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Shifting Gears! A Professional Development Session Designed to Support Turnkey Training on the Shifting Gears Initiatives Common Core Student Student Achievement Achievement PARCC Educator Evaluation www.achievethecore.org Why do we need the CCSS? 2 The Power of Expectations Do you believe in me? www.achievethecore.org What do you believe is possible? Can an elephant paint a self portrait? www.achievethecore.org Why the Common Core? How these Standards are Different Why are we doing this? We have had standards. Before Common Core State Standards we had standards, but rarely did we have standards-based instruction. Long lists of broad, vague statements Mysterious assessments Coverage mentality Focused on teacher behaviors – “the inputs” www.achievethecore.org 6 Results Previous state standards did not improve student achievement. Gaps in achievement Gaps in expectations NAEP results ACT 2012 data – College Readiness Benchmark All 4 subject areas: 3 subject areas: 2 subject areas: 1 subject area: None 25% 15% 17% 15% 28% College remediation rates www.achievethecore.org 7 What are our expectations? Based on the beliefs that • A quality education is a key factor in providing all children with opportunities for their future • It is not enough to simply complete school, or receive a credential – students need critical knowledge and skills • This is not a 12th grade or high school issue. It is an education system issue. Quality implementation of the Common Core State Standards is a necessary condition for providing all students with the opportunities to be successful after high school. www.achievethecore.org 8 Principles of the CCSS Fewer - Clearer - Higher • Aligned to requirements for college and career readiness • Based on evidence • Honest about time www.achievethecore.org Structure of the ELA Standards • • • Four Strands: Reading, Writing, Speaking and Listening, Language There are Reading and Writing Strands for History/Social Studies, Science and Technical Subjects Text complexity standards are listed by grade “bands”: K-1, 2-3, 4-5, 6-8, 9-10, 11-12, CCR – College and Career Ready) www.achievethecore.org Strand Anchor Standard GradeSpecific Standard 10 Identify the Standard RI . 4 . 2 Strand www.achievethecore.org Grade Standard Number 11 Claims Driving Design: ELA/Literacy Students are on-track or ready for college and careers Students read and comprehend a range of sufficiently complex texts independently Reading Literature Reading Informational Text Vocabulary Interpretation and Use Students write effectively when using and/or analyzing sources. Written Expression Conventions and Knowledge of Language Students build and present knowledge through research and the integration, comparison, and synthesis of ideas. The CCSS Requires Three Shifts in ELA/Literacy 1. Building knowledge through content-rich nonfiction 2. Reading, writing, and speaking grounded in evidence from text, both literary and informational 3. Regular practice with complex text and its academic language www.achievethecore.org 13 ELA Shift #1: Content-Rich Nonfiction Balance of literary to informational texts • • • • 50/50 in K-5 • Reading aloud texts that are well-above grade level are used K-5 and beyond to build vocabulary and background knowledge. 45/55 in grades 6-8 70/30 in grades 9-12 Beginning in grades 2, students read more complex texts, combining foundational skills with reading comprehension. www.achievethecore.org 14 ELA Shift #2: Using Text Evidence • • Most college and workplace writing requires evidence. • Evidence is a major emphasis of the ELA Standards: Ability to cite evidence differentiates strong from weak student performance on NAEP • • • Reading Standard 1 Writing Standard 9 Speaking and Listening Standards 2, 3, and 4 www.achievethecore.org 15 Non-Examples and Examples Not Text-Dependent Text-Dependent In “Casey at the Bat,” Casey strikes out. Describe a time when you failed at something. What makes Casey’s experiences at bat humorous? In “Letter from a Birmingham Jail,” Dr. King discusses nonviolent protest. Discuss, in writing, a time when you wanted to fight against something that you felt was unfair. What can you infer from King’s letter about the letter that he received? In “The Gettysburg Address” Lincoln says the nation is dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Why is equality an important value to promote? “The Gettysburg Address” mentions the year 1776. According to Lincoln’s speech, why is this year significant to the events described in the speech? www.achievethecore.org 16 Example? James Watson used time away from his laboratory and a set of models similar to preschool toys to help him solve the puzzle of DNA. In an essay discuss how play and relaxation help promote clear thinking and problem solving. www.achievethecore.org 17 CCSS Informational Text Assessment Question: High school students read an excerpt of James D. Watson’s The Double Helix and respond to the following: What mistakes did Watson make along the way to his discovery? What was his response to this mistake? www.achievethecore.org 18 ELA Shift #3: Complex Text & Academic Language • There is a 4 year gap in the complexity of what students read by the end of high school and college . • What students can read, in terms of complexity is the greatest predictor of success in college (ACT study). • • <50% of graduates can read sufficiently complex texts. • Standards include a staircase of text complexity from elementary through high school. Standards focus on building academic vocabulary to improve comprehension. www.achievethecore.org 