Implementing the Common Core State Standards

Report
Shifting Gears!
A Professional Development Session Designed to
Support Turnkey Training on the Shifting Gears
Initiatives
Common
Core
Student
Student
Achievement
Achievement
PARCC
Educator
Evaluation
www.achievethecore.org
Why do we need the CCSS?
2
The Power of Expectations
Do you believe in me?
www.achievethecore.org
What do you believe is possible?
Can an elephant paint a self portrait?
www.achievethecore.org
Why the Common Core? How
these Standards are Different
Why are we doing this? We have had standards.
Before Common Core State Standards we had standards, but
rarely did we have standards-based instruction.




Long lists of broad, vague statements
Mysterious assessments
Coverage mentality
Focused on teacher behaviors – “the inputs”
www.achievethecore.org
6
Results
Previous state standards did not improve student achievement.
 Gaps in achievement
 Gaps in expectations
 NAEP results
 ACT 2012 data – College Readiness Benchmark
All 4 subject areas:
3 subject areas:
2 subject areas:
1 subject area:
None
25%
15%
17%
15%
28%
 College remediation rates
www.achievethecore.org
7
What are our expectations?
Based on the beliefs that
• A quality education is a key factor in providing all children
with opportunities for their future
• It is not enough to simply complete school, or receive a
credential – students need critical knowledge and skills
• This is not a 12th grade or high school issue. It is an education
system issue.
Quality implementation of the Common Core State Standards is
a necessary condition for providing all students with the
opportunities to be successful after high school.
www.achievethecore.org
8
Principles of the CCSS
Fewer
-
Clearer
-
Higher
• Aligned to requirements for college and career readiness
• Based on evidence
• Honest about time
www.achievethecore.org
Structure of the ELA Standards
•
•
•
Four Strands: Reading, Writing,
Speaking and Listening, Language
There are Reading and Writing
Strands for History/Social Studies,
Science and Technical Subjects
Text complexity standards are
listed by grade “bands”: K-1, 2-3,
4-5, 6-8, 9-10, 11-12, CCR –
College and Career Ready)
www.achievethecore.org
Strand
Anchor
Standard
GradeSpecific
Standard
10
Identify the Standard
RI . 4 . 2
Strand
www.achievethecore.org
Grade
Standard Number
11
Claims Driving Design:
ELA/Literacy
Students are on-track or ready for college and careers
Students read and comprehend a
range of sufficiently complex texts
independently
Reading
Literature
Reading
Informational
Text
Vocabulary
Interpretation
and Use
Students write
effectively when using
and/or analyzing
sources.
Written
Expression
Conventions
and
Knowledge of
Language
Students
build and
present
knowledge
through
research and
the
integration,
comparison,
and synthesis
of ideas.
The CCSS Requires Three Shifts in ELA/Literacy
1. Building knowledge through content-rich
nonfiction
2. Reading, writing, and speaking grounded in
evidence from text, both literary and
informational
3. Regular practice with complex text and its
academic language
www.achievethecore.org
13
ELA Shift #1: Content-Rich Nonfiction
Balance of literary to informational texts
•
•
•
•
50/50 in K-5
•
Reading aloud texts that are well-above grade level are used
K-5 and beyond to build vocabulary and background
knowledge.
45/55 in grades 6-8
70/30 in grades 9-12
Beginning in grades 2, students read more complex texts,
combining foundational skills with reading comprehension.
www.achievethecore.org
14
ELA Shift #2: Using Text Evidence
•
•
Most college and workplace writing requires evidence.
•
Evidence is a major emphasis of the ELA Standards:
Ability to cite evidence differentiates strong from weak
student performance on NAEP
•
•
•
Reading Standard 1
Writing Standard 9
Speaking and Listening Standards 2, 3, and 4
www.achievethecore.org
15
Non-Examples and Examples
Not Text-Dependent
Text-Dependent
In “Casey at the Bat,” Casey strikes out.
Describe a time when you failed at
something.
What makes Casey’s experiences at bat
humorous?
In “Letter from a Birmingham Jail,” Dr.
