Chapter 2 - FEG - AzarGrammar.com

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CHAPTER
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CONTENTS
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2-1 Expressing past time: the simple past
2-2 Forms of the simple past: regular verbs
2-3 Forms of the simple past: be
2-4 Regular verbs: pronunciation of –ed endings
2-5 Spelling of –ing and –ed forms
2-6 The principal parts of a verb
2-7 Irregular verbs: a reference list
2-8 The simple past and the past progressive
2-9 Forms of the past progressive
2-10 Expressing past time: using time clauses
2-11 Expressing past habit: used to
1
CHAPTER 2: PREVIEW
CHAPTER
CONTENT
Alada rides the bus to work.
Yesterday it rained and her clothes got wet.
Today she is taking extra clothes to work.
2
CHAPTER 2: PREVIEW
CHAPTER
CONTENT
Alada rides the bus to work.
Yesterday it rained and her clothes got wet.
Today she is taking extra clothes to work.
PRESENT TENSE
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CHAPTER 2: PREVIEW
CHAPTER
CONTENT
Alada rides the bus to work.
Yesterday it rained and her clothes got wet.
Today she is taking extra clothes to work.
PRESENT TENSE
PAST TENSE
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2-1 EXPRESSING PAST TIME: THE SIMPLE PAST
CHAPTER
CONTENT
We graduated from college in 2007.
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2-1 EXPRESSING PAST TIME: THE SIMPLE PAST
CHAPTER
CONTENT
THE SIMPLE PAST
(a) Our family ate lunch outside yesterday.
(b) Adrianna studied English for six hours
last Wednesday.
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2-1 EXPRESSING PAST TIME: THE SIMPLE PAST
CHAPTER
CONTENT
THE SIMPLE PAST
(a) Our family ate lunch outside yesterday.
(b) Adrianna studied English for six hours
last Wednesday.
SIMPLE PAST
activities or situations
began and ended in past
(yesterday, last night, in 2007)
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2-1 EXPRESSING PAST TIME: THE SIMPLE PAST
CHAPTER
CONTENT
THE SIMPLE PAST
(c) They watched the movie last night.
(d) Alexandra answered the question yesterday.
watch + ed = watched
answer + ed = answered
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2-1 EXPRESSING PAST TIME: THE SIMPLE PAST
CHAPTER
CONTENT
THE SIMPLE PAST
(e) We slept in tents at camp last summer.
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2-1 EXPRESSING PAST TIME: THE SIMPLE PAST
CHAPTER
CONTENT
THE SIMPLE PAST
(e) We slept in tents at camp last summer.
(f) I understood most of the directions yesterday.
Irregular past:
sleep
understand
eat
slept
understood
ate
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2-1 EXPRESSING PAST TIME: THE SIMPLE PAST
CHAPTER
CONTENT
THE SIMPLE PAST
(g) I was a lifeguard last summer.
(h) They were in Belgium last month.
Simple past forms of be
was and were
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2-2 FORMS OF THE SIMPLE PAST: REGULAR VERBS
CHAPTER
CONTENT
We started school last week.
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2-2 FORMS OF THE SIMPLE PAST: REGULAR VERBS
STATEMENT
CHAPTER
CONTENT
I-You-She-He-It-We-They
started school last week.
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2-2 FORMS OF THE SIMPLE PAST: REGULAR VERBS
CHAPTER
CONTENT
STATEMENT I-You-She-He-It-We-They
started school last week.
NEGATIVE
I-You-She-He-It-We-They
did not start school last week.
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2-2 FORMS OF THE SIMPLE PAST: REGULAR VERBS
QUESTION
CHAPTER
CONTENT
Did I-you-she-he-it-we-they
start school last week?
SHORT
ANSWER
Yes, I-you-she-he-it-we-they did.
No, I-you-she-he-it-we-they didn’t.
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2-3 FORMS OF THE SIMPLE PAST: BE
CHAPTER
CONTENT
She was sick last Monday.
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2-3 FORMS OF THE SIMPLE PAST: BE
CHAPTER
CONTENT
STATEMENT I-She-He-It was home last week.