19 Text Complexity • Appendix A • Supplement to Appendix A • Appendix B CCSS address what and how students read. www.achievethecore.org 20 Which text is more complex? Text 1 Text 2 Lincoln was shaken by the presidency. Back in Springfield, politics had been a sort of exhilarating game; but in the White House, politics was power, and power was responsibility. Never before had Lincoln held executive office. In public life he had always been an insignificant legislator whose votes were cast in concert with others and whose decisions in themselves had neither finality nor importance. As President he might consult with others, but innumerable grave decisions were in the end his own, and with them came a burden of responsibility terrifying in its dimensions. According to those who knew him, Lincoln was a man of many faces. In repose, he often seemed sad and gloomy. But when he began to speak, his expression changed. “The dull, listless features dropped like a mask,” said a Chicago newspaperman. “The eyes began to sparkle, the mouth to smile, the whole countenance was wreathed in animation, so that a stranger would have said, ‘Why, this man, so angular and solemn a moment ago, is really handsome.’” www.achievethecore.org 21 What are the Qualitative Features of Complex Text? • • • • • • • • Subtle and/or frequent transitions • • Longer paragraphs Multiple and/or subtle themes and purposes Density of information Unfamiliar settings, topics or events Lack of repetition, overlap or similarity in words and sentences Complex sentences Uncommon vocabulary Lack of words, sentences or paragraphs that review or pull things together for the student Any text structure which is less narrative and/or mixes structures www.achievethecore.org 22 Close Analytic Reading • Requires prompting students with text-dependent questions to unpack complex text and gain knowledge. • Text dependent questions require text-based answers – evidence. • Not teacher summarizing text, but guiding students through the text for information. • Virtually every standard is activated during the course of every close analytic reading exemplar through the use of text dependent questions. • Supports fluency www.achievethecore.org 23 Scaffolds for Reading Complex Text • • • • • • • • Chunking Reading and rereading Read aloud Strategic think aloud Scaffolding questions Heterogeneous small groups Recording Pre-prepping struggling readers to support confidence and participation • Annotation strategies • Cornell notes • Paraphrasing and journaling www.achievethecore.org 24 Shifts Mean a Change in Practice! From… To… Content knowledge primarily from teacher-led lecture Content knowledge comes from a balance of reading, writing lecture, and hands-on experience www.achievethecore.org 25 www.achievethecore.org www.achievethecore.org 26 Introduction to the Math Shifts of the Common Core State Standards Structure of the Standards • • • Domains are large groups of related standards. Domains change from grade to grade to reflect the changing focus of each grade. Standards from different domains may sometimes be closely related. Clusters are groups of related standards. Each domain has 1 – 4 clusters. Standards from different clusters may sometimes be closely related. Standards define what students should understand and be able to do. www.achievethecore.org Domain Cluster Standard 28 Identify the Standard 5.NBT.4 Grade Domain Standard Number 3.OA.C Grade www.achievethecore.org Domain Cluster 29 College Math Professors Feel HS students Today are Not Prepared for College Math www.achievethecore.org 30 Claims Driving Design: Mathematics Students are on-track or ready for college and careers Solve problems involving the major content for their grade level with connections to practices Solve problems involving the additional and supporting content for their grade level with connections to practices Use the modeling practice to solve real world problems Express mathematical reasoning by constructing mathematical arguments and critiques Demonstrate fluency in areas set forth in the Standards for Content in grades 3-6 The CCSS Requires Three Shifts in Mathematics 1. Focus strongly where the standards focus. 2. Coherence: Think across grades, and link to major topics. 3. Rigor: In major topics, pursue conceptual understanding, procedural skill and fluency, and application. www.achievethecore.org 32 Traditional U.S. Approach K Number and Operations Measurement and Geometry Algebra and Functions Statistics and Probability www.achievethecore.org 12 Shift #1: Focus (within Number and Operations) Operations and Algebraic Thinking Expressions and Equations Number and Operations— Base Ten K 1 2 3 4 www.achievethecore.org Algebra The Number System Number and Operations— Fractions 5 6 7 8 High School The shape of math in A+ countries Mathematics topics intended at each grade by at least twothirds of A+ countries Mathematics topics intended at each grade by at least twothirds of 21 U.S. states 1 Schmidt, Houang, & Cogan, “A Coherent Curriculum: The Case of Mathematics.” (2002). www.achievethecore.org 35 Priorities in Mathematics Grade Priorities in Support of Rich Instruction and Expectations of Fluency and Conceptual Understanding K–2 Addition and subtraction, measurement using whole number quantities 3–5 Multiplication and division of whole numbers and fractions 6 7 8 Ratios and proportional reasoning; early expressions and equations Ratios and proportional reasoning; arithmetic of rational numbers Linear algebra/linear functions www.achievethecore.org Shift #2: Coherence • Carefully connect the learning within and across grades so that students can build new understanding on foundations built in previous years. • Each standard is not a new event, but an extension of previous learning. “The Standards are not so much built from topics as they are woven out of progressions.” Structure is the Standards, Publishers’ Criteria for Mathematics, Appendix www.achievethecore.org 37 Coherence: Link to Major Topics Within Grades Example: Data Representation Standard 3.MD.3 www.achievethecore.org 38 Coherence Within A Grade Make a line plot to display a data set of measurements in fractions of a unit ( ½, ¼, 1/8). Solve problems involving addition and subtraction of fractions by using information presented in line plots. For example, from a line plot find and interpret the difference in length between the longest and shortest specimens in an insect collection. 