King discusses nonviolent protest.
Discuss, in writing, a time when you
wanted to fight against something that
you felt was unfair.
What can you infer from King’s letter
about the letter that he received?
In “The Gettysburg Address” Lincoln says
the nation is dedicated to the
proposition that all men are created
equal. Why is equality an important
value to promote?
“The Gettysburg Address” mentions the
year 1776. According to Lincoln’s
speech, why is this year significant to
the events described in the speech?
www.achievethecore.org
16
Example?
James Watson used
time away from his
laboratory and a set of
models similar to
preschool toys to help
him solve the puzzle of
DNA. In an essay
discuss how play and
relaxation help promote
clear thinking and
problem solving.
www.achievethecore.org
17
CCSS Informational Text Assessment Question:
High school students read an excerpt of James D. Watson’s The
Double Helix and respond to the following:
What mistakes did Watson make along the way to his
discovery? What was his response to this mistake?
www.achievethecore.org
18
ELA Shift #3: Complex Text & Academic Language
•
There is a 4 year gap in the complexity of what students read
by the end of high school and college .
•
What students can read, in terms of complexity is the
greatest predictor of success in college (ACT study).
•
•
<50% of graduates can read sufficiently complex texts.
•
Standards include a staircase of text complexity from
elementary through high school.
Standards focus on building academic vocabulary to improve
comprehension.
www.achievethecore.org
19
Text Complexity
• Appendix A
• Supplement to Appendix A
• Appendix B
CCSS address what and
how students read.
www.achievethecore.org
20
Which text is more complex?
Text 1
Text 2
Lincoln was shaken by the presidency.
Back in Springfield, politics had been a
sort of exhilarating game; but in the
White House, politics was power, and
power was responsibility. Never before
had Lincoln held executive office. In
public life he had always been an
insignificant legislator whose votes
were cast in concert with others and
whose decisions in themselves had
neither finality nor importance. As
President he might consult with others,
but innumerable grave decisions were
in the end his own, and with them came
a burden of responsibility terrifying in
its dimensions.
According to those who knew him,
Lincoln was a man of many faces. In
repose, he often seemed sad and
gloomy. But when he began to speak,
his expression changed. “The dull,
listless features dropped like a mask,”
said a Chicago newspaperman. “The
eyes began to sparkle, the mouth to
smile, the whole countenance was
wreathed in animation, so that a
stranger would have said, ‘Why, this
man, so angular and solemn a moment
ago, is really handsome.’”
www.achievethecore.org
21
What are the Qualitative Features of Complex
Text?
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Subtle and/or frequent transitions
•
•
Longer paragraphs
Multiple and/or subtle themes and purposes
Density of information
Unfamiliar settings, topics or events
Lack of repetition, overlap or similarity in words and sentences
Complex sentences
Uncommon vocabulary
Lack of words, sentences or paragraphs that review or pull things
together for the student
Any text structure which is less narrative and/or mixes structures
www.achievethecore.org
22
Close Analytic Reading
•
Requires prompting students with text-dependent questions to
unpack complex text and gain knowledge.
•
Text dependent questions require text-based answers –
evidence.
•
Not teacher summarizing text, but guiding students through the
text for information.
•
Virtually every standard is activated during the course of every
close analytic reading exemplar through the use of text
dependent questions.
•
Supports fluency
www.achievethecore.org
23
Scaffolds for Reading Complex Text
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Chunking
Reading and rereading
Read aloud
Strategic think aloud
Scaffolding questions
Heterogeneous small groups
Recording
Pre-prepping struggling readers to support confidence and
participation
• Annotation strategies
• Cornell notes
• Paraphrasing and journaling
www.achievethecore.org
24
Shifts Mean a Change in Practice!
From…
To…
Content knowledge
primarily from
teacher-led lecture
Content knowledge
comes from a balance
of reading, writing
lecture, and hands-on
experience
www.achievethecore.org
25
www.achievethecore.org
www.achievethecore.org
26
Introduction to the Math Shifts
of the Common Core
State Standards
Structure of the Standards
•
•
•
Domains are large groups of related
standards. Domains change from grade
to grade to reflect the changing focus of
each grade. Standards from different
domains may sometimes be closely
related.
