the role of community media in tanzania: challenges

Report
THE ROLE OF COMMUNITY MEDIA IN TANZANIA:
CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR
DEMOCRATIZATION AND NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT
Presenter
. William Lobulu, Founder and Editor, The Arusha Times
Contact: [email protected]
Phone : 0755 55 45 88
CONTENT OF PRESENTATION
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Introduction
Problem Statement
Purpose of Study
Definitions of Terms
Limitations and Delimitations of the Study
Review of Related Literature
Research Methodology
Research Results and Discussions
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
INTRODUCTION
Quotation
“I would rather live in a country with
newspapers (Press) and without a government
than in a country with a government but
without newspapers (Press).”
Thomas Jefferson, third President of the United States,
March 1801 to March 1809 dictum.
INTRODUCTION
• Without mass media the society would be lacking an
important pillar.
• Mass media inform, interpret, educate, persuade and
entertain.
• Generally they spearhead (lead) social-economic
change in society.
• Such change has not been realized because media is
either state owned or profit motivated.
• Private media making frequent calls for good
governance, accountability, freedom of speech, etc
but limited to urban areas.
PROBLEM STATEMENT
• Limited reach of so-called national media despite large
numbers. (Radio 45), TV (27), Dailies (14), Weeklies (30).
• About 80 per cent of people who live in Tanzania are not
adequately served by the media.
• Irrelevant content and often determined by ownership.
Not suited to democratize or stimulate communities for
development.
• National media do not give rural people access to
participation.
• Government does not support widespread establishment
of Community Media i.e. lack of an enabling environment.
• Lack of awareness of role of Community Media in
democratization and national development.
PURPOSE OF STUDY
• To examine the role of
Community Media in
democratization and
national development.
What are the challenges
and opportunities?
• To find out whether
Community Media can
help achieve basic
elements of democracy
by creating an informed
public.
Assumption
• If more community media
were established and
sustained in rural areas of
Tanzania the majority of
people would have
influence in decision
making and national
development especially in
view of current
technological
advancements in
broadcasting,
telecommunication and
the internet.
What is envisaged
• To generate information
that might influence
media stakeholders focus
in supporting Community
Media outlet. Findings of
this study will help them
realize which medium is
better placed in giving a
voice to masses especially
those in rural areas.
RESEARCH QUESTIONS
• To what extent do members of the pastoral community use community
radio as a source of information?
• Apart from community radio what other sources of information are
accessible to members of the community?
• How do age, gender and level of education influence community radio
use?
• Does the source of income of listeners influence community radio
use?
• What are the listeners’ information needs and interest in the area of
studies?
• To what extent have the community radio broad cast stimulated
people’s participation in affairs concerning their development.
• To what extent have community radio broadcast influenced changes
within the pastoralists communities?
• What are the socio-economic problems which people think could be
solved through Community Media mobilization of its audience?
• What are the challenges and opportunities that influence the use of
Community Media structures in enhancing democracy and national
development?
DEFINITION OF TERMS
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COMMUNITY MEDIA
No single definition of Community Media.
Reviewed Bruce Girard, Chester Heder, Kelvin Howely,
Kennedy Javaru definitions.
Javaru for example defines Community Media as those
that are devoted to the social, political and cultural
interests and aspiration of identifiable groups resident
particular geographical areas within a country/or with
specific experiences and interests.
For this study Community Media is defined as forms of
communication created specifically 56o serve a
geographical area inhabited by people with generally
common interest who own and control the media
structure. Such structure could however have financial
support of donors.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
DEVELOPMENT
• There are myriad definitions
of the term development.
• Wilbur Schramm dwells on set
of human transformation which
require people to be educated,
informed, attitudes and values
be changed, human relations,
customs and social behavior be
reviewed and rethought.
• For this study development
is defined as transformation
from grinding poverty to
improved standards of living
through institutional and
attitude changes and
improved income.
DEMOCRATIZATION
• Long process and it comes
gradually.
• Various definitions.
• For the purpose of this study
democratization is a transition
from authoritarian practices in
governance to enabling people
exercise freedom in
participation and deciding
matters that concern their own
development and wellbeing
either collectively or
individually, the process of
empowering people being
undertaken mainly through the
mass media.
LITERATURE REVIEW
• Studies since 1920s indicate that appeal more
to urban people more than rural areas
(relevance).
• Common people have limited access to
mainstream mass media.
• Most mainstream media are geared toward
profit making.