4.MD.4 www.achievethecore.org 39 Coherence: Link to Major Topics Across Grades One of several staircases to algebra designed in the OA domain. www.achievethecore.org 40 Shift #3: Rigor • The CCSS require a balance of: Solid conceptual understanding Procedural skill and fluency Application of skills in problem solving situations • Pursuit of all three requires equal intensity in time, activities, and resources. www.achievethecore.org 41 Solid Conceptual Understanding • Teach more than “how to get the answer” and instead support students’ ability to access concepts from a number of perspectives • Students are able to see math as more than a set of mnemonics or discrete procedures • Conceptual understanding supports the other aspects of rigor (fluency and application) www.achievethecore.org 42 www.achievethecore.org 43 www.achievethecore.org 44 Unit Assessment Grade 3 sample formative assessment items www.achievethecore.org Fluency • The standards require speed and accuracy in calculation. • Teachers structure class time and/or homework time for students to practice core functions such as singledigit multiplication so that they are more able to understand and manipulate more complex concepts www.achievethecore.org 46 Required Fluencies in K-6 Grade Standard K K.OA.5 Add/subtract within 5 1 1.OA.6 Add/subtract within 10 2.OA.2 Add/subtract within 20 (know single-digit sums from memory) 2.NBT.5 Add/subtract within 100 Multiply/divide within 100 (know single-digit products from memory) 2 3 3.OA.7 3.NBT.2 Required Fluency Add/subtract within 1000 4 4.NBT.4 Add/subtract within 1,000,000 5 5.NBT.5 Multi-digit multiplication 6 6.NS.2,3 Multi-digit division Multi-digit decimal operations www.achievethecore.org Application • Students can use appropriate concepts and procedures for application even when not prompted to do so. • Teachers provide opportunities at all grade levels for students to apply math concepts in “real world” situations, recognizing this means different things in K-5, 6-8, and HS. • Teachers in content areas outside of math, particularly science, ensure that students are using grade-levelappropriate math to make meaning of and access science content. www.achievethecore.org 48 Content Emphases by Cluster: Grade Four Key: Major Clusters; Clusters www.achievethecore.org Supporting Clusters; Additional 49 www.achievethecore.org www.achievethecore.org 50 Standards for Mathematical Practices 1. Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them. 2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively. 3. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others. 4. Model with mathematics. 5. Use appropriate tools strategically. 6. Attend to precision. 7. Look for and make use of structure. 8. Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning. www.achievethecore.org www.achievethecore.org www.achievethecore.org www.achievethecore.org www.achievethecore.org www.achievethecore.org www.achievethecore.org www.achievethecore.org www.achievethecore.org www.achievethecore.org www.achievethecore.org www.achievethecore.org www.achievethecore.org Power of the Shifts • Know them – both the what and the why • Apply them to your decisions about Time Energy Resources Assessments Conversations with parents, students, colleagues • Continue to engage with them: www.achievethecore.org Follow @achievethecore on Twitter www.achievethecore.org 64 Obstacles and Opportunities Culture Capacity Coherence Courage www.achievethecore.org Shouldn't all kids have this experience? www.achievethecore.org CCSS Resources: CCSSO’s PDF provides resources for: • About the CCSS • Communications about CCSS • Instructional and Planning Materials and Supports • ELA, math, CTE, ELL and Special Ed. Resources • Career and College Readiness • Assessment Information •http://www.ccsso.org/Documents/2012/Common_Core_Resources.pdf www.achievethecore.org 67 CCSS Resources For more information about the Common Core State Standards, access the following links: http://www.corestandards.org/ http://www.state.nj.us/education/ www.achievethecore.org 68 Reflections and Questions Discuss an “aha” moment with a partner. How will you use what you learned to enhance instruction and assessment? What are you wondering? www.achievethecore.org Appendix: Resources to Complement the Common Core Presentation • ELA: Text-Dependent Questions • HS and MS: Achieve the Core; Elementary: OAASFEP • ELA: Complex Texts for ALL Grade Levels • Common Core Appendix B • The Text Project • Mathematical Coherence • Council of Chief State School Officers (all grade levels) • Ohio Resource Center (middle school) • Achieve the Core (K-8) • Mathematical Conceptual Understanding • Michigan State University • Mathematical Application • Lake Shore Central School District (Grades 1-5) • Learn Zillion (K-12) www.achievethecore.org 70