Clusters are groups of related standards.
Each domain has 1 – 4 clusters.
Standards from different clusters may
sometimes be closely related.
Standards define what students should
understand and be able to do.
www.achievethecore.org
Domain
Cluster
Standard
28
Identify the Standard
5.NBT.4
Grade
Domain
Standard Number
3.OA.C
Grade
www.achievethecore.org
Domain
Cluster
29
College Math Professors Feel HS students
Today are Not Prepared for College Math
www.achievethecore.org
30
Claims Driving Design:
Mathematics
Students are on-track or ready for college and careers
Solve problems
involving the major
content for their grade
level with connections to
practices
Solve problems
involving the additional
and supporting content
for their grade level with
connections to practices
Use the modeling
practice to solve real
world problems
Express mathematical
reasoning by
constructing
mathematical arguments
and critiques
Demonstrate fluency in
areas set forth in the
Standards for Content in
grades 3-6
The CCSS Requires Three Shifts in Mathematics
1. Focus strongly where the standards focus.
2. Coherence: Think across grades, and link to major
topics.
3. Rigor: In major topics, pursue conceptual
understanding, procedural skill and fluency, and
application.
www.achievethecore.org
32
Traditional U.S. Approach
K
Number and
Operations
Measurement
and Geometry
Algebra and
Functions
Statistics and
Probability
www.achievethecore.org
12
Shift #1: Focus (within Number and Operations)
Operations and Algebraic
Thinking
Expressions
 and
Equations
Number and Operations—
Base Ten

K
1
2
3
4
www.achievethecore.org
Algebra
The Number
System
Number and
Operations—
Fractions



5
6
7
8
High School
The shape of math in A+ countries
Mathematics
topics
intended at
each grade by
at least twothirds of A+
countries
Mathematics
topics
intended at
each grade by
at least twothirds of 21
U.S. states
1 Schmidt,
Houang, & Cogan, “A Coherent Curriculum: The Case of Mathematics.” (2002).
www.achievethecore.org
35
Priorities in Mathematics
Grade
Priorities in Support of Rich Instruction and
Expectations of Fluency and Conceptual Understanding
K–2
Addition and subtraction, measurement using
whole number quantities
3–5
Multiplication and division of whole numbers
and fractions
6
7
8
Ratios and proportional reasoning; early
expressions and equations
Ratios and proportional reasoning; arithmetic
of rational numbers
Linear algebra/linear functions
www.achievethecore.org
Shift #2: Coherence
•
Carefully connect the learning within and across
grades so that students can build new
understanding on foundations built in previous
years.
•
Each standard is not a new event, but an extension
of previous learning.
“The Standards are not so much built from topics as
they are woven out of progressions.”
Structure is the Standards, Publishers’ Criteria for Mathematics,
Appendix
www.achievethecore.org
37
Coherence: Link to Major Topics Within Grades
Example: Data Representation
Standard
3.MD.3
www.achievethecore.org
38
Coherence Within A Grade
Make a line plot to display a data set of measurements in fractions of a
unit ( ½, ¼, 1/8). Solve problems involving addition and subtraction of
fractions by using information presented in line plots. For example, from
a line plot find and interpret the difference in length between the longest
and shortest specimens in an insect collection.
4.MD.4
www.achievethecore.org
39
Coherence: Link to Major Topics Across Grades
One of several staircases to
algebra designed in the OA
domain.
www.achievethecore.org
40
Shift #3: Rigor
•
The CCSS require a balance of:
 Solid conceptual understanding
 Procedural skill and fluency
 Application of skills in problem solving situations
•
Pursuit of all three requires equal intensity in time,
activities, and resources.
www.achievethecore.org
41
Solid Conceptual Understanding
•
Teach more than “how to get the answer” and
instead support students’ ability to access concepts
from a number of perspectives
•
Students are able to see math as more than a set of
mnemonics or discrete procedures
•
Conceptual understanding supports the other
aspects of rigor (fluency and application)
www.achievethecore.org
42
www.achievethecore.org
43
www.achievethecore.org
44
Unit Assessment
Grade 3 sample formative assessment items
www.achievethecore.org
Fluency
•
The standards require speed and accuracy in
calculation.
