - leading
to increasing strategic understanding and
guiding strategy going forward.
Test yourself on the following churches. What
further questions would you ask and want
answered?
6 Months old
60 years old
Ends
Ends
Unsaved brought to Christ
10.0
Unsaved brought to Christ
10.0
5.0
5.0
Bolivia - Chiragua
Ends2005
Not dependent on mission
Bolivia - Barrio 2005
Ends
Unsaved brought to Christ
10.0
Unsaved brought to Christ
10.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
Missionaries sent cross-culturally
Believers discipled toward maturity
Missionaries sent cross-culturally
0.0
discipled toward maturity
Missionaries sent Believers
cross-culturally
Believers discipled toward maturity
Cooperating with other churches
Not dependent on mission or missionaries
Not dependent
on mission
or missionaries
Cooperating
with
other churches
Brazil - Ararenda 2005
Believers
0.0
0.0
0.0
Not dependent on mission or missionaries
Cooperating with other churches
Brazil - Catunda 2005
0.0
Not dependent on mission
or missionaries
Cooperating
with other churches
Unsaved brought to Christ
10.0
5.0
perating with other churches
Believers disc
Ends
Unsaved brought to Christ
10.0
cross-culturally
5.0
Missionaries
sent
cross-culturally
Believers
discipled
toward maturity
Cooperating with other churches
Not dependent on mission or missionaries
Bolivia - Camiri 2005
Belize - Association
Ends 2005
Unsaved brought to Christ
10.0
0.0
Cooperating
with other churches
Not dependent on mission
or missionaries
ooperating with other churches
Unsaved brought to Christ
10.0
Believers
toward maturity
Missionaries
sentdiscipled
cross-culturally
0.0
0.0
Ends
5.0
Missionaries sent cross-culturally
Believers discipled toward maturity
nt cross-culturally
Ends
Brazil - Ebenezer 2005
Not dependent on missi
Mali - EEPM 2005
Seeing patterns in the radar charts for the 13 indicators
Struggling 10 y/o church
(re leadership)
Irreducibles
New
Irreducibles
People being saved
10
Cross-cultural outreach occurring
7
Discipleship practiced
6
Interdependence exhibited
8
7
5
6
4
Believers maturing
Believers maturing
3
5
2
4
Partnering taking place
3
Biblically qualified elders
1
0
2
Partnering taking place
Discipleship practiced
9
8
9
Interdependence exhibited
People being saved
10
Cross-cultural outreach occurring
Biblically qualified elders
1
0
Church planting efforts underway
Church planting efforts underway
Scripture as authority
Scripture as authority
Believers sharing their faith
Believers sharing their faith
Governance independent of missionaries
Church operations funded from local contributions
Governance independent of missionaries
Church operations funded from local contributions
Body life exhibited
Argentina - San Juan 2007
Body life exhibited
Argentina - Palermo 2007
Irreducibles
Maturing (Using the 13 measures)
Time to move on
Irreducibles
People being saved
10
People being saved
10
Cross-cultural outreach occurring
9
Cross-cultural outreach occurring
9
8
Interdependence exhibited
7
6
Interdependence exhibited
Discipleship practiced
Discipleship practiced
Believers maturing
Believers maturing
8
5
4
3
Partnering taking place
Biblically qualified elders
2
Partnering taking place
7
Biblically qualified elders
1
0
Church planting efforts underw ay
Church planting efforts underway
Scripture as authority
Scripture as authority
Believers sharing their faith
Believers sharing their faith
Governance independent of missionaries
Governance independent of missionaries
Church operations funded from local contributions
Church operations funded from local contributions
Body life exhibited
Body life exhibited
Austria - Voeklabruck 2007
Argentina - Calzada 2007
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10
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6
2004
2005
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2006
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Time for praise
A Mature Church in Belgium
10
Irreducibles
Mature
Standard
8
People being saved
10
2004
6
Cross-cultural outreach occurring
2005
2006
4
9
Discipleship practiced
8
7
6
Interdependence exhibited
Believers maturing
5
2007
4
3
2
2
Partnering taking place
Biblically qualified elders
1
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0
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Church planting efforts underw ay
Scripture as authority
Believers sharing their faith
Governance independent of missionaries
Church operations funded from local contributions
Body life exhibited
Belgium - Nieuwerkerken 2008
From the endeavor to develop metrics to provide
ends monitoring data, Management is learning
about the stages of church development, what
methods works, what churches are delayed or
stagnant in development, and in what areas, how
missionary leadership affects church development,
and much more.