We-You-They were home last week.
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2-3 FORMS OF THE SIMPLE PAST: BE
CHAPTER
CONTENT
STATEMENT I-She-He-It was home last week.
We-You-They were home last week.
NEGATIVE
I-She-He-It was not home last week.
We-You-They were not home last
week.
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2-3 FORMS OF THE SIMPLE PAST: BE
CHAPTER
CONTENT
QUESTION
Was I-she-he-it home last week?
Were we-you-they home last week?
SHORT
ANSWER
Yes, I-she-he-it was.
Yes, we-you-they were.
No, I-she-he-it- wasn’t.
No, we-you-they weren’t.
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CHAPTER
CONTENT
2-1, 2-2, 2-3 Let’s Practice
They were at the movies last
night at 8:00.
?
is
NEGATIVE STATEMENT:
They _______
weren’t at the movies last night at 8:00.
ACCURATE, AFFIRMATIVE STATEMENT:
They were
____ at the grocery store last night at 8:00.
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CHAPTER
CONTENT
2-1, 2-2, 2-3 Let’s Practice
This airplane was made
in 1625.
?
1943
is
NEGATIVE STATEMENT:
wasn’t made in 1625.
This airplane ______
ACCURATE, AFFIRMATIVE STATEMENT:
This airplane was
___ made in 1943.
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2-1, 2-2, 2-3 Let’s Practice
CHAPTER
CONTENT
Did Carla get a bad grade
on her test?
get
?
NEGATIVE STATEMENT:
Carla ________
didn’t get a bad grade on her test.
ACCURATE, AFFIRMATIVE STATEMENT:
Carla ________
an excellent grade on her test.
got
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2-4 REGULAR VERBS: PRONUNCIATION OF –ED
ENDINGS
CHAPTER
CONTENT
She talked to me for an hour.
talk/t/
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2-4 REGULAR VERBS: PRONUNCIATION OF –ED
ENDINGS
CHAPTER
CONTENT
(a) talked
k = talk/t/
stopped
pp = stop/t/
hissed = hiss/t/
watched = watch/t/
washed = wash/t/
voiceless sound + -ed
/t/
examples: /k/, /p/
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2-4 REGULAR VERBS: PRONUNCIATION OF –ED
ENDINGS
CHAPTER
CONTENT
(a) talked = talk/t/
stopped = stop/t/
ss = hiss/t/
hissed
watched
ch = watch/t/
sh = wash/t/
washed
voiceless sound + -ed
/t/
examples: /k/, /p/, /s/, /ch/, /sh/
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2-4 REGULAR VERBS: PRONUNCIATION OF –ED
ENDINGS
CHAPTER
CONTENT
ll = call/d/
(b) called
n = rain/d/
rained
lived = live/d/
robbed = rob/d/
stayed = stay/d/
voiced sound + -ed
examples: /l/, /n/
/d/
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2-4 REGULAR VERBS: PRONUNCIATION OF –ED
ENDINGS
CHAPTER
CONTENT
(b) called = call/d/
rained = rain/d/
v = live/d/
lived
bb = rob/d/
robbed
stayed
y = stay/d/
voiced sound + -ed
/d/
examples: /l/, /n/, /v/, /b/, all vowel sounds
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2-4 REGULAR VERBS: PRONUNCIATION OF –ED
ENDINGS
CHAPTER
CONTENT
t = wait / d/
(c) waited
d = need / d/
needed
e
e
e
“t” or “d” + -ed
/ d/
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behave__
?
1. /t/
2. /d/
3. / d/
e
2-4 Let’s Practice
CHAPTER
CONTENT
29
behave__
/d/
1. /t/
2. /d/
3. / d/
e
2-4 Let’s Practice
CHAPTER
CONTENT
30
plant___
?
1. /t/
2. /d/
3. / d/
e
2-4 Let’s Practice
CHAPTER
CONTENT
31
plant___
/ d/
1. /t/
2. /d/
3. / d/
e
2-4 Let’s Practice
CHAPTER
CONTENT
32
e
2-5 SPELLING OF –ING AND –ED FORMS
CHAPTER
CONTENT
We are learning to speak English.