• In the 1970s the usefulness and relevance of
Community Media was realized.
LITERATURE REVIEW
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Media growth in four phases:
Colonial phase/support to administration.
Pre-independence phase-support to local
papers.
Post independence phase – party/government
papers
Liberalization phase (multi-partism)
Growth of private press.
LITERATURE REVIEW
Community Media in Tanzania
• Efforts started with UNESCO in 1970s.
• Community Media partnership organization a
number of Community Media in Tanzania,
most of them FM radio station – FADECO in
Karagweni Michweni Pemba, Orkorenei FM,
etc.
• Studies by – Mrutu – Community Radio in
Africa, Jallow, Oleniini
METHODOLOGY
• CASE STUDY: Orkonerei FM Radio service 94.4 ORS in
Simanjiro District since 2002.
• Owned and controlled by community. Orkonerei FM was
establish to enhance Maasai pastoralists in Arusha,
Manyara, Kilimanjaro regions.
• STUDY POPULATION: Simanjiro (Manyara region), Longido
(Arusha region), Same (Kilimanjaro region).
• POPULATION SAMPLE: Adult residents, random selection.
• Pastoralists community.
• Systematic sampling not possible.
• Males 103 = 59%.
• Females 73 = 42%.
METHODOLOGY
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QUANTITATIVE - total 180 respondents – 60 in each district, 14 different villages.
Confidence level 95%
Closed and Open questionnaires.
18 Maasai interviewers engaged.
QUALITATIVE:
Referral sampling
Added vivid explanations and human side of what is being investigated.
In-depth interview: ORS officials, IOPA officials, Government institutions, Tanzania
Media Fund, Documentary
FOCUS GROUP DISCUSSION
Held in Maasai then transcribed.
3-8 groups with moderator.
Picked randomly.
Focused on media seeking behaviour.
How media communication has impacted social development i.e. health, education,
environment, livestock and energy.
Responses not quatified as purposes not consensus but respondents’ opinions and
perspectives.
Study Findings from Quantitative
Survey Analysis
Community radio as source of
information
83.1
District
Total
16.9
60.3
Same
39.7
Yes
90
Longido
10
98.3
Simanjiro
0
10
20
30
40
50
%
1.7
60
70
80
90
100
No
Community radio as source of info
• Radio of Choice for the 3 pastoralist districts
• Of 180 individuals 83.1 per cent listened to
ORS.
• Source of information despite age, sex,
education and occupation.
• Closer the community to broadcast
transmission the higher the number of people
who listened.
Radio is main source of info
60
59
54
50
46
40
Count
40
39
37
32
30
31
28
26
Simanjiro
27 28
Longido
Same
20
16
8
10
5
2
2
0
0
Radio
Television
Word of
mouth
Papers
Telephone Internet
Other sources of information
1. Radio is the main source of information. Others are:
2. Word of Mouth
3. Telephone
4. Newspapers
5. Television
6. Internet.
• Person to person communication is more
important in Same where ORS signal is weak.
• Cell phones have major role to play in rural
communication.
• Attracts people of all walks of life.
• Among those who said they did not listen to ORS
67.9% had no formal education.
Age, sex, education & use of radio
• Among those who said they did not listen to ORS 67.9% had
no formal education.
• Table 4
• Men in all three districts are predominant in listenership.
• People in the 31 to 40 age group are more keen to listen to
ORS (37.19)
• Graph 6
• In the age category between 21 and 30 years that more
women (35%) than men 10% listened to ORS).
• Graph 7
Age, gender listeners
50
40
%
30
20
10
0
Male
Female
Listeners’ source of income
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Simanjiro
Longido
Same
Listener's info needs
60
52
50
39
Count
40
36
30
No per
programme
20
15
10
0
Ufugaji
bora
Elimu
Habari Kipindi
cha dini
Listeners’ preferences
• Most listeners prefer informative programmes on
livestock
• Graph 9
• Ufugaji bora rated as most preferred programme
(also in Maasai)
• News in Maasai language is most captivating
• Strong liking for educative news
• 31-40 years age-group showed much interest in
educative information
• Most respondents preferred listening to radio at
night (43.9%)
Influence in public participation
• Individuals invited to studio to discuss topical
issues
• Listeners call in to discuss issue being aired
• Presenters call particular individuals
• Reporters go around villages to collect and
engage villagers in discussion
• Traditional dance groups invited to studio.
• 31-40 years age group is most active in
participation: Table 5
• More males than females participate 70.3% and
29.7% respectively.
