Tlamelo O. Mmatli Senior Lecturer Department of Social Work University of Botswana GENERAL INFORMATION – BOTSWANA Approximately 2 million inhabitants - 2011 Census results 36% reside - in rural areas, 42% in urban villages, and 22% in cities and towns Poverty estimated at 40.3% in rural and 25% in urban areas in 2010/2011 (UNICEF, 2012) Inequality among the highest in the world (2009/2010 Botswana Core Welfare Indicators Survey) Dependency on minerals, especially diamonds Cont Unemployment - at 18% in 2009/2010 (UNICEF, 2012) Unemployment highest amongst those with only secondary education or less Highest level of unemployment among youth aged 15 – 19 years, at 41% in 2009/10: not in school and not working Unemployment amongst youth aged 20 – 24 at 34% within the same period (2009/10) Unemployment amongst women at 21% (UNICEF, 2012) A FOCUS ON PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES 1991 census– disability rate at 2.2% (CSO, 1991) 2001 census – disability rate at 2.99% (CSO, 2001) 2011 census – disability rate at 3.5% of population Many live in the rural areas and urban villages (CSO, 2011). Historically marginalization and exclusion from employment Focus on … Cont A large proportion of the working-age population who are unemployed Of those who are economically active, a significant proportion (39.4%) are paid in kind, whilst 41.0% are engaged in unpaid work in the family (CSO, 2001). Majority engaged in family agricultural activities People with disabilities classified among the poorest of the poor in the world Poverty and inequality affect people with disabilities the most Poverty associated with unemployment GOVERNMENT’S RESPONSE The Rehabilitation Services Division established in 1976 to coordinate service provision CBR introduced in 1979 – a strategy Botswana Council for the Disabled - 1980 Policy on the Care of People with disabilities - 1996 CBR Evaluation - 2000: People with disabilities left behind in the social and economic development of the country Policy – no tangible benefits for people with disabilities Received no meaningful education or training Unemployment was highest among them Recent Developments Growing awareness generally in recent years particularly regarding the unemployment status of people with disabilities OFFICE OF PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES - Activities Office of People with Disabilities established within the Office of the President in 2010 Engaged in awareness raising drive to sensitise the nation on the plight of people with disabilities, including their employment/unemployment situation Workshops for different stakeholders throughout the country Broad discussions on the situation of people with disabilities generally, including employment/unemployment issues Mainstreaming - focal persons appointed in all ministries Consultancy studies commissioned jointly by Government and International agencies Review of the Legal Instruments, Policies, Strategies and Programmes for the Integration of Issues for People with Disabilities - 2012 The majority of policies, programmes, strategies and plans that were reviewed did not specifically mention people with disabilities as beneficiaries For example, none of the poverty alleviation policies, programmes and strategies; agricultural programmes and citizen economic empowerment policies and programmes adequately incorporated issues for people with disabilities. Cont Citizen Economic Empowerment policies and programmes do not sufficiently include people with disabilities - seek to improve livelihoods of the population, and enhance capacity for selfemployment and self-reliance Cont When these policies and programmes were designed access for people with disabilities were not considered Not even reference to them or their issues. Thus they don’t even have formal inclusion/equality. The majority of the country laws did not offer sufficient protection to the rights of people with disabilities Disability Audit Disability Audit of Legislation and Policies Relating to the Education, Vocational Training and Employment of Persons with Disabilities in Botswana Three pieces of legislation Employment Act (Cap. 47:01 of 2008) Public Service Act (Act No. 30 of 2008) Workers Compensation Act (cap. 48:01 of 2001) Results Not compliant with either the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD, 2006) or the ILO Convention No. 159 on the Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment (Disabled Persons) (1983). Formal equality without substantive equality No provision for reasonable accommodation or affirmative action Results Cont No provision for job retention, return to work, medical or vocational rehabilitation No specific provision for the training/retraining, and of people with disabilities Self-employment for people with disabilities does not form part of their focus In a Nutshell People with disabilities remain marginalized and excluded from employment Citizen economic empowerment schemes that promote self- employment do not articulate how people with disabilities are be accommodated The legal framework in Botswana does not sufficiently protect the employment rights of people with disabilities The lack of a disability specific legislation or employment equity legislation does not help the situation The built environment is also prevent people with disabilities from accessing employment (Mmatli, 2007) Why is this so? Important things not yet done Ratification of CRPD – 27 Provides for: Opportunity to gain a living by work - as a right in an inclusive labour market - A disability specific law a requirement to (a) Prohibit discrimination (b) protect rights (c) Operationalize rights Secure employment in the public sector and private sector Creation of opportunities for self-employment – and assist in starting own business ILO CONVENTION NO. 159 ON THE VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EMPLOYMENT (DISABLED PERSONS) – domestication of Skilling and employment of people with disabilities A positive note Disability increasingly becoming part of the priority list for government ministries and departments For example, in December 2012 a Savingram on employment of graduates with disabilities Departments already responding Employment situation of graduates is likely to improve What of the nun-graduates?