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2-5 SPELLING OF –ING AND –ED FORMS
END OF VERB
-e
(a) smile
smiling
smiled
CHAPTER
CONTENT
DOUBLE THE CONSONANT?
NO
hoped
hope
hoping
-ing form: drop -e, add -ing
-ed form: add -d
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2-5 SPELLING OF –ING AND –ED FORMS
END OF VERB
Two Consonants
CHAPTER
CONTENT
DOUBLE THE CONSONANT?
NO
(b) help
helping
helped
learned
learn
learning
Two consonants
add -ing
add -ed
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2-5 SPELLING OF –ING AND –ED FORMS
END OF VERB
Two Vowels
+ One Consonant
CHAPTER
CONTENT
DOUBLE THE CONSONANT?
NO
(c) rain
raining
rained
heated
heat
heating
Two vowels + one consonant
add -ing
add -ed
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2-5 SPELLING OF –ING AND –ED FORMS
CHAPTER
CONTENT
ONE-SYLLABLE VERBS
END OF VERB
One Vowel
+ One Consonant
DOUBLE THE CONSONANT?
YES
(d) stopped
stopping
stop
planned
plan
planning
Double the consonant and
add -ing
add -ed
37
2-5 SPELLING OF –ING AND –ED FORMS
CHAPTER
CONTENT
TWO-SYLLABLE VERBS
END OF VERB
One Vowel
+ One Consonant
DOUBLE THE CONSONANT?
NO
(e) visited
visiting
vis
it
offered
offer
offering
First syllable stressed
add -ing
add -ed
38
CHAPTER
CONTENT
2-5 SPELLING OF –ING AND –ED FORMS
TWO-SYLLABLE VERBS
END OF VERB
One Vowel
+ One Consonant
DOUBLE THE CONSONANT?
YES
(f) prefer
preferring
preferred
admit
admitting
admitted
Second syllable stressed,
double the consonant
add -ing
add -ed
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CHAPTER
CONTENT
2-5 SPELLING OF –ING AND –ED FORMS
END OF VERB
-y
(g) play
enjoy
DOUBLE THE CONSONANT?
NO
playing
played
enjoying
enjoyed
vowel + -y
keep the -y
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CHAPTER
CONTENT
2-5 SPELLING OF –ING AND –ED FORMS
END OF VERB
-y
DOUBLE THE CONSONANT?
NO
(h) worry
worrying
worried
study
studying
studied
consonant + -y
-y + -ing
-i + -ed
-y
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CHAPTER
CONTENT
2-5 SPELLING OF –ING AND –ED FORMS
END OF VERB
-ie
(i) die
tie
dying
died
tying
tied
-ie
-y + -ing
add -d
42
CHAPTER
CONTENT
2-5 Let’s Practice
rain
-ING form
-ED form
raining
________
________
rained
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CHAPTER
CONTENT
2-5 Let’s Practice
study
-ING form
-ED form
studying
_________
_________
studied
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CHAPTER
CONTENT
2-5 Let’s Practice
lie
-ING form
-ED form
lying
_____
_____
lied
Please don’t
lie to me!
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2-6 THE PRINCIPAL PARTS OF A VERB
CHAPTER
CONTENT
They became friends.
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2-6 THE PRINCIPAL PARTS OF A VERB
CHAPTER
CONTENT
SIMPLE FORM
Regular Verbs
finish
hope
try
Irregular Verbs
see
sing
go
Simple Form
No final –s, –ed, or –ing
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2-6 THE PRINCIPAL PARTS OF A VERB
CHAPTER
CONTENT
SIMPLE PAST
Regular Verbs
finished
hoped
tried
Irregular Verbs
saw
sang
went
Simple Past
–ed for regular verbs
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2-6 THE PRINCIPAL PARTS OF A VERB
CHAPTER
CONTENT
PAST PARTICIPLE
Regular Verbs
finished
hoped
tried
Irregular Verbs
seen
sung
gone
Past Participle
–ed for regular verbs
perfect tenses & passive
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2-6 THE PRINCIPAL PARTS OF A VERB
CHAPTER
CONTENT
PRESENT PARTICIPLE
Regular Verbs
finishing
hoping
trying
Irregular Verbs
seeing
singing
going
Present Participle
–ing for all verbs
used with progressive tenses
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2-7 IRREGULAR VERBS: A REFERENCE LIST
CHAPTER
CONTENT
Somebody spent all my money.
