CONCEPTS IN DISASTER MANAGEMENT

Report
CONCEPTS IN DISASTER
MANAGEMENT
ACEC YASHADA
CONCEPTS IN DISASTER
MANAGEMENT
• LET US UNDERSTAND THE CONCEPTS BEFORE
WE START STUDYING DISASTER
MANAGEMENT
• WE NEED TO UNDERSTAND THE NATIONAL
VISION AS WELL AS THE PARADIGM SHIFT IN
THE FIELD
• THE INSTITUTIONAL MECHANISM ALSO NEEDS
TO BE UNDERSTOOD
TERMINOLOGY
DISASTER
“… A SERIOUS DISRUPTION OF THE
FUNCTIONING OF A SOCIETY, CAUSING
WIDESPREAD HUMAN, MATERIAL, OR
ENVIRONMENTAL LOSSES WHICH EXCEED
THE ABILITY OF THE AFFECTED SOCIETY TO
COPE USING ITS OWN RESOURCES.”
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DISASTER MANAGEMENT
A PLANNED APPROACH FOR THE
PREVENTION OF DISASTER,
PREPAREDNESS AND RESPONSE
TO DISASTERS, AND RECOVERY
FOLLOWING DISASTERS.
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WHY DISASTER MANAGEMENT ?
• TO MINIMIZE DEATHS AND LOSSES.
• MINIMUM LEVEL OF PREPAREDNESS &
PLANNING CAN DO IT.
• WITHOUT IDENTIFICATION OF RISK &
VULNERABILITY, ONLY KNOWLEDGE OF
HAZARDS IS OF NO USE
• NORMAL PROCEDURES ARE INSUFFICIENT
TO HANDLE GRAVE SITUATIONS.
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Definitions
• Risk is defined as the frequency of an event happening and its
impact
• A Hazard is a physical or human-made event that can potentially
trigger a disaster.
• Vulnerability is ‘Susceptibility to harm’ of those at risk
• Capacities are the qualities & resources of community ( or
individual) to … anticipate, cope with, resist & recover from the
impact of hazards
Risk
=
HxV÷C
H = Hazards - Potentiality of a physical event that may
cause loss of life or property
R = Risks - Probability of harmful consequences or
losses
V = Vulnerabilities - Factors or processes - physical,
social, economic, and environmental - which increase
susceptibility of an area or a community to damage and
lossC = Capacities - Strengths and resources available
within a community, society or organization that can
reduce the level of risk, or the effects of a disaster.
VIOLENCE BASED
War, Armed Conflict,
Physical Assaults etc.
NATURE BASED
Earthquakes,
Droughts, Floods,
Cyclones etc.
DETERIORATION
BASED
Environmental
Degradation,
Declining Health,
Education & other
Social services.
H
A
Z
A
R
D
S
FAILING
INDUSTRIALLIZED
SOCIETY BASED
Fire, Gas leakage,
Transport
Collisions etc.
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Awareness
Generation
Early Warning
Vulnerability
Assessment &
Analysis
Risk Analysis
Information,
Interpretation
Hazard
Assessment &
Analysis
Prevention
Preparedness
Mitigation
R=HXV/C
Risk
Identification
Risk
Analysis
Hazard,
Vulnerability
Capacity
Assessment
Nature of Impact
on Elements at
Risk
Consequences &
Likelihood –
hence level of
the Risk
Range of potential
losses & damages &
how these could occur
Assessment of
capacities & Resources
Risk
Evaluation
Risk Prioritization
& Decision
Making
1. Ranking of most
vulnerable Communities
2. Make decision about
strategies to be followed
Prevention & Mitigation Measures
HAZARD
Preventive Measures
Mitigation Measures
VULNERABLITY
Vul. To
Hazard
% of Area
Earthquake
57%
Droughts
68%
Cyclones
08%
Floods
12%
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TYPES OF DISASTERS
SUB GROUP I
WATER &
CLIMATE
RELATED
DISASTERS
FLOODS & DRAINAGE MGT.,
CYCLONES, TORNADOES &
HURRICANES, HAILSTORM,
CLOUD BURST, HEAT WAVE &
COLD WAVE, SNOW
AVALANCHES, DROUGHTS,
SEA EROSION AND
THUNDER & LIGHTNING.
