### CCSS_UDL_Accommodations

```Common Core State Standards
Universal Design for Learning
Lori Nixon, TN Department of Education
July 2013
Overview
 Common Core State Standards
(CCSS)
 Providing Access
 Universal Design for Learning (UDL)
 Accommodations
 New Generation Assessments
Common Core State Standards (CCSS)
 Resources to Share:
• TNCore.org
• CCSSO-Implementation Tools and Resources
• Common Core State Standards
• PARCC
• CCSS Initiative Document
Common Core State Standards (CCSS)
 From Common Core to Curriculum: Five Big Ideas
• Big Idea #1: The Common Core Standards have new
•
•
•
•
emphases and require a careful reading.
Big Idea #2: Standards are not curriculum.
Big Idea #3: Standards need to be “unpacked”.
Big Idea #4: A coherent curriculum is mapped
backwards from desired performances.
Big Idea #5: The standards come to life through the
assessments.
From Common Core Standards to Curriculum: Five Big Ideas
Jay McTighe and Grant Wiggins
English Language Arts
Instructional Shifts
1. Building knowledge through content-rich
nonfiction
2. Reading, writing and speaking grounded
in evidence from text, both literary and
informational
3. Regular practice with complex text and
Mathematics
Instructional Shifts
1. Focus strongly where the Standards
focus
2. Coherence: think across grades, and
3. Rigor: in major topics* pursue:
conceptual understanding, procedural
skill and fluency, and application with
equal intensity.
Priorities in Mathematics
K–2
3–5
6
7
8
Priorities in Support of Rich Instruction and Expectations
of Fluency and Conceptual Understanding
whole number quantities
Multiplication and division of whole numbers
and fractions
Ratios and proportional reasoning; early
expressions and equations
Ratios and proportional reasoning; arithmetic
of rational numbers
Linear algebra
Fluency
 The standards require speed and accuracy in
calculation.
 Teachers structure class time and/or homework
time for students to practice core functions such
as single-digit multiplication so that they are
more able to understand and manipulate more
complex concepts
8
Required Fluencies in K-8
Standard
Expected Fluency
K
K.OA.A.5
1
1.OA.C.6
2
2.OA.B.2
2.NBT.B.5
Add/Subtract within 20 (Know single digit sums from memory)
3
3.OA.C.7
3.NBT.A.2
Multiply/Divide within 100 (Know single digit products from memory)
4
4.NBT.B.4
5
5.NBT.B.5
Multi-digit multiplication
6
6.NS.B.2
6.NS.B.3
Multi-digit division
Multi-digit decimal operations
7
7.NS.A.1,2
7.EE.B.3
7.EE.B.4
8
8.EE.C.7
8.G.C.9
Fluency with rational number arithmetic
Solve multistep problems with positive and negative rational numbers in any form
Solve one-variable equations of the form px + q = r and p(x + q) = r fluently
Solve one-variable linear equations, including cases with infinitely many solutions or no solutions
Solve problems involving volumes of cones, cylinders, and spheres together with previous geometry work,
proportional reasoning and multi-step problem solving in grade 7
Fluency in High School
Course
Standard
Algebra I
A/G
A-APR.A.1
A-SSE.A.1b
Solving characteristic problems involving the analytic geometry of lines
Fluency in adding, subtracting, and multiplying polynomials
Fluency in transforming expressions and seeing parts of an expression as a single object
G-SRT.B.5
G-GPE.B.4,
5, 7
C-CO.D.12
Fluency with the triangle congruence and similarity criteria
Fluency with the use of coordinates
Fluency with the use of construction tools
A-APR.D.6
A-SSE.A.2
F.IF.A.3
Divide polynomials with remainder by inspection in simple cases
See structure in expressions and use this structure to rewrite expressions
Fluency in translating between recursive definitions and closed forms
Geometry
Algebra II
Recommended Fluency
10
PARCC Content Model Frameworks
 Inform development of item specifications and blueprints for the
PARCC assessments, and
 Support implementation of the Common Core State Standards.
 Primary purpose: to provide a frame for the PARCC assessments,
they also are voluntary resources to help educators and those
developing curricula and instructional materials.
What Promotes Access?
Opportunity to
Learn Standards
Universal Design
for Learning
Accommodations
Origins of Universal Design
Universal Design
Is our physical environment
welcoming?
DisWeb © 2000 Karen G. Stone
• Architectural term coined
by R. Mace
• Physical environment design
for access
• Stairs as access feature/barrier
• Physical Disabilities
• Elderly
• Children
• Strollers/Carts
• Retrofitting for physical access
remains a design afterthought
Retrofitting our Physical Environment
• Typically solves one issue
• Often costly to implement
• Aesthetically inelegant
Copyright ® 1997 Access Elevator Company
UD Origin and Definitions
“Consider the needs of the broadest
possible range of users from the
beginning”
Architect, Ron Mace
Universal Design
 Not one size fits all – but alternatives.
 Designed from the beginning, not added on




later.