Management comments:
“Field Council leadership minutes reflect an
increasing focus on strategic issues.”
• “The development of metrics has had a tremendous
focusing effect…it drives self examination, both by
missionaries and the indigenous church
leaders…Leadership, both missionary and
indigenous church, is compelled to think
strategically”
• “We know for the first time where to focus.”
•
“We thank the Board for going to Policy
Governance and that it compels
monitoring. It is transformational.”
A Christian School
First Grade Academ ic Perform ance Com pared to ACSI Avgs.
Reading
The radar scale is grade
3
2.5
Thinking
2
Writ ing
1.5
1
0.5
BRCS
0
ACSI
Lit erat ure
Mat h
Social St udies
Science
Grade Academ
ic Perform ance
Com pared to
Averages Averages
First GradeFirst
Academic
Performance
Compared
toACSI
Association
Gr a de l e v e l t e st e d
3
2.5
2
BRCS
1.5
ACSI
1
0.5
0
Reading
Writ ing
Mat h
Science
Social St udies
Lit erat ure
Thinking
2004-05 Academic Performance by Grade - Reading
Sometimes a pattern can be seen
with a line added…
Other Issues More Likely to Occur with
International Ministry Organizations
• Multinational governance structural issues and complexity can become complex & self-referential
• Members (self-referential governance) vs. independent board
• HR - special vigilance required with foreign located mission
schools (molestation, etc.)
• Special vigilance re: foreign located single women
• Accountability across oceans:
– Financial,
– Operational and use of resources.
• Sustaining virtue - the importance of independent monitoring
(we sometimes trust too much)
Board Education
Examples from Wycliffe
• Corporate reading (board “assignments”) and discussion
• Cultural orientation
• Spiritual retreats
• Task force preparing in depth materials on key issues (e.g., prioritysetting criteria for Ends, theology of risk)
• Understanding the nature of the wider context in which
organization operates (joint meeting with leaders of Wycliffe Global
Alliance)
• Board member field trips to areas where partners work
Board Education
Examples from Avant, use of experts
• Dr. David Garrison on Church Planting Movements
• Jean Cunningham on value stream cost accounting
(author on lean accounting) (to address the issue
of “At what cost?”)
• Dr. Keith Small on reaching Muslims
• An expert on mergers - their dangers & analysis
• Studies in wisdom from Proverbs
• Board retreats.
Board Succession Planning
• Avant - (multi-national; each national board is
responsible, but agree on criteria)
• Wycliffe experience
– Work in progress
– Identify “Best Fit” criteria for potential board
members
– Nominating Committee process
PG as a Platform to Enable Mission
• Growing pains
• Danger of becoming mired in mechanics
• Keeping things in perspective – not “doing”
the model, but “using” the model to enable
governing well so that mission is set and
achieved
• Optimizing the balance between mechanics
and mission
Making the Most of Board Time
Examples from WC
• Meet only twice a year face-to-face [cost of
bringing people together from international
locations]
• One video conference call
• More committees than usual – importance of
including entire board in key discussions so that
they are not rubber-stamping committee work –
most committee work via email and conference
call/Skype
• Board decisions on “routine” items by email
Policy Governance Board Example of Time Use
Board Meeting Time xx/xx/xx
"Helping the CEO"
0%
Incidental
11%
CEO Linkage Related
7%
Ends Education
23%
Governance Process
Related
11%
Ends Discussion
22%
Means Policy
Discussion &
Development
Ends Monitoring
15%
11%
Org. Means Monitoring
0%
Policy Governance a Good Fit with FaithBased Organizations
• Policy Governance principles are consistent with
Biblical principles:
–
–
–
–
•
•
•
•
Servant-leadership
Accountability
Empowerment with constraint
Clarity of values
Requires board integrity and excellence
Ends consistent with a purpose outside of oneself
Words count!
Board is expected to keep its word (consistent with
covenants)
Contact Information
• Jannice Moore
– President, The Governance Coach™
[email protected]
– Board Chair, Wycliffe Canada www.wycliffe.ca
• Dr. Richard Biery
– President, The Broadbaker Group
[email protected]
– Board Chair, Avant Ministries www.avantministries.org
• Jurrian van der Straaten
– Board Chair, Grace International School
www.gisthailand.org [email protected]

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