Section 2 PowerPoint Notes - Muhlenberg School District

Report
Chapter
16 Section 2
Objectives:
• Explain why conflicts developed over plans for
Reconstruction.
• Describe the changes in the South brought
about by Radical Reconstruction.
• Explain how Congress tried to remove President
Johnson from office.
• Describe how the Ku Klux Klan and other secret
societies tried to prevent African Americans from
exercising their rights.
The Battle Over Reconstruction
Chapter
16 Section 2
Terms and People
• Andrew Johnson – Vice President who became
President when Lincoln was assassinated
• Hiram Revels – an African American senator
• Blanche Bruce – an African American senator
• scalawag – southern whites who had opposed
secession
• carpetbagger – a northern white who went
south to start a business or pursue political office
The Battle Over Reconstruction
Chapter
16 Section 2
Terms and People (continued)
• impeachment – bringing of formal charges
against a public official
• black codes – new laws used by southern
states to control African Americans
The Battle Over Reconstruction
Chapter
16 Section 2
How did disagreements over Reconstruction
lead to conflicts in government and in the
South?
President Andrew Johnson and Congress
disagreed over plans for Reconstruction.
This led to a battle for power between
Congress and the Presidency.
The Battle Over Reconstruction
Chapter
16 Section 2
Like Lincoln, President Johnson proposed a less
demanding plan for Reconstruction.
• He gave amnesty to
most former
Confederates.
• He allowed southern
states to organize new
governments and elect
Congressmen.
The Battle Over Reconstruction
Chapter
16 Section 2
Johnson required states to ratify the Thirteenth
Amendment.
This amendment
abolished slavery and
forced labor.
Slavery
The 13th Amendment gave Congress the
power to make laws to enforce its terms.
The Battle Over Reconstruction
Chapter
16 Section 2
Congress rejected Johnson’s lenient approach
and began to debate a new plan.
To sidestep the
abolishment of
slavery, some
Southerners
supported black
codes, a system
of near-slavery.
The Battle Over Reconstruction
Anger over these
developments led
Radical
Republicans in
Congress to
adopt a hard
line.
Chapter
16 Section 2
The struggle over Reconstruction led to direct
clashes between the President and Congress.
Congress passed
the Civil Rights
Act of 1866. It
gave citizenship to
African Americans.
Johnson
vetoed the
bill.
Congress overturned the veto. It became law.
The Battle Over Reconstruction
Chapter
16 Section 2
Next, Congress passed the 14th Amendment.
The 14th Amendment.
All people born or naturalized in the
United States are citizens.
States must allow all males over 21
to vote.
The 14th amendment was not fully enforced
until the 1970s.
The Battle Over Reconstruction
Chapter
16 Section 2
Which side pushed for stricter controls of the new
states?
President Andrew
Johnson
• majority of white men
must swear oath of
loyalty
• states must ratify 13th
Amendment
• former Confederate
officials may vote and
hold office
Radical Republicans
• state governments must
disband
• states must write new
constitutions
• states must ratify 13th
and 14th Amendments
• must allow African
American men to vote
The Battle Over Reconstruction
Chapter
16 Section 2
Radical Republicans won enough support to begin
a series of reforms known as Radical
Reconstruction.
They passed the Reconstruction Act of 1867. To
return to the Union, southern states had to:
write a new
state
constitution
ratify the 14th
Amendment
The Battle Over Reconstruction
allow African
Americans to
vote
Chapter
16 Section 2
The act imposed military rule on states that
refused to ratify the 14th Amendment, dividing
them into five military districts.
The Battle Over Reconstruction
Chapter
16 Section 2
Radical Reconstruction brought about many
improvements:
Southern states
opened their
first public
schools.
Taxes and voting
rules became
more fair for all
citizens.
Legislators
granted women
property rights.
States rebuilt
bridges, roads,
and buildings.
The Battle Over Reconstruction
Chapter
16 Section 2
For the first time in American history, African
Americans in the South played an active role
in politics.
African Americans were
elected to local and
state-wide offices.
Hiram Revels and
Blanche Bruce became
the nation’s first African
American senators.
Hiram Revels
The Battle Over Reconstruction
Chapter
16 Section 2
The Republican Party built a strong following
during this time, based on three groups.
1
Freedmen voters.
2
Scalawags, or southern whites
who had opposed secession.
3
Carpetbaggers, or northern whites
who came to work in the South.
The Battle Over Reconstruction
Chapter
16 Section 2
Radical Republican power peaked in 1868.
The Radicals tried to remove President Johnson
from office by impeachment. Johnson received
just enough votes to stay in office.
Then, General
Ulysses S. Grant
won the 1868
presidential
election.
The Battle Over Reconstruction
Grant was a
moderate, so the
Radicals began to
lose power.
Chapter
16 Section 2
In 1869, Congress approved the 15th Amendment.
States had to allow African
Americans to vote.
Secret societies such as the
Ku Klux Klan used terror
and violence to keep African
Americans from voting.
The Battle Over Reconstruction
Chapter
16 Section 2
Congress responded to Klan violence in the 1870s.
Klan violence
took hundreds of
lives during the
election of 1868.
Congress passed
laws barring the
use of force
against African
American voters.
Although Reconstruction guaranteed rights to
more Americans, huge challenges still remained.
The Battle Over Reconstruction
Chapter
16 Section 2
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