• More economical
Increases access opportunities for everyone.
Intentional approach to design
Anticipates a variety of needs
Respects human diversity
UD and UDL
UD
UDL
Physical Environment
Instructional Environment
Physical barriers may exist in our
architectural environment
Learning barriers may exist in our
curricular environment
Proactive design of physical space
Proactive design of curriculum
and instruction
Physical retrofitting can be costly and is
often inelegant
Instructional accommodations can be
time consuming and difficult to
implement
18
Universal Design for Learning (UDL)
David Rose, Co-Executive Director of CAST,
UDL differs in that the point of entry is at the
design stage, how you begin to design a good
learning environment, a good lesson, a good
curriculum. UDL seeks to get to the core of
the curriculum, to design it so that it is a
good curriculum for all students from the
beginning. Assistive technologies,
accommodations, modifications typically come
after, as does differentiated instruction.
Universal Design for Learning (UDL)
Definition:
UDL is an educational
approach to teaching,
learning, and
assessment, drawing on
new brain research and
new media technologies
to respond to individual
learner differences.
Universal Design for Learning (UDL)
Dr. Jan Sheinker, an affiliate of NCEO and consultant to Edvantia Inc.,
noted that assessment developers need to determine whether the
 Increase or decrease access.
 Take into account that a child’s disability may cause a variance in
the learning progression.
 Reflect assumptions that are not true for all students, e.g., all
students are taught in the same scope and sequence.
 Yield results that are immediately available for instruction.
 Reflect unfamiliarity with technology, for instance, as states move to
technology enhanced assessments.
 Signal the need for accommodations not currently used or available.
Origins of Universal Design for
Learning (UDL)
 CAST believes that “barriers to learning are not, in
fact, inherent in the capacities of learners, but instead
arise in learners' interactions with inflexible
educational goals, materials, methods, and
assessments.”
UDL AT A Glance
23
UDL Principles
Representation
Provide multiple and flexible methods of
representation to give students with diverse
learning styles and needs various ways of
acquiring information and knowledge.
Action and Expression
Provide multiple and flexible means of
action and expression to provide diverse
students with alternatives for
demonstrating what they have learned.
Engagement
Provide multiple and flexible means of
engagement to tap diverse learners'
interests, challenge them appropriately,
and motivate them to learn.
Universal Design for Learning (UDL)
 It may not be reasonable or possible for teachers to incorporate all
three of the UDL principles into every lesson plan. Rather, they are
intended to guide instruction over time.
 Even when teachers apply the three principles, some students may
need additional support. Consequently, teachers will sometimes
have to make accommodations (e.g., allow the use of a spell
checker) to meet an individual student's needs.
Class Learning Profile
 The Model Template is an example of a class learning profile in
the context of a science unit on researching different aspects of a
flower. Students' strengths, needs, and preferences/interests most
relevant for this curriculum unit are listed in the table to provide an
overview of student characteristics.
 Examples of Student Qualities offers examples of the kinds of
strengths, needs, and interests or preferences that fall into the
different brain networks. These are examples only, designed to help
you understand what kinds of traits fall within the domain of each
brain network.
 The Blank Template offers structured support for creating a class
profile for your students, within the context of particular curricular
goals.
UDL Apps
 http://udlmobileapps.blogspot.com/
 For Android
or IPhone
UDL and Accommodations
 Universal Design for Learning (UDL) refers to the
process of making course concepts and skills attainable
to a greater number of students, regardless of their
differing learning styles, physical, sensory organizational
and linguistic abilities.
 Rather than the “one-size ﬁts-all” approach, UDL
stresses ﬂexible delivery of content, assignment and
activities. UDL allows the learning process to be more
accessible without singling out students with disabilities.
Accommodations
“A critical part of teaching and assessing
students with disabilities… is providing them
with accommodations that support learning
and that support their ability to show what
they know and can do.”
NICHY (2007). Assessment and Accommodations,
Evidence for Education, V2, Issue 1, p. 1
Accommodations v. Modifications
Accommodations – Changes in materials or procedures
that enable students to meaningfully access instruction and
assessment. Assessment accommodations do not change
the construct that is being measured.
 Accommodations mediate the effects of a student’s
disability and do not reduce learning expectations.
Modifications – Changes in materials or procedures that
enable students to access instruction and assessment.
Assessment modifications do change the construct that
is being measured.
 Modifications create challenges for assessment validity.
Accommodation vs. Modification
Accommodations
Modifications
Change the target skill or construct of interest
Allow student to demonstrate knowledge without
fundamentally changing the target skill being taught or
measured
Instructional or test adaptations that allow the student to
demonstrate knowledge, but also reduce the target skill
in some way
Do not reduce learning or performance expectations
Often reduce learning expectations or affect content in
such a way that what is being taught or tested
fundamentally changes
Change the manner or setting in which information is
presented or the manner in which students respond
really knows and can do; may unintentionally
overestimate student’s knowledge and skills
Include: timing, flexible scheduling, accommodated
presentation of material, setting, response
accommodations
Include: reducing number of items required, lowering the
complexity of items or task required
Problems with Modifications
 May confuse accommodations and modifications
and change the target skill, resulting in incorrect
assumptions about what the student actually
knows.
