LIVE FISH MARKETS IN CHINA, HONG KONG AND

Report
Live Fish Markets in China, Hong Kong
&
ASEAN
Presented by
Fatima Ferdouse & Sudari Pawiro
INFOFISH
The importance of fishery trade in developing countries
“The net export revenues
earned by developing countries
from their fish and fishery
products is higher than the
entire sum of all other food
commodities combined”,--reported FAO.
PRICE TREND FOR FISH PRICES
The overall narrowing in the global economy is
having negative impact on foreign fishery trade.
FAO Fish price Index: (2002-2004=100)
Demand has been weak in most of the customary
western markets.
2012
Export prices and profit margins are under
pressure, particularly for aquaculture products.
FAO Fish Price Index indicated that farmed species
reached record high levels in April 2011 at 161 but
dropped to 119 in October 2012.
International prices of high value shrimp, salmon
have stayed low throughout 2012.
In comparison , prices of varieties from capture
fisheries have fared better, dropping from 167 in
August 2011 to 150 in October 2012.
However, in Malaysia seafood prices remain high
Farmed vannamei shrimp
60-70pc ; RM 25/kg
Salmon steaks : RM 99/kg
The high side seafood market :
Imported Organic Seafood in
Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand
Frozen Cod: US$70
Organic smoked salmon: US$ 100/kg
Organic salmon, US$ 150/kg
Breaded Organic Cod: US$200/kg
World’s Top Ten Fishery Exporters (in billion US$)
Country
2008
2009
2010
2011
China
10.10
10.24
13.36
16.97
Norway
6.63
7.08
8.71
9.23
Thailand
6.50
6.17
6.98
8.42
Vietnam
4.51
4.20
5.03
6.11
USA
4.53
4.00
4.13
5.12
Chile
3.64
3.58
3.34
Thailand
4.41
Spain
3.50
3.18
3.25
4.23
Canada
3.68
3.18
3.78
4.14
Denmark
4.61
3.54
3.64
3.87
Netherlands
3.41
3.42
3.42
3.84
China
GLOBAL FISHERY IMPORTS, BY CONTINENT
140.0
bill. US$
IMPORTS :
120.0
Europe is the largest market area ,
followed by Asia and North America.
100.0
This year , import growth slowed down
in the developed countries but remained
stable in the developing regions.
80.0
60.0
EXPORTS: With higher value fishery exports
included live food fish, Asian producers
dominated supplies in the international
trade.
40.0
20.0
0.0
2010
2011
2012
OCEANIA
AFRICA
LATIN AMERICA
NORTH AMERICA
EUROPE
ASIA
LATIN
AMERICA
NORTH 12%
AMERICA
8%
AFRICA
4%
OCEANIA
2%
ASIA
41%
EUROPE
33%
2011 EXPORTS
Import demand has been higher in developing markets
8
7
China
(in billion US$)
RP Korea
Hong Kong
6
Thailand
Canada
5
Russia
Australia
4
Brazil
Singapore
3
Malaysia
Taiwan
2
Indonesia
Mexico
1
India
0
2008
2009
2010
2011
---and there are better opportunities in Asian Markets
January -September
14000000
2010
12000000
2011
10000000
2012
8000000
January - August
18000000
6000000
16000000
4000000
2010
14000000
2000000
2011
12000000
0
2012
10000000
8000000
6000000
Jan-July
4500000
4000000
2010
2011
2012
4000000
3500000
3000000
2000000
0
EU (Extra
Trade)
USA
Australia Taiwan
Canada Singapore France
2500000
2000000
This year, the global financial crisis has had its
impacts on the emerging markets but
imports into Malaysia increased , indicating
strong domestic demand
1500000
1000000
500000
0
Spain
Italy
UK
Malaysia
India
2012 Fishery Export Trend
January-July
MALAYSIA
2010
US$
HS codes
0301
Live Food Fish
Total Fishery Exports
0301
ton
46,427,014
429,788,895
Total Fishery Exports
ton
7,900 43,411,437
145,070
467,473,109
2010
US$
Live Food Fish
US$
2012
US$
ton
9,096
40,106,207 7,559
151,137
452,022,463 134,552
January –June
INDONESIA
HS codes
2011
2011
ton
US$
34,333,577
5,463 24,548,814
1,227,716,164
488,395 1,446,355,580
2012
ton
3,924
US$
ton
30,988,280
5,776
419,875 1,766,667,467
495,025
High Value Aquaculture and Seafood Trade
Now a days , it is rather difficult to draw a clear line between low , medium and
high value species .
Marine fin fish such as groupers, sea bass , snappers , abalone , sea cucumber are
the higher value aquaculture products with growing demand
With a different name ‘Siakap’ (Asian seabass) has a better image . When
marketed as “barramundi” , it sells well at a higher price in Asian and western
markets .
 soft-shell crab farming is taking over many brackish water shrimp ponds in the
region due to better market opportunities.
 Imports of high value seafood continues to rise in Asia .
EAST ASIA IS THE LARGEST MARKET FOR LIVE FOOD FISH
• Regional import and domestic markets for live food fish and
crustaceans are expanding
• While China is the growing outlet for live marine fishery
products, freshwater species are gaining popularity in other