•
Teachers structure class time and/or homework time
for students to practice core functions such as singledigit multiplication so that they are more able to
understand and manipulate more complex concepts
www.achievethecore.org
46
Required Fluencies in K-6
Grade
Standard
K
K.OA.5
Add/subtract within 5
1
1.OA.6
Add/subtract within 10
2.OA.2
Add/subtract within 20 (know single-digit sums from memory)
2.NBT.5
Add/subtract within 100
Multiply/divide within 100 (know single-digit products from
memory)
2
3
3.OA.7
3.NBT.2
Required Fluency
Add/subtract within 1000
4
4.NBT.4
Add/subtract within 1,000,000
5
5.NBT.5
Multi-digit multiplication
6
6.NS.2,3
Multi-digit division
Multi-digit decimal operations
www.achievethecore.org
Application
•
Students can use appropriate concepts and procedures for
application even when not prompted to do so.
•
Teachers provide opportunities at all grade levels for students
to apply math concepts in “real world” situations,
recognizing this means different things in K-5, 6-8, and HS.
•
Teachers in content areas outside of math, particularly
science, ensure that students are using grade-levelappropriate math to make meaning of and access science
content.
www.achievethecore.org
48
Content Emphases by Cluster: Grade Four
Key: Major Clusters;
Clusters
www.achievethecore.org
Supporting Clusters;
Additional
49
www.achievethecore.org
www.achievethecore.org
50
Standards for Mathematical Practices
1. Make sense of problems and persevere in solving
them.
2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively.
3. Construct viable arguments and critique the
reasoning of others.
4. Model with mathematics.
5. Use appropriate tools strategically.
6. Attend to precision.
7. Look for and make use of structure.
8. Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning.
www.achievethecore.org
www.achievethecore.org
www.achievethecore.org
www.achievethecore.org
www.achievethecore.org
www.achievethecore.org
www.achievethecore.org
www.achievethecore.org
www.achievethecore.org
www.achievethecore.org
www.achievethecore.org
www.achievethecore.org
www.achievethecore.org
Power of the Shifts
• Know them – both the what and the why
• Apply them to your decisions about





Time
Energy
Resources
Assessments
Conversations with parents, students, colleagues
• Continue to engage with them:
 www.achievethecore.org
 Follow @achievethecore on Twitter
www.achievethecore.org
64
Obstacles and Opportunities
Culture
Capacity
Coherence
Courage
www.achievethecore.org
Shouldn't all kids have this experience?
www.achievethecore.org
CCSS Resources:
CCSSO’s PDF provides resources for:
• About the CCSS
• Communications about CCSS
• Instructional and Planning Materials and Supports
• ELA, math, CTE, ELL and Special Ed. Resources
• Career and College Readiness
• Assessment Information
•http://www.ccsso.org/Documents/2012/Common_Core_Resources.pdf
www.achievethecore.org
67
CCSS Resources
For more information about the Common Core State Standards,
access the following links:
http://www.corestandards.org/
http://www.state.nj.us/education/
www.achievethecore.org
68
Reflections and Questions
Discuss an “aha” moment with a partner.
How will you use what you learned to enhance instruction and
assessment?
What are you wondering?
www.achievethecore.org
Appendix: Resources to Complement the Common Core
Presentation
• ELA: Text-Dependent Questions
•
HS and MS: Achieve the Core; Elementary: OAASFEP
• ELA: Complex Texts for ALL Grade Levels
•
Common Core Appendix B
•
The Text Project
• Mathematical Coherence
•
Council of Chief State School Officers (all grade levels)
•
Ohio Resource Center (middle school)
•
Achieve the Core (K-8)
• Mathematical Conceptual Understanding
•
Michigan State University
• Mathematical Application
•
Lake Shore Central School District (Grades 1-5)
•
Learn Zillion (K-12)
www.achievethecore.org
70

similar documents