### Microeconomics: Theory and Applications David Besanko and

```Chapter 2
Demand and Supply Analysis
Outline
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Competitive Markets Defined
The Market Demand Curve
The Market Supply Curve
Equilibrium
Characterizing Demand and Supply:
Elasticity
2
Example: Oil Market
Crude oil prices 1947 – 2004
OPEC oil production
Why?
 Weather, Hurricanes in Gulf
 China and India economies booming
 Political Crisis with Iran, Iraq, Russia, Nigeria
 Oil production per day in Non-OPEC countries declining
 Uncertainty over OPEC production capabilities
3
Example: Oil Market (cont’d)

How could we bring prices down?
 Reduce Demand – short-run
 Find new reserves – short-run
 Develop new technologies that are not reliant on
oil
 Forward thinking solution
 These become feasible as oil prices rise. Many are
now feasible
4
Competitive Markets
Definition: Are those with sellers and buyers
that are small and numerous enough that they
take the market price as given when they
decide how much to buy and sell.
5
Competitive Market Assumptions
1. Fragmented market: many buyers and sellers

Implies buyers and sellers are price takers
2. Undifferentiated Products: consumers
3.
4.
perceive the product to be identical so don’t
care who they buy it from
know the price of all sellers
 Free entry into the market, so if profitable for
new firms to enter into the market they will
6
Market Demand

Market Demand function: Tells us how the quantity
of a good demanded by the sum of all consumers in the
market depends on various factors.
 Qd =(Q,p,po, I,…)

The Demand Curve: Plots the aggregate quantity of a
good that consumers are willing to buy at different
prices, holding constant other demand drivers such as
prices of other goods, consumer income, quality.
 Qd=Q(p)
7
Market Demand – Example
Demand for New Automobiles in the US
Price (thousands of dollars)
53
40
0
Demand curve for automobiles in the
United States in 2000
2
5.3
Quantity (millions of
automobiles per year)
8
Market Demand
Note

On a graph:
 P, price, is ALWAYS on vertical axis and Q on
horizontal axis.

When writing out a demand function:
 we write demand as Q as a function of P… If P is
written as function of Q, it is called the inverse
demand.
 Demand Function: Qd=100-2P

Inverse Demand Function: P=50 - Qd/2
9
Market Demand
Law of Demand


Law of Demand states that the quantity of a
good demanded decreases when the price of
this good increases.
 Empirical regularity
The demand curve: shifts when factors other
than own price change…
 If the change increases the willingness of
consumers to acquire the good, the demand curve
shifts right
 If the change decreases the willingness of
consumers to acquire the good, the demand curve
shifts left
10
Market Demand
Some Demand Shifters
Consumer incomes
 Consumer tastes
What would a rise in tax rate do?

Note: For a given demand curve we assume everything
else but price is held fixed.
11
Market Demand
Rule


A move along the demand curve for a good can
only be triggered by a change in the price of
that good.
Any change in another factor that affects the
consumers’ willingness to pay for the good
results in a shift in the demand curve for the
good
12
Market Supply

Market Supply Function: Tells us how the
quantity of a good supplied by the sum of all
producers in the market depends on various
factors
 Qs=Q(p,po,w, …)
 Po = price of other goods

Market Supply Curve: Plots the aggregate
quantity of a good that will be offered for sale at
different prices.
 Qs=Q(P)
13
Market Supply
E.g. Supply Curve for Wheat in Canada
Price (dollars per bushel)
Supply curve for wheat
0
0.15
Quantity (billions of
bushels per year)
14
Market Supply

The Law of Supply states that the quantity of a
good offered increases when the price of this good
increases.
 Empirical regularity

The supply curve shifts when factors other than
own price change…
 If the change increases the willingness of producers to
offer the good at the same price, the supply curve
shifts right
 If the change decreases the willingness of producers
to offer the good at the same price, the supply curve
shifts left
15
Market Supply
Supply Shifters



Price of factors of production e.g. wage
Technology changes
Weather conditions
 Hurricane Katrina reduced supply of oil

Number of producers change
What is the effect of a rise in the minimum wage?
16
Market Supply
Rule


A move along the supply curve for a good can
only be triggered by a change in the price of that
good.
Any change in another factor that affects the
producers’ willingness to offer for the good
results in a shift in the supply curve for the
good.
17
Market Supply
Supply Curve: QS = p + .05r
 QS = quantity of wheat (billions of bushels)
 p = price of wheat (dollars per bushel)
 r = average rainfall in western Canada,May –
August (inches per month)
Questions:
1.What is the quantity of wheat supplied at price of
\$2 and rainfall of 3 inches per month?

2.15
18
Market Supply
QS = p + .05r
2.
3.
4.
How do you write the supply curve if rainfall is 3
inches per month?
 QS = p + 0.15
Does the law of supply hold?
 We know because the constant in front of p is
positive.