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2-7 IRREGULAR VERBS: A REFERENCE LIST
SIMPLE FORM:
awake
SIMPLE PAST:
awoke
PAST PARTICIPLE:
awoken
CHAPTER
CONTENT
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2-7 IRREGULAR VERBS: A REFERENCE LIST
SIMPLE FORM:
forget
SIMPLE PAST:
forgot
CHAPTER
CONTENT
PAST PARTICIPLE: forgotten
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2-7 IRREGULAR VERBS: A REFERENCE LIST
SIMPLE FORM:
shave
SIMPLE PAST:
shaved
PAST PARTICIPLE:
shaved/shaven
CHAPTER
CONTENT
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CHAPTER
CONTENT
2-7 IRREGULAR VERBS: A REFERENCE LIST
SIMPLE FORM:
throw
SIMPLE PAST:
threw
PAST PARTICIPLE: thrown
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CHAPTER
CONTENT
2-7 Let’s Practice
SIMPLE FORM:
give
SIMPLE PAST:
gave
_____
given
PAST PARTICIPLE: _____
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CHAPTER
CONTENT
2-7 Let’s Practice
SIMPLE FORM:
sit
SIMPLE PAST:
___
sat
PAST PARTICIPLE:
___
sat
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CHAPTER
CONTENT
2-7 Let’s Practice
SIMPLE FORM:
think
SIMPLE PAST:
thought
_______
thought
PAST PARTICIPLE: _______
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2-8 THE SIMPLE PAST AND THE PAST PROGRESSIVE
CHAPTER
CONTENT
He ran to work yesterday.
He was running when the bus drove by.
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2-8 THE SIMPLE PAST AND THE PAST PROGRESSIVE
CHAPTER
CONTENT
THE SIMPLE PAST
X
(a) Edgar ran to work yesterday.
(b) Pat drove to work this morning.
began and ended at particular
time in the past
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2-8 THE SIMPLE PAST AND THE PAST PROGRESSIVE
CHAPTER
CONTENT
THE PAST PROGRESSIVE
X
X
(c) Edgar was running when the bus drove by.
(d) They were eating when I got home.
in progress
was/were + -ing
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2-8 THE SIMPLE PAST AND THE PAST PROGRESSIVE
CHAPTER
CONTENT
THE PAST PROGRESSIVE
X
X
(e) When the bus drove by, Edgar was running.
(f) The bus drove by while Edgar was running.
when = at that time
while = during that time
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2-9 FORMS OF THE PAST PROGRESSIVE
CHAPTER
CONTENT
He wasn’t studying.
63
2-9 FORMS OF THE PAST PROGRESSIVE
STATEMENT
I-She-He-It
was talking.
You-We-They were talking.
NEGATIVE
I-She-He-It
CHAPTER
CONTENT
was not talking.
wasn’t talking.
You-We-They were not talking.
weren’t talking.
64
2-9 FORMS OF THE PAST PROGRESSIVE
QUESTION
Was I-she-he-it
Were you-we-they
talking?
talking?
SHORT
ANSWER
Yes, I-she-he-it
No, I-she-he-it
was.
wasn’t.
Yes, you-we-they
No, you-we-they
were.
weren’t.
CHAPTER
CONTENT
65
CHAPTER
CONTENT
2-9 Let’s Practice
walk
were walking
Yesterday, the camels ___________
in the desert.
66
CHAPTER
CONTENT
2-9 Let’s Practice
At 8:00, we began to work.
work
were working
At 8:30, we ____________.
67
CHAPTER
CONTENT
2-9 Let’s Practice
was looking at Mac.
Spot __________
look
wasn’t looking at Spot.