 Modifications are more likely to reduce
expectations for students.
 Modifications limit students’ opportunity to learn
and may contribute to learned helplessness in
the future.
35
Choosing Accommodations
1. Expect students with disabilities to achieve grade-level
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Learn about accommodations for instruction that are
acceptable for assessment.
based on a student’s academic and behavioral needs.
Only use accommodations when appropriate.
assessment.
Evaluate, improve, and in some cases remove
accommodations when appropriate.
Classroom Accommodations
Instructional Methods and Materials
• Student can’t identify main ideas or important points
– Highlight important points of the text to draw attention. Tell the student to
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Give the student a list of important vocabulary.
Have the student read the summary or objectives first.
Have the student read the review questions first, then look for the answers.
Give the student a worksheet or study guide to follow when he or she must
Use hands-on activities, pictures, or diagrams to support understanding of
abstract concepts complex information.
Let the student use sticky notes or an erasable highlighter to mark key
points in the textbook.
Let the student use a book written at a lower grade level. This can help the
student pay more attention to the main ideas.
Adapted from Accommodations: Assisting Students with Disabilities—
A Guide for Educators
37
Classroom Accommodations
Instructional Methods and Materials
 Student can understand the information, but can’t
• Provide an audio version of the material. Use bookson-tape or have an assistant, volunteer, or other
student make a recording.
• Use a videotape or movie that presents the same
information.
• Use assistive technology to transfer printed words to
speech.
• Have a learning buddy read aloud textbooks or other
printed material.
38
Classroom Accommodations
Assignments and Assessments
Student has difficulty following instructions.
• Student needs help to get ready for the
instructions.
– Use a prearranged signal to gain the student’s
attention before giving directions.
– Make sure the student is facing you when
instructions are given.
sustain attention.
– Give the student an agenda or schedule for each
day.
39
Classroom Accommodations
Assignments and Assessments
Student gets confused by complex materials.
 Block sections on paper for each response by drawing lines or
folding. Show students how to cover parts of text or worksheet not
being used.
 Use different kinds of paper, such as graph paper for doing
computations or paper with midlines for taking notes.
 Use color-coding to help students identify tasks, meanings, or
expectations.
 Give page numbers for locating answers to questions.
 Simplify directions by numbering each step.
 Use uncluttered and clearly formatted tests and worksheets.
Arrange problems or items so that it is easy to know where to start
and how to proceed.
40
Assessment Accommodations
 Assessment accommodations are changes in testing materials or
procedures that enable students to participate in assessments in a
way that assesses abilities rather than disabilities. Without
accommodations, the assessment may not accurately measure the
student's knowledge and skills.
Assessment Accommodations
Four Common Accommodation Categories
 Presentation
• Alter the method or format used to administer assessment
 Response
• Alternative methods to provide responses to test items
 Timing and Scheduling
• Changes in allowable length of time to complete test or the way time is
organized
 Setting
• Changes in the location or conditions within the assessment setting
Matching Category to Need
 Presentation
• Those with disabilities
standard print, typically
as a result of a physical,
sensory, cognitive, or
specific learning
disability
• Examples-Braille, Tactile
Graphics, ClosedCaptioning
 Response
• Students who have
physical, sensory, or
learning disabilities
(including difficulties
with memory,
sequencing,
directionality, alignment,
and organization)
• Examples-Braille Notetaker, Calculation Device,
Assistive Technology
43
Matching Category to Need
Timing and Scheduling
Setting Considerations
 Helpful to students who need
 Changes to the setting can benefit
 Extra time may be needed by
students to process information,
write responses, or use special
devices or equipment
 Frequent breaks or extended
breaks may be helpful for students
who are more productive at
certain times of day
students who are easily distracted
in large group settings and who
concentrate best in a small group
or individual setting
44
New Generation Assessments
PARCC
Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for
College and Career
NCSC
National Center and State Collaborative
PARCC
Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for
College and Careers
PARCC states have committed to building a K-12 assessment system
that:
 Builds a pathway to college and career readiness for all students,
 Creates high-quality assessments that measure the full range of the
CCSS,
 Supports educators in the classroom,
 Makes better use of technology in assessments, and
 Advances accountability at all levels.
NCSC
National Center and State Collaborative
 Building an assessment system based on research-based
understanding of:
• technical quality of AA-AAS design
• formative and interim uses of assessment data
• summative assessments
• academic curriculum and instruction for students with significant
cognitive disabilities
• student learning characteristics and communication
• effective professional development
47
Resources
UDL:
http://www.cast.org/udl/
http://www.udlcenter.org/
CCSS:
http://www.corestandards.org/
http://www.achievethecore.org/
http://educore.ascd.org/
TNCore:
http://www.tncore.org/
PARCC:
http://www.parcconline.org/
NCSC:
http://www.ncscpartners.org/
```