SUB GROUP II
GEOLOGICALLY
RELATED
DISASTERS
LANDSLIDES, MUDFLOWS,
EARTHQUAKES, DAM
FAILURES / DAM BURSTS
AND MINE FIRES.
SUB GROUP III
CHEMICAL,
INDUS., &
NUCLEAR
RELATED
DISASTER
THE CHEMICAL AND
INDUSTRIAL & NUCLEAR
DISASTERS HAVE BEEN
INCLUDED.
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TYPES OF DISASTERS (CONTD…)
SUB GROUP IV
ACCIDENT RELATED
DISASTERS
FOREST / URBAN
FIRES, MINE
FLOODING, OIL
SPILL, MAJOR BLDG.
COLLAPSE, SERIAL
BOMB BLASTS ETC.
SUB GROUP V
BIOLOGICALLY
BIOLOGICAL
RELATED DISASTERS DISASTER &
EPIDEMICS, PEST
ATTACKS, CATTLE
EPIDEMICS & FOOD
POISONING ETC.
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Major Phases of Disaster Management Cycle.
Disaster
impact
Preparedness
Mitigation
Prevention
Response
Recovery
Development
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DM CONTINUUM
CYCLE
EXPAND – CONTRACT MODEL OF DM
Causal Factors of Disaster
Population
Growth
Poverty
DISASTER
Lack of
Information
Rapid
Urbanization
Environmentall
Degradation
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POVERTY
LACK OF RESOURCE BASES,
SUPPORT SYSTEM,
INSURANCE OPPORTUNITIES
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LACK OF INFORMATION
CENTRALIZED INFORMATION IS
HELPFUL ONLY FOR A CERTAIN
RANGE OF THE POPULATION,
PARTICULARLY GOVERNMENT.
LACK OF KNOWLEDGE IN
EVACUATION, FIRST AID, RESCUE
ETC.
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ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION
DESTRUCTION OF MANGROVE
SWAMPS IN COASTAL AREAS.
CONSTRUCTION OF HUGE DAMS
DESTRUCTING VAST AREA OF
FOREST.
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RAPID URBANISATION
EVERYBODY WANTS TO SETTLE IN
URBAN AREA. HIGH RATES CAN’T
ACCOMMODATE EVERY CLASS OF
PEOPLE. IT RESULTS IN GROWTH OF
SLUMS, UNPLANNED CONSTRUCTION
WITHOUT REGULATIONS.
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POPULATION GROWTH
EFFECT ON THE PEOPLE
LIVING IN CROWDED
AREAS.
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PARADIGM SHIFT IN DISASTER
MANAGEMENT
R
I
S
K
M
A
N
A
G
E
M
E
N
T
PREPAREDNESS
DISASTERS
RESPONSE
RELIEF
MITIGATION
REHABILITATION
PREVENTION
DEVELOPMENT
RECONSTRUCTION
C
R
I
S
I
S
M
A
N
A
G
E
M
E
N
T
NATIONAL VISION
TO BUILD A SAFER AND DISASTER RESILIENT INDIA BY
DEVELOPING A HOLISTIC, PROACTIVE, MULTI DISASTER
AND TECHNOLOGY DRIVEN STRATEGY FOR DISASTER
MANAGEMENT THROUGH COLLECTIVE EFFORTS OF ALL
GOVERNMENT AGENCIES AND NON GOVERNMENT
ORGANISATIONS.