markets.
• Pink tilapia has replaced wild red snapper in many seafood
restaurants since 1997 economic recession
• Restaurant demand for live freshwater prawn has also
increased, replacing black tiger shrimp
Asian Live fish market
China including Hong Kong is the largest import
market …nearly 20, 000 tons were imported in
2008 . Marine fin fish and shellfish categories are
the main product groups.
Freshwater fish , such as Marble Goby’ also fetches high
price in southern China and south east Asian markets
Live fish and seafood are widely sold in China’s retail and
restaurant trade.
East Asia
While demand for
wild fisheries
which are more
natural - will
continue …...,
demand for
certified farmed
fish and shellfish
will gains
consumers
acceptance in
developing Asian
markets
“High retail prices”
of healthy food is
not always a factor
as far as fish is
concern . many
Asians do not mind
paying higher prices
for their preferred
species or products
……..Norwegian
salmon and
cod are the
perfect
examples!
GLOBAL FISHERY SUPPLY
2010
90.0
Marine
30%
80.0
Fresh
water
62%
70.0
60.0
OCEANIA
NORTH AMERICA
50.0
Brackish
water
8%
AFRICA
40.0
EUROPE
LATIN AMERICA
30.0
2005
ASIA
20.0
Marine
35%
10.0
0.0
2009
2010
CAPTURE
2009
2010
AQUACULTURE
Brackish
water
7%
Freshwater
58%
Short term market forecast for Developing countries------During the last quarter of this year, the World
Bank has reviewed its 2012 growth forecast for
developing countries in East Asia and the Pacific
to 7.2% , pulled down by China’s lower economic
growth forecast at 7.7% this year down from
9.3% in 2011. This is the slowest rate since 1999.
The lower economic growth , coupled with
reduced activity in the fish processing sector are
slackening China’s demand for a number of
imports, including fishery products .Export prices
of some fishery products to China are already
showing weakening signs .
Even so , the FAO forecast for 2012 on global
fish trade is still positive at +3% in value
compared with 2011; volumes could show lower
variation at around +0.5% from the previous year.
In the long run -----Asia will increasingly dominate global fishery supply as well as
demand
The population in Asia is nearly 4 billion, of which 524 million
are classified as middle class comprising 28% of the world’s
middleclass population.
They spend between US$ 10 and US$ 100 a day ,supported by
the rising income .
Their preference for healthy food is high including fishery
products
What the world financial
watchdogs say about
Asia’s economies
Royal Bank of Canada: “ The number
of wealthy Asian surpasses that of
North Americans”
Asian Development Bank: “Some 3
billion Asian could rise to affluent
status by 2050 , if the continent
sustains its present growth
momentum and avoids being trapped
at middle income level”.
PAX Survey: Wealthy Asians would
rather travel (----enjoy fine food) than
invest. As the market develops, its
more affluent individual have started
to develop a taste of finer things in
life” …including fine dinning and
traveling in first class and business
class.
In future , sustainability will remain the
key factor in global fishery supplies.
For international and domestic markets,
food safety and quality assurance are the
important issues that need to be
strengthened in the producing countries.
LIVE MARINE FOOD FISH
MARKET
LIVE FISH MAJOR MARKETS IN ASIA
•
•
•
•
China
Hong Kong
Taiwan
South Korea
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Singapore
Malaysia
Japan
Thailand, Vietnam,
Indonesia
•
•
•
•
Mainly local production + imports
Imports
Local production
Local production + Imports (from
China)
Imports + local production
Local production + imports
Local Production
Local production
Live fish imports into HK in 2011 (36676 tons)
Malaysia
Thailand 2%
7%
Other
marine fish,
6561
Grouper,
7395
Others
4%
Indonesia
6%
China
74%
Freshwater,
22720
Philippines
7%
Live marine fish traded in HK
Over 60 species of marine finfish are traded in the market,
•
-
Species
Epinephelus coioides
E. bleekeri
Lutjanus argentimaculatus
E. polyphekadion
E. fuscoguttatus
Plectropomus areolatus
P. leopardus
E. malaboricus
P. maculatus
Cheilinus undulatus
Trachinotus blochii
E. lauceolatus
English/Common Name
Green grouper/orange-spotted grouper
Spotted grouper/duskytail grouper
Mangrove/red snapper
Flower/cod grouper
Tiger grouper
Spotted coral grouper/trout grouper
Leopard grouper
Malabar grouper
Spotted coral/trout grouper
Humphead/Napolean wrasse
Pompano
Giant grouper
Three Main Market Segments for Live Seafood
Segment
Purposes