• About 82% of respondents had attended village
meetings.
Radio use in Changes
• Responses indicate that community radio can
change attitudes, mobilize people and facilitate
development.
• Maasai now keep livestock for other purposes
rather than prestige.
• They also seek more information to meet their
needs to improve economic activities.
• Community radio seen to have brought positive
changes in livestock keeping and farming.
• Community radio spearheading nomadic
pastoralists shift to agro-pastoralism.
DISCUSSION
• Ownership is crucial in determining mass media role.
• Modernization theorists view the state as the main actor in modernizing
underdeveloped societies.
 Practice shows state owned media are not ideal for social change and
development.
• “Independent” media owned by private entrepreneurs aim at making
profit.
 Often they serve interest of the ruling class.
 They tend to support the status quo as they also operate other businesses
that need government favour.
•
Community media has the ability to empower communities and create
social change.
 Radio is most preferred and useful community medium.
 ORS instrumental in effecting change e.g. from pastoralism to
agropastoralism.
 NGOs and others use radio for advocacy.
Further discussion
Participation
• Community Media helps create an informed audience and confidence to
participate in public affairs.
Social change
• A study shows Community Media ability to alter social behaviour and
structures:
• Behaviour change toward Female Genital Mutilation – abandoned or
done secretly.
• Marrying off girls at early age addressed.
• Esoto rite of passage almost abandoned.
Development Agenda:
• ORS has adequately addressed health, nutrition environment, farming,
animal husbandry entrepreneurship, etc and had an impact on people’s
livelihood.
• The radio station has led to successful implementation of various
development projects in the catchment area e.g. improved breeds,
destocking.
• ORS listeners are early adopters of innovations and followed by others in
phases.
CHALLENGES
Limitation in development aspects
Radio is widely used and has many advantages but physical
demonstration which is the best way to impart knowledge and skills to a
large illiterate population cannot be performed. Radio/TV combination is
best.
Setting Agenda
Most community media heavily dependent on donors and may set their
own agendas.
Substantiality
When donors pull out project is left without operational funds.
Legislations & Regulations
TCRA regulations limit community radio stations a 100km reach and
transmission power of no more than 100 watts. Maasai are across
Tanzania.
Language
Restricted to either Kiswahili or English. Only allowed 10% Maasai
language airtime.
OPPORTUNITIES
ACCEPTANCE
• Community identify themselves with community “own” media.
Loyal audience cuts across all age groups, gender and occupation.
• Engages even the most marginalize.
• Cell phones have enhanced participation.
FUNDING SUPPORT
• Impact studies have led to availability of funds across the worldfoundations, World Bank, UNESCO, USAID, and UNFAO.
• World Association of Community Broadcasters ensures also
sustainability.
• Media Fund also aims at giving rural people a voice.
• Issues that attract funding from the Media Fund are community
media concerns such as health, agriculture, environment, good
governance, gender equality, education, etc.
OPPORTUNITIES
DIMINISHING STATE GRIP
• Democratization going in tandem with liberalization of media
communication.
• TCRA lists community broadcasting as one of the categories of licensees.
• TCRA claims it takes two months for a radio or TV to be licensed. It took
almost 10 years for ORS.
• According to officials of Newspaper Registry claim it takes s seven (7) days
to have a newspaper registered.
LOW COST OPERATIONS
• FM broadcasting equipment have become substantially low in prices (US$
20,000).
• Donor often willing to pay for initial capital costs.
• NGOs willing to sponsor educational programmes.
• Local Government also cut down logistic costs if they used community
based media.
• Easier and cheaper to create content for Community Media.
SUMMARY/CONCLUSION
• Study revealed potentials of community radio to meet information
needs of community
 Relevant content, gives access to people it serves.
 Provides forum for discussion and decision making.
• Study revealed that community radio has contributed to social
change among Maasai pastoralists.
 Education, health, FGM, shift to agro-pastoralism,
• Development and operations of community media faces funding and
sustainability challenges but outweighed by opportunities.
 Challenges- demo limitations, following donors’ agenda,
sustainability, legislations and regulations, language
 Opportunities: acceptance, funding support, diminishing state grip,
low cost operations
 Study shows that ORS has been able to address development issues
on health, education, nutrition, gender equality, land use, etc.
Community Media (radios) plays its role as catalyst for development.
• There is need for further research on Community Media
sustainability and vulnerability (pushing agenda of funders)
THANK YOU FOR LISTENING!!!

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