As rainfall increases how does it shift the supply
curve? (e.g., r = 4 => Q = p + 0.2)

To the right
19
Market Supply
QS = p + .05r
Price (\$)
r=0
r=3
Supply with
no rain
Supply with 3” rain
0 .15
Quantity,
Billion bushels
20
Market Equilibrium
Definition: A market equilibrium is a price such
that, at this price, the quantities demanded and
supplied are the same.
(Demand and supply curves intersect at
equilibrium)
21
Market Equilibrium
Practice: Finding Equilibrium Price and
Quantity for Cranberries
Set-Up:
Qd = 500 – 4p
QS = -100 + 2p

p = price of cranberries (dollars per barrel)

Q = demand or supply in millions of barrels per
year
Questions:
1.Find the equilibrium price of cranberries?
22
Market Equilibrium
Practice: Finding Equilibrium Price and
Quantity for Cranberries
Set supply equal to demand (Qd = Qs )
1.


500 – 4p = -100 + 2p
Now solve for P:
 P* = \$100
Find the equilibrium price of cranberries?
2.

Plug P* back into either Qd OR Qs
 Plugging into Qd: 500-4(100)=100
 Plugging into Qs: -100+2(100)=100
 Q*=100
23
Market Equilibrium
Practice: Finding Equilibrium Price and
Quantity for Cranberries

1.
Now lets see how to graph supply and demand
Some folks like to rewrite so Q is on the RHS
 Qd = 500 – 4p OR p = 125 - Qd/4

Find intercepts: if q=0 p=125, if p=0 Q=500
 QS = -100 + 2p OR P = 50 + QS/2

Q=0 then P=50
24
Practice: Finding Equilibrium Price and
Quantity for Cranberries
Price
125
Market Supply: P = 50 + QS/2
P* = 100
Equilibrium
50
Market Demand: P = 125 - Qd/4
Q* = 100
Quantity
25
Elasticity
Elasticity of Demand: tells us how demand for a
good changes when some other variable
changes. Or the percentage change in quantity
demanded resulting from a 1 percent change in
another variable.
% Q
d
%  som ething else
Where Qd is a demand function.
26
Elasticity continued

Own price elasticity of demand: how demand
for a good changes when the price (P) of that
good changes
%DQ
DQ Q ¶Q
P
=
=
* d
%DP
DP / P
¶P Q
d
d
 Note: if you are given P you can figure out Q from the demand
curve.
27
Elasticity (more of the math)
% Q
% P
Q
P
*
Q

Q
P
P
P
Q

Q
P
(Q
*100

*100
2
Q1)
Q1
( P 2  P1 )

p1
*
P
Q
28
Elasticity: examples
%DQ
DQ Q ¶Q
P
=
=
*
%DP
DP / P
¶P Q
d

d
E.g. elasticity = -2 (imagine it is -2/1)
 If the price goes up by 1 percent demand will be reduced by 2
percent

E.g. elasticity = -0.5 (imagine it is 0.5/1)
 If the price goes up by 1 percent demand will be reduced by .5
percent percent.
29
Elasticity Continued
Price Elasticity of Demand is very useful.
 Suppose own a car business total revenue is:
price * quantity= P.Q
 You can increase the price (P), but if you do that
demand (Q) for your good will drop
 The price elasticity of demand tell you how much
the quantity will drop.
30
Types of Elasticity

When a one percent change in price leads to a greater than
one-percent change in quantity demanded, the demand curve
is elastic. (Q,P < -1)

When a one-percent change in price leads to a less than onepercent change in quantity demanded, the demand curve is
inelastic. (0 > Q,P > -1)

When a one-percent change in price leads to an exactly onepercent change in quantity demanded, the demand curve is
unit elastic. (Q,P = -1)
31
How Elastic are These Curves?
D2 Perfectly
Inelastic
P
P1
D1
Q2
Perfectly
Elastic
Q
32
Elasticity Estimates: Price Elasticity of
Demand for Selected Grocery Products
C a te g o ry
E stim a te d  Q ,P
S o ft D rin ks
-3 .1 8
C a n n e d S e a fo o d
-1 .7 9
Canned Soup
-1 .6 2
C o o kie s
-1 .6
B re a kfa st C e re a l
-0 .2
T o ile t P a p e r
-2 .4 2
La u n d ry
D e te rg e n t
T o o th p a ste
-1 .5 8
S n a ck C ra cke rs
-0 .8 6
F ro ze n E n tre e s
-0 .7 7
P a p e r T o w e ls
-0 .0 5
D ish D e te rg e n t
-0 .7 4
F a b ric S o fte n e r
-0 .7 3
Which products is
demand elastic
and which is
demand inelastic?
-0 .4 5
33
Elasticity Versus Slope

Slope: is the ratio of absolute changes in
quantity and price. (= Q/P).
 Measures the absolute change in quantity
demanded (in units of quantity) due to a one-unit
change in price.
 Qd=a-bP
 a is the intercept, -b is the slope

Elasticity: is the ratio of relative (or percentage)
changes in quantity and price.