 SAFER AND DISASTER RESILIENT INDIA
 HOLISTIC, PROACTIVE, MULTI DISASTER AND TECHNOLOGY
DRIVEN STRATEGY
 COLLECTIVE EFFORTS OF ALL GOVERNMENT AGENCIES AND
NON GOVERNMENT ORGANISATIONS
NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT STRUCTURE
CABINET COMMITTEE ON
MANAGEMENT OF
NATURAL CALAMITIES
NATIONAL CRISIS
MANAGEMENT
COMMITTEE
GOVT OF INDIA
NDMA
NEC
CABINET
COMMITTEE ON
SECURITY
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF
DISASTER MANAGEMENT
MHA
MINISTRIES &
DEPARTMENTS OF
GOVT OF INDIA
STATE GOVTs
ARMED FORCES
SCIENTIFIC & TECHNICAL
INSTITUTIONS
ACADEMIC
INSTITUTIONS
SDMAs
NATIONAL DISASTER
MITIGATION RESOURCE
CENTRES
NATIONAL DISASTER
RESPONSE FORCE
DISTTs
CORPORATE SECTOR
DDMAs
PROFESSIONAL
BODIES
LOCAL BODIES
COMMUNITY
NGOs
DISASTER MANAGEMENT ACT 2005
THE DISASTER MANAGEMENT ACT, 2005
• IT WAS ENACTED UNDER THE CONCURRENT LIST OF THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA
• THE ACT COMPRISES 79 SECTIONS AND 11 CHAPTERS
• DEFINES DISASTER AND DISASTER MANAGEMENT IN ITS NEW CONCEPT
• IT PROVIDES FOR THE PRE-REQUISITE INSTITUTIONAL
MONITORING AND IMPLEMENTATION OF PLANS
MECHANISM
FOR
• ENSURES MEASURES BY VARIOUS WINGS OF THE GOVERNMENT FOR THE
PREVENTION AND MITIGATION OF DISASTERS
• IN TUNE WITH THE PARADIGM SHIFT, THE STATE GOVERNMENTS HAVE BEEN
ADVISED TO AMEND THEIR RELIEF CODES
• THE ACT PROVIDES FOR A NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY (NDMA)
• THE STATE GOVERNMENTS SHALL CREATE STATE DISASTER MANAGEMENT
AUTHORITIES AND DISTRICT DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITIES
.
• THERE SHALL BE A DISASTER RESPONSE FUND AND DISASTER MITIGATION FUND AT
NATIONAL, STATE AND DISTRICT LEVELS
SALIENT FEATURES.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
CHAPTER 1- ( S1-S2)- PRELIMINARY
CHAPTER 2- ( S3-S13)- NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY.
CHAPTER 3- ( S14-S24) – STATE DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY.
CHAPTER 4- ( S25-S34) – DISTRICT DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY.
CHAPTER 5- ( S35-S40) – MEASURES BY THE GOVERNMENT FOR
DISASTER MANAGEMENT.
CHAPTER 6 - ( S41) –
LOCAL AUTHORITIES.
CHAPTER 7- (S42- S 43) – NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT
INSTITUTE.
CHAPTER 8- (S44- S 45) – NATIONAL DISASTER RESPONSE FORCE.
CHAPTER 9– (S46- S 50) – FINANCE, ACCOUNTS AND AUDIT.
CHAPTER 10– (S51- S60) –OFFENCES AND PENALTIES.
CHAPTER 11– (S61- S 79) – MISCELLANEOUS
PENAL PROVISIONS (SEC 51-60)
SECTION 51:
• PUNISHMENT FOR OBSTRUCTION AND/OR NONCOMPLIANCE OF THE DIRECTIONS GIVEN BY THE CENTRAL /
STATE GOVT, NEC, SEC, DDMA:
UPTO ONE YEAR IMPRISONMENT OR FINE OR BOTH.
•
IF SUCH OBSTRUCTION RESULTS IN LOSS OF LIVES OR
IMMINENT DANGER THEREOF : IMPRISONMENT MAY EXTEND
TO TWO YEARS.
PUNISHMENT FOR FALSE CLAIM FOR OBTAINING RELIEF,
ASSISTANCE ETC.
SECTION 52:
TWO YEARS’ IMPRISONMENT WITH FINE.
PUNISHMENT FOR MISAPPOPRIATION OF MONEY OR
MATERIALS
SECTION 53:
TWO YEARS’ IMPRISONMENT AND FINE.
PUNISHMENT FOR FALSE WARNING
•
SECTION 54:
ONE YEAR IMPRISONMENT OR FINE.
OFFENCES BY DEPARTMENTS OF THE GOVERNMENT
•
SECTION 55:
• IN CASE OF AN OFFENCE BY THE GOVT
DEPARTMENT, THE HEAD OF THE
DEPARTMENT TO BE HELD GUILTY UNLESS
HE PROVES OTHERWISE
• ANY OTHER OFFICER FOUND GUILTY TO BE
PROCEEDED AGAINST AND PUNISHED
REFUSAL TO PERFORM ANY DUTY BY ANY GOVT.
OFFICER
•
SECTION 56:
ONE YEAR IMPRISONMENT OR FINE.
PENALTY FOR CONTRAVENTION OF ANY ORDER OF
REQUISITIONING
•
SECTION 57:
ONE YEAR IMPRISONMENT OR FINE OR BOTH
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