2-Jose Pons_session_2

Report
Vienna Convention for the Protection of the
Ozone Layer/Montreal Protocol: lessons
learned from the phase-out of ozone-depleting
substances process and support for climate
protection
Jose Pons
HFC Management Workshop
Paris, 11 July 2014
1
It´s Impossible…..
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Initial rejection of the hypothesis of Rowland and Molina
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Phasing-out ODS was impossible because:
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ODS were essential
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ODS were non-flammable
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There was not capacity to produce alternatives
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Cost would be prohibitive
Joe Farman reported in Nature in 1985 existence of Ozone Hole
Lesson: We were lucky that discovery of the Ozone Hole
prompted action, but it would not be wise to wait till nature
warns us again to react.
H F C M a n a g e m e n t W o r k s h o p , 11 - 12 J u l y 2 0 1 4, P a r i s
2
Take the big/low hanging fruit first….
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The initial reductions are easy, basically cut waste...
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Attempted at Kyoto, but...
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Necessary that all countries commit to the Protocol
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Countries have a common but differentiated responsibility to protect
and manage the global commons
Developing countries (A5) received grace periods to complete their
phase-outs at a slower pace than developed countries
The Multilateral Fund for the Implementation of the Montreal
Protocol assisted A5 parties to the Montreal Protocol
Lesson: Need global commitment to succeed.
H F C M a n a g e m e n t W o r k s h o p , 11 - 12 J u l y 2 0 1 4, P a r i s
3
Basing Policies on Sound Science
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Panels for Scientific, Environmental Effects, Technology , and
Economic Assessments established in 1989
Provided independent assessments to help Parties make informed
decisions. Major reports by each Panel and a Synthesis Report
produced every four years
Hundreds of specialists shared their know-how to allow Parties see
the bigger picture and make the right decisions
First decade of Protocol brought impressive changes in the phaseout of ODS. Different Amendments forced more strict controls
Lesson: Well informed Parties able to tackle problems.
H F C M a n a g e m e n t W o r k s h o p , 11 - 12 J u l y 2 0 1 4, P a r i s
4
Making it Happen
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Technical Option Committees identified alternative technologies
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Parties to report annual production and consumption of ODS
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Strategies for phase-out adjusted to the reality of each application
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Some uses essential, but did not require new production of ODS
because stocks could last decades (Halons), other uses still need
Essential or Critical Use Exemptions (MDIs)
Needed to understand banks of ODS, their size, rate of emissions ,
and potential to recovery , as well finding proper destructions
processes
Lesson: Different solutions tailored to each case and
moment.
H F C M a n a g e m e n t W o r k s h o p , 11 - 12 J u l y 2 0 1 4, P a r i s
5
Phase-out: Start and Strengthen
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In many cases replacement were not readily available or were
extremely expensive
Phase-out was not only about chemicals but also about processes
Where a single chemical was originally used many alternatives
emerged
Development and validation of new technologies essential
Parties understood changing circumstances and forced action on
new substances
Lesson: Change controlled and gradual, final stage of ODS
phase–out reached without problems.
H F C M a n a g e m e n t W o r k s h o p , 11 - 12 J u l y 2 0 1 4, P a r i s
6
Technology Transfer
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An Executive Committee comprising members from A5 and non A5
oversees the operation of the Multilateral Fund
The Multilateral Fund and Implementing Agencies complete
projects to phase-out ODS in A5
Offices responsible for Implementing Country Programs or National
Phase-out Strategies and Institutional Strengthening were
established in all A5
Regional Networks and UNEP DTIE helped disseminate information
Lesson: Special provisions of the MP enabled A5 to comply
with the Protocol and be full partners.
H F C M a n a g e m e n t W o r k s h o p , 11 - 12 J u l y 2 0 1 4, P a r i s
7
Climate and Ozone
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The expected recovery of the Ozone layer is affected by Climate
Change
Ozone has long times of response, Climate has an even bigger
inertia; in both cases we are in for the long run
Phase-out of CFCs helped mitigate Climate Change, but there is still
much that can be done
The Montreal Protocol has important human and institutional
resources deployed around the world and a proven record managing
the phase-out of ODS
Let us work together.
H F C M a n a g e m e n t W o r k s h o p , 11 - 12 J u l y 2 0 1 4, P a r i s
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