 Measure percentage change in quantity
demanded due to one-percent change in the price
of the good
34
Elasticity Versus Slope

Why elasticity is more useful?
 it is unitless so allows us to easily compare across
countries and goods
 Units of quantities will be different for different
goods. How to compare snow boards to oranges.
 Prices are different across different countries. More
difficult to compare Yemeni Ryials to US \$
35
LINEAR Demand Curve (straight line)
Slope, choke price, elasticity
Linear Demand Fn (general form) Qd = a – bp
 a, b are positive constants
 p is price
Notice that:
b is the slope

a/b is the choke price: price at which quantity
demanded is zero

Easier to see if look at inverse demand curve: P=a/b-Qd/b
36
Linear Demand Curve
Slope, choke price, elasticity

Elasticity is:
Q,P = (Q/p)(p/Q) …definition…
=-b(p/Q)
Note that:
When Q=0, elasticity is -
When p=0, elasticity is 0
so…elasticity falls from 0 to - along the linear
demand curve, but slope is constant.
37
Elasticity with a Linear Demand Curve
P
a/b
Q,P = -
Elastic region
a/2b
•
Q,P
= -1
Inelastic region
Q,P = 0
0
a/2
a
Q
38
What Affects Elasticity?

Availability of Substitutes:
 Demand is more(less) elastic when there are
more(fewer) substitutes for a product.
 E.g: Demand for all beverages less elastic than
demand for Coca-Cola
 There are substitute for Coca-Cola, drink Pepsi
 It is harder to find a substitute for soda if you love
soda.

% of income spending on product
 Demand is more(less) when the consumer’s
expenditure on the product is large(small)
39
What Affects Elasticity?

Necessity Products
 The demand is less price elastic when the product
is a necessity.

Market Level vs Brand-Level Price
 Demand tends to be more elastic for a particular
brand of a good, than for the good in general
40
Problem: Determining Elasticity
Linear demand curve
if Qd = 400 – 10p, and p = 30, what is the
elasticity of demand w.r.t own price?
Q,P = (-b)(P)/(Q)
Q = 400 – 10 (30) = 100
Q,P = (-10)(30)/(100) = -3 "elastic”
Or use calculas’
¶Q d
P
30
30
* d = -10 *
= -10 *
= -3
¶P
400 -10P
400 -10(30)
Q

Why is elasticity negative?
 demand curve downward sloping.
41
Problem: Determining Elasticity
Constant elasticity demand curve
Constant Elasticity Fn (general form): Qd = Ap
  = elasticity of demand and is negative
 p = price
 A = constant
Example: If demand can be expressed as QP =
100, what is the price elasticity of demand?
Q=100P-1 , so elasticity is -1
42
Constant Elasticity Demand Curve
Price
•
P
Observed price and quantity
Constant elasticity demand curve
Linear demand curve
0
Q
Quantity
43
Importance of Brands
Model
Price
Estimated
Q,P
Mazda 323 \$5,039
-6.358
Nissan
Sentra
\$5,661
-6.528
Ford
Escort
\$5,663
-6.031
Lexus
LS400
\$27,544
-3.085
BMW 735i \$37,490
-3.515
• Demand for individual
models is highly elastic
• Market-level price
elasticity of demand for
automobiles -1 to -1.5
• Compact automobiles
have lots of substitutes
Luxury cars have less
substitutes
 Demand for compact cars
more elastic than luxury
cars.
Example: Price Elasticities of Demand for Automobile Makes, 1990.
44
Other Common Types of Elasticities

Other Elasticities -- Elasticity of "X" with respect to "Y":
(X/Y)(Y/X)
 X and Y could be anything

Price elasticity of supply: (QS/p)(p/QS)
 measures curvature of supply curve

Income elasticity of demand:(Qd/I)(I/Qd)
 measures degree of shift of demand curve as income
changes.

Cross price elasticity of demand: (Qd/Po)(Po/Qd)
 measures degree of shift of demand curve when the
price of a substitute changes
45
The Cross-Price Elasticity of Cars
Demand
PRICE
Sentra
Escort
LS400
735i
Sentra
-6.528
0.454
0.000
0.000
Escort
0.078
-6.031
0.001
0.000
LS400
0.000
0.001
-3.085
0.032
735i
0.000
0.001
0.093
-3.515
Practice Questions:
 What is the cross price elasticity of demand of the
Sentra with respect to Escort?
 0.454
 If the price of the Escort increases by 10 %, what
will happen to the demand for the Sentra?
 The demand for Sentra will increase by 4.54 %
46
Elasticities of Demand for Coke/Pepsi
Elasticity
Coke
Pepsi
Price elasticity of demand
-1.47
-1.55
Cross-price elasticity of demand
0.52
0.64
Income elasticity of demand
0.58
1.38
Practice Question:
 What will happen to the demand for coke if
income increases by 10%?
 If income increases by 10%, the demand for coke
will increase by 5.8%
47
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