Resistance Exercise Prescription

Report
Resistance Exercise Prescription
Designing RE Prescriptions
• Acute Variables:
–
–
–
–
–
Choice of exercises
Order of exercises
Exercise intensity
Exercise volume
Inter-set rest intervals
• Chronic Variables:
– Exercise frequency
– Progression /Periodization (discussed later in course)
2
Choice of Exercises
• Choose exercises that target primary muscle
groups of sport (performance), and promote
balance/symmetry (injury prevention)
• Machines vs. free weight exercises
– Machines are easier to learn and less intimidating
– Free weights might give better “performance” results. Also
less costly.
• Multi-joint vs. single-joint exercises
– Recommendation: rely primarily on multi-joint
• Muscle actions
– Recommendation: for optimal gains in muscle strength and
size exercises must include eccentric muscle actions
3
Order of Exercises
• Place most important exercises first
– If the client needs to increase lower-body strength,
then place lower-body exercises first in the workout
• ACSM Position Stand:
– “Power” exercises performed before “strength”
exercises
• E.g., power clean before squat
– Large muscle group exercises performed before small
muscle group exercises
• E.g., squat before calf raise
– Multi-joint exercises before single-joint exercises
• E.g., squat before knee extension
4
Exercise Volume and Intensity
• Volume = Exercises x Sets x Repetitions
• Intensity = Resistance (Load)
• Methods of prescribing volume and intensity:
1.
2.
3.
4.
X repetitions at Y% 1-RM
X-RM
X repetitions at Y RPE
X repetitions using a load based on analysis of
training logs
5
Prescribing Volume and Intensity
• The best strength coaches individualize
training for athletes
– Requires logging workout performances
(preferably electronically)
– Requires analyzing training logs
• For the purposes of this class, we will utilize
the X-RM method
6
Exercise Volume & Intensity
Strength/Power Hypertrophy
1
6
8
12
Local Endurance
15
25
Number of Repetitions
7
Exercise Volume and Intensity
• ACSM Position Stand (Volume):
– Novice: 1-3 sets per exercise
– Experienced: Multiple sets
• ACSM Position Stand (Intensity):
– Novice: 60-70% of 1RM; or 8-12RM
– Advanced: 80-100% of 1RM; or 1-6RM
8
Rest Intervals
• If goal is strength/power, then rest ~2-3 min
between sets
– Strength/power gains will be attenuated if rest
intervals are too short
– For assistance exercises, 1-2 min should suffice
• If goal is muscular endurance, then rest ≤ 1
min between sets
9
Exercise Frequency
• Frequency = # of sessions per week
• ACSM Position Stand:
– Novice: 2-3 days/week (appropriate for most people)
– Intermediate: 3-4 days/week
– Advanced: 4-7 days/week
• Remember: you get stronger between work-outs,
not during
– Importance of recovery
10
Periodization
Volume
Intensity
Off-season
Pre-Season In-Season
Post-Season
11
Objectives
• Overview the physiological basis of
periodization
• Define key terms related to periodization
• Introduce basic concepts of periodized
exercise prescriptions
12
Physiological Basis of Periodization
• The body’s response to “stress” (exercise) is
described by the General Adaptation
Syndrome (GAS) and Supercompensation (SC)
Theory
• GAS and SC are similar methods used to
describe the same process: responses and
adaptation to stress
13
General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)
14
Supercompensation (SC) Theory
15
Applying GAS/SC to S&C
• A scientifically based exercise prescription can
significantly improve performance in a relatively
short period of time
• Consequences of a training program that is
monotonous (doesn’t change over time) or
utilizes insufficient recovery:
– Plateau in performance (best case scenario)
– Decrease in performance
– Injury from overuse (worst case scenario)
16
Periodization Terminology
• Macrocycle: Typically, a year-long training plan
• Phases:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Preparatory phase (off-season)
Transition phase (pre-season)
Competition phase (in-season)
Transition phase (post-season)
• Mesocycle: A training cycle that addresses
specific training goal(s) (e.g., maximizing
strength) and usually lasts ~2-8 weeks
• Microcycle: Typically, one week of training
17
Periodization
• In general, as the athlete progresses from
the post-season to the in-season, the
training priorities shift from:
– Non-specific activities to Sport-specific activities
– High-volume/low-intensity to Highintensity/low-volume
18
Off-Season
Pre-Season
In-Season
Post-Season
19

similar documents