Mac _____________
Mac
Spot
68
2-10 EXPRESSING PAST TIME: USING TIME CLAUSES
CHAPTER
CONTENT
Our son called while we were using
the computer.
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2-10 EXPRESSING PAST TIME: USING TIME CLAUSES
CHAPTER
CONTENT
main clause
time clause
(a) After I exercised, I took a shower.
main clause
(b) I took a shower
time clause
after I exercised.
(a) time clause
main clause
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2-10 EXPRESSING PAST TIME: USING TIME CLAUSES
CHAPTER
CONTENT
main clause
time clause
(a) After I exercised, I took a shower.
main clause
(b) I took a shower
time clause
after I exercised.
(b) main clause time clause
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2-10 EXPRESSING PAST TIME: USING TIME CLAUSES
CHAPTER
CONTENT
(c) I took a shower after I exercised.
(d) Before I took a shower, I exercised.
after
before
until
as soon as
while
when
subject
+
and verb
=
a time
clause
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2-10 EXPRESSING PAST TIME: USING TIME CLAUSES
CHAPTER
CONTENT
(e) I exercised until I took a shower.
(f) As soon as I exercised, I took a shower.
until = to that time and no longer
as soon as = immediately after
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2-10 EXPRESSING PAST TIME: USING TIME CLAUSES
CHAPTER
CONTENT
(g) Mary came home while I was studying.
(h) When Mary came home, I was studying.
main clause + comma + time clause
time clause + comma + main clause
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2-10 EXPRESSING PAST TIME: USING TIME CLAUSES
CHAPTER
CONTENT
(i) When I rang the doorbell, it played music.
First: I rang the doorbell
Then: it played music
when
allows simple past
in both clauses
75
2-10 EXPRESSING PAST TIME: USING TIME CLAUSES
CHAPTER
CONTENT
(j) She was learning to ski while he was
playing golf.
two actions at the same time
past progressive okay in both
76
CHAPTER
CONTENT
2-10 Let’s Practice
attend
work
were working our children
While we ___________,
were attending school.
____________
77
CHAPTER
CONTENT
2-10 Let’s Practice
fall asleep
read
Lynn _________
fell asleep while she __________
was reading
a book.
78
2-10 Let’s Practice
CHAPTER
CONTENT
First: I went shopping.
Then: I put the food away.
I put the food away
I went shopping ________________.
After _____________,
I put the food away after ______________.
I went shopping
________________
79
2-11 EXPRESSING PAST HABIT: USED TO
CHAPTER
CONTENT
He used to be a baby, but now he is
man with a family.
80
2-11 EXPRESSING PAST HABIT: USED TO
CHAPTER
CONTENT
(a) I used to swim every afternoon.
Now I work in the afternoon.
(b) Fatima used to play piano, but now
she plays the violin.
(c) Jasmine used to laugh, but she
doesn’t anymore.
used to
past situations
no longer exist
used to + simple form of a verb
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2-11 EXPRESSING PAST HABIT: USED TO
CHAPTER
CONTENT
(d) Did you used to swim every afternoon?
(OR Did you use to swim every afternoon?)
did + subject + used to
(OR did + subject + use to)
82
2-11 EXPRESSING PAST HABIT: USED TO
CHAPTER
CONTENT
(e) I didn’t used to swim every day, but
now I swim every afternoon.
(f) Fatima never used to love school, but
now she loves it.
For negative ideas,
never is more common.
83
CHAPTER
CONTENT
2-11 Let’s Practice
Correct?
The children used to swam in the ocean.
84
CHAPTER
CONTENT
2-11 Let’s Practice
Correct? No
The
The children
children used
used to
to swam
swim in
inthe
theocean.
ocean.
85
CHAPTER
CONTENT
2-11 Let’s Practice
Correct?
Were you used to ask questions in school?
86
CHAPTER
CONTENT
2-11 Let’s Practice
Correct? No
Were
Did you used to ask questions in school?
87
PHOTO CREDITS
CHAPTER
CONTENT
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its licensors. All rights reserved.
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• Clipart, Inc.
88

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