Chapter 2

Report
Learning Outcomes
Chapter 2
Challenges for Managers
1.
Describe the factors that affect organizations competing in the
global economy.
2.
Explain how cultural differences form the basis of work-related
attitudes.
3.
Describe the challenges and positive influences diversity bring to
today’s business environment.
4.
Discuss the role of ethics, character, and personal integrity in the
organization.
5.
Explain five issues that pose ethical dilemmas for managers.
6.
Describe the effects of technological advances on today’s
workforce.
© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
1
Learning Outcome
Describe the factors that affect
organizations competing in the global
economy.
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Four Challenges
Globalization
Diversity
Ethics
Technology
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Remaining Competitive
• Globalizing the firm’s operations
• Managing a diverse workforce
• Keeping up with technological
change and implementing
technology in the workplace
• Managing ethical behavior
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Changing Business
Perspectives
From International (which
implies an individual’s or
organization’s held nationality
is strongly in consciousness)
To Globalization (which
implies the world is free
from national boundaries and
that it is really a borderless world)
© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
Changing Business
Perspectives
From Multinational Organizations
(in which the organization was
recognized as doing business
with other countries)
To Transnational Organizations
(in which the global viewpoint
supersedes national issues)
© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
Beyond the Book:
China and Globalization
• Suntech Power, China’s largest solar
panel manufacturer, opening a plant in
Arizona.
• Will build panels from parts
manufactured in China and Texas.
• Important factor – shipping costs.
• Suntech has goal of reaching 20% US
market share by end of 2010.
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CHANGES IN THE
GLOBAL MARKETPLACE
• Opening of Chinese market
• Creation of the European Union
• Establishment of NAFTA
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Understanding Cultural Differences
HOFSTEDE’S DIMENSIONS
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Where the U.S. Stands
ON HOFSTEDE’S DIMENSIONS
INDIVIDUALISM
Collectivism
High power distance
Low power distance
High uncertainty avoidance
LOW UNCERTAINTY AVOIDANCE
MASCULINITY
Long-term orientation
Femininity
SHORT-TERMM ORIENTATION
© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
2
Learning Outcome
Explain how cultural differences form
the basis of work-related attitudes.
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Developing Cross-Cultural Sensitivity
• Cultural sensitivity training
• Cross-cultural task forces/teams
• Global view of human resource
functions
• Planning
• Recruitment and Selection
• Compensation
• Training and Development
© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
3
Learning Outcome
Describe the challenges and positive
influences diversity brings to today’s
business environment.
© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
Diversity
all forms of individual differences,
including culture, gender, age,
ability, personality, religious
affiliation, economic class, social
status, military attachment and
sexual orientation
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Diversity Statistics for the
Workplace
Ethnic
2020 Workforce: 68% white non-Hispanic
14% Hispanic
11% African-American
5% Asian
Gender 2020 Workforce: 50% male
50% female
© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
Beyond the Book:
Diversity in College Football
• According to The Institute for Diversity and
Ethics in Sport at the University of South
Florida, key leadership positions at Football
Bowl Subdivision schools remain
predominantly white and male.
• 100% of athletic conference commissioners.
• 93.3% of university presidents
• 86.7% of athletic directors
• 92.5% of head football coaches
• 82.9% of faculty
© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
WOMEN
& OBSTACLES AT WORK
•
•
•
•
Comprise over 60% of the workforce
Earn 49% of all doctorates
Earn 60% of master’s degrees
Earn 58% of undergraduate degrees
BUT
• Little increase in number of women CEOs.
• Earn 81% of what male counterparts do.
• Encounter the glass ceiling in the workplace
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Diversity Statistics Affecting
the Workplace
Age
By 2030, people over 65 will comprise
20% of the population.
Ability
An estimated 50 million disabled live in the
U.S.; their unemployment rate exceeds
50%.
© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
Beyond the Book:
Diversifying Dell
• Reverse mentoring scheme at Dell.