1.
Domestic
2.
Medium- 
priced

restaurants

Wedding banquets
Business
entertainment
Thanksgivings,
etc.
3.
Premium- 
priced

restaurants 
Tourist attractions
Wedding banquets
Business
entertainment, etc.
Household
consumption
Preferrable
Size range (kg)
Common species

0.4-0.8 kg











0.8-1.5 kg

<2 kg







1-2 kg, or bigger 




Gold-lined seabream
Yellow-finned seabream
Red pargo
Brown-spotted grouper
Yellow grouper
Mangrove snapper
Russell’s snapper
Pompano
Rabbitfish
Rockfish
Tigerfish
Brown-spotted grouper
Green grouper (E. coioides)
Malabar grouper)
Tiger grouper
Flower grouper
Parrotfish
Wrasses
Coral trouts
Humphead wrasse
Highfinned grouper
Giant grouper)
Leopard grouper (Plectropomus leopardus)
Red grouper
Stonefish
(Source: WWF, Hong Kong)
Importers:
Capture or
culture
species
Fish
Traders
Reexport
to China
Premiumpriced
Restaurants
Distribution Channels for Live
Marine Fish in Hong Kong
Primary
Distributor
s
Mediumpriced
Restaurants
Retailers/
Domestic
Consumption
Hong Kong: Live seafood distribution
Import trends of live grouper into HK
9000
8000
7000
6000
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
0
1999
2001
2004
2007
Leopard
Green
2008
Total
2010
2011
Imports of live grouper in 2011
Malaysia,
782 Mt,
11%
Other
grp,
1255
Tiger,
877
Green,
2221
Leopard
grp,
3042
Other
countrie
s, 6613
Mt, 89%
HK: Imports of Live Marine Food-fish,
January – September
2012
2011
MT
US$1000
MT
US$1000
High-finned grouper
-
10
0.4
13
Leopard coral trout grouper
2 239
46 412
2 172.3
41 582
Spotted coral trout grouper
25
476
10.4
131
2 490
17 575
1 629.2
10 365
483
4 351
679.1
4 760
Flower grouper
27
561
33.6
625
Other groupers
889
12 645
860.1
12 112
6 153
82 030
5 351.4
69 588
5 351.4
69 588
Green grouper
Tiger grouper
Sub-total groupers
Sub-total high value marine fish (coral
reef fish)
Mangrove snapper
8
24
6.0
18
Other marine finfish
1 513
13 262
1 637.9
10 849
Total Marine finfish
7 674
95 316
6 995.3
80 455
Change%
(MT)
+3
+52.8
+15%
+9.7%
CHINA-Imports of live food fish (in tons)
•
Huge market- but mainly
supplied from domestic
production
12000
10000
•
Imports of live food fish is
still small (6516 tons in
2011)
8000
6000
•
•
•
Demand is growing for live
grouper
Supplies are mainly from HK
(re-export) and Taiwan
Imports dropped in 2011 but
recover in 2012
4000
2000
0
2004
2005
2006
2007
Jan-Dec
2008
2009
Jan-Oct
2010
2011
2012
China-Taiwan Live Fish Trade
• Economic Co-operation Framework
Agreement in 2010: import tariff reduce to 5%
• Direct export using live fish carrier to major
cities in China
• Taiwan government targets US$263 million
exports by 2013
• Competition from local production (Hainan
Island)
China-ASEAN
• China-ASEAN Free Trade Area (CAFTA)
• Chinese businessmen invested in Vietnam in
grouper farming
• Join venture between Taiwanese company and
Brunei invest in Red grouper farming (indoor)
• Indonesia grouper farming centres: Bali,
Situbondo and Lampung also targetting HK and
China markets.
• Borneo Aqua Harvest from Sabah sales directly
to Xiamen
Singapore Live finfish market
2000
Imports in 2011 (1871 MT)
1900
Others,
162
Vietnam,
183
1800
Malaysia
Vietnam
1700
Others
Malaysia,
1526
1600
1500
2009
2010
2011
Malaysia
Others,
3503
Indonesia
, 872
Snappers,
5237
Singapore
, 2930
Thailand,
1268
Sea bass
17607
Grouper,
6306
Marine farmed fish production
in 2011 (32 653 tons)
Hong
Kong,
2584
Live fish exports in 2011
(7918 tons, US$51 million)
Trends and Issues
• Increasing supplies from aquaculture (Taiwan,
Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, Phillipines,
Brunei, Vietnam)
• Growing demand: China and SE Asian markets
• Current high dependency on live fish market
• The New trend: Air-flown freshly killed
grouper for banquets from Australia
• Farming: costs, feed related issues (trash fish
vs pellet)
Thank you

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