• Women in middle-management mentor
senior-level men.
• Based on recognition that some aspects
of leadership do not come as naturally
to men as they do to women.
© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
Diversity’s Benefits &
Problems
BENEFITS
•Attracts and retains the best
talent
• Improves marketing efforts
• Promotes creativity and
innovation
•Results in better problem
solving
•Enhances organizational
flexibility
PROBLEMS
•
•
•
•
•
Resistance to change
Lack of cohesiveness
Communication problems
Interpersonal conflicts
Slower decision making
© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
4
Learning Outcome
Discuss the role of ethics, character,
and personal integrity in the
organization.
© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
Ethical
Theories
[Rule-Based Theory]
an ethical theory that emphasizes the character of the act
itself rather than its effects
[Consequential Theory]
an ethical theory that emphasizes the consequences or
results of behavior
[Character Theory]
an ethical theory that emphasizes the character, personal
virtues, and integrity of the individual
© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
5
Learning Outcome
Explain five issues that pose ethical
dilemmas for managers.
© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
Employee Rights Issues
Technology and privacy
HIV/AIDS
Confidentiality
© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
Sexual Harassment =
Unwanted Sexual Attention
• Gender Harassment – crude comments;
behaviors that convey hostility toward a
particular gender
• Unwanted Sexual Attention – unwanted
touching, unwanted pressure for dates
• Sexual Coercion – demands for sexual
favors through job-related threats or
promises
© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
Organizational Justice
Distributive Justice –
fairness of the outcomes
that individuals receive
in an organization
Procedural Justice –
fairness by which the
outcomes are allocated
in an organization
© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
Individual and Organizational
Responsibility
Whistle-Blower – an employee who
informs authorities of the
wrongdoing of his or her company
or coworkers
– Public Hero or Vile Wretch?
Social Responsibility – the obligation
of an organization to behave
ethically
© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
The Four Way Test
1. Is it the TRUTH?
2. Is it FAIR to all concerned?
3. Will it build GOODWILL and better
friendships?
4. Will it be BENEFICIAL to all
concerned?
© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
6
Learning Outcome
Describe the effects of
technological advances on today’s
workforce.
© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
Technological Innovation
Technology
The intellectual and mechanical processes used by an
organization. The intellectual and mechanical
processes used by an organization to transform inputs
into products or services that meet organizational
goals.
Internet
Examples
Expert System
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Robotics
Beyond the Book:
Addicted to the Internet
• Technology can be addicting.
• Key warning sign – being preoccupied with
online activities, adversely affecting
relationships
• Types – pornography, gambling, auctions
sites, games.
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Alternative Work
Arrangements
Telecommuting
Satellite offices
Virtual offices
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Alternative Work Arrangements
[Employees]
•
•
•
Gain flexibility
Save the commute to work
Enjoy the comforts of home
[But, they ]
•
•
•
•
Have distractions
Lack socialization opportunities
Lack interaction with supervisors
Identify less with the organization
© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
Technological Change Requires
Managers to:
• Develop technical competence to
gain workers’ respect
• Focus on helping workers manage
the stress of their work
• Take advantage of the wealth of
information available to motivate,
coach, and counsel—not to control
© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
Help Employees Adjust by
• Involving them in decision making
regarding technological change
• Selecting technology that increases
workers’ skill requirements
• Providing effective training
• Establishing support groups
• Encouraging reinvention (creative
application of new technology)
© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
1. While watching this sequence,
pretend you have arrived in Tokyo,
and you are experiencing what you
are seeing. Do you understand
everything you see?
Lost in Translation
2. Is Charlotte bewildered by her
experiences? Is she experiencing
some culture shock?
3. What aspects of Japanese culture
appear in this sequence? What do
you see as important values of
Japanese culture? Review the
Chapter 2 section, "Cultural
Differences," to gain some insights
about these questions.
© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

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