Chapter 07

Report
DESIGNING RESISTANCE
TRAINING PROGRAMS
CHAPTER 07
BENEFITS OF
RESISTANCE TRAINING
Resistance training is a systematic program of
exercise for development of the muscular system
for clients of various ages and interests:
• Strength
• Endurance
• Bone integrity
• Reduction in number of falls / injuries
TYPES OF RESISTANCE
TRAINING
Although there are general guidelines for designing
isometric, dynamic, and isokinetic resistance training
programs, each exercise prescription should be
individualized to meet the specific needs and goals of
your client.
TYPES
• Isometric (static) Training
• Dynamic Training
• Concentric
• Eccentric
• Isokinetic Training
ISOMETRIC TRAINING
• Older style of training requiring no special equipment
• Requires holding submaximal contraction at specific joint angle (no
change in joint angle)
• Used in rehabilitative settings to counteract strength loss and
muscle atrophy, especially in cases in which the limb is temporarily
immobilized.
• Benefit is limited to the specific joint angles
Contraindications
• Coronary patients and patients with hypertension
• The static contraction may produce large increases in
intrathoracic pressure. This reduces the venous return to the
heart, increases the work of the heart, and causes a
substantial rise in blood pressure.
DYNAMIC TRAINING
• Appropriate for all ages, both sexes
• Involves concentric and eccentric contractions using variable or
constant resistance
• Full range of motion
• Basic concepts:
•
•
•
•
Intensity (percentage of 1RM)
Repetitions (Intensity is inversely related to repetitions)
Sets (a given number of consecutive repetitions of the exercise)
Training Volume - total weight lifted in exercise session
• Weight lifted x number of reps x sets
• Sequence of exercises (order of lifts)
GOALS FOR DYNAMIC
TRAINING
• To develop muscle strength and muscle mass, the American
College of Sports Medicine (ACSM 2010) recommends selecting a
resistance that allows the individual to complete 8 to 12 repetitions
per set.
• To improve muscular endurance, a lower resistance (≤50% 1-RM)
and higher number of repetitions (15-25 reps) are recommended
(ACSM 2010). Table 7.2 (pg.157) summarizes the ACSM (2010)
guidelines for the resistance training of healthy populations.
• You can design programs to optimize the development of muscle
strength, size (hypertrophy), endurance, or power by varying the
intensity, repetitions, sets, and frequency of training. Tables 7.3
through 7.5 ( pg. 157-8) present guidelines for designing programs
for novice, intermediate, and advanced weightlifters.
INTENSITY
• Mean optimal intensity for strength: 60% to 100% 1RM
• Can generally perform 1 to 12 repetitions at these
intensities
• Modify based on experience level:
• Novice lifter: 60% to 70% 1RM
• Intermediate lifter: 70% to 85% 1RM
• Advanced lifter: 80% to 100% 1RM
• To develop muscular endurance, prescribe an intensity
of ≤ 50% 1-RM (ACSM 2010).
SETS
• Target client’s goals
• The optimal number of sets for improving muscular strength
is controversial and depends on your client’s goal; one or
two sets for children and older adults and two to four sets for
novice and intermediate lifters are recommended
• Single sets: shorter programs, increased adherence, but not
recommended by many (results from a meta-analysis of 140
strength training studies do not support prescribing single-set programs to
develop the strength of untrained and trained recreational lifters)
• Multiple sets: longer programs, increased training stimulus,
and if using single sets, use multiple type of lifts for the same
muscle group.
FREQUENCY
• Muscular fitness may improve from exercising just 1 day/wk,
especially in clients with below-average muscular fitness. Recent
research, however, suggests that the optimal frequency of strength
training for untrained individuals is 3 days/wk.
Consider client’s experience level
• Novice: 3 days a week
• Healthy population: 2 or 3 nonconsecutive days a week
• Advanced lifters: 4 to 6 sessions a week; split routines (With a split
routine, you are targeting different muscle groups on consecutive days, thereby
allowing at least 1 day of recovery for each muscle group. )
• For maximum strength: at least 2 times a week per muscle group
• Rest muscle group 48 hours between workouts
VOLUME
• You can alter training volume by changing the number
of exercises performed for each session, the number of
repetitions performed for each set, or the number of
sets performed for each exercise
• Throughout the resistance training program, volume
and intensity must be systematically increased
(progression principle) to avoid plateaus and to ensure
continued strength improvements.
SEQUENCE OF
EXERCISES
• Perform multi-joint exercises before singlejoint exercise.
• Allow muscle recovery; successive exercises
should not involve the same muscle group.
• Include at least one exercise per major muscle
group.
• Balance agonist, antagonist, and contralateral
exercises.
DYNAMIC TRAINING
METHODS
You can use a variety of methods to design dynamic resistance
training programs. The majority of these methods are best suited for
advanced programs. Each uses a different approach for prescribing
sets, order of exercises, or frequency of workouts.
Set variations:
• Multiple sets:
• designated sets (usually 3) per exercise or,
• one set of 3 exercises targeting muscle group
• Pyramiding sets:
• Start with a set of lighter weight and higher reps
• Subsequent sets progressively increase weight and decrease
reps
• Target total of 6 sets
• Usually a technique for experienced weightlifters and
bodybuilders
DYNAMIC TRAINING METHODS
(CONTINUED)
Variations in number and order of exercises:
• Large muscle groups before smaller muscle groups
• Smaller muscle groups before larger ones - advanced
weightlifters prefer to do compound sets or tri-sets in
order to completely fatigue a targeted muscle group
• Compound sets: 2 consecutive sets for single muscle
group
• Tri sets: 3 consecutive sets for single muscle group
• Super sets: consecutive and immediate alternation of
sets between agonist and antagonist without rest.
DYNAMIC TRAINING METHODS
(CONTINUED)
Variations in frequency:
• Typically 3 days a week with one day rest between
each session
• Split routines: With a split routine, you are targeting
different muscle groups on consecutive days, thereby
allowing at least 1 day of recovery for each muscle
group.
DYNAMIC TRAINING METHODS
(CONTINUED)
Periodization
• The training stimulus may be varied by manipulations in one or
more of the following program elements:
•
•
•
•
Training volume (number of sets, repetitions, or exercises)
Training intensity (amount of resistance)
Type of contraction (concentric, eccentric, or isometric)
Training frequency
• Goal 1: maximize gains in strength, power, endurance, and
hypertrophy
• Goal 2: reduce likelihood of injury and overtraining
• Rest periods between sets and exercises related to intensity
• Three common models: linear, reverse linear, undulating
LINEAR
PERIODIZATION (LP)
• Macrocycles: cover 9- to 12-month intervals
• Mesocycles: 3- to 4-month intervals that comprise
macrocycles
• Microcycles: 1- to 4-week intervals that comprise
mesocycles
• Within and between cycles, training intensity increases as
training volume decreases.
• For example, a 3 mo. (12 wk) mesocycle can be divided
into three 4 wk. microcycles as follows: during weeks 1
through 4, three sets are performed at 12-RM or 70% 1RM; during weeks 5 through 8, three sets are performed
at 10-RM or 75% 1-RM; and during weeks 9 through 12,
three sets are performed at 8-RM or 80% 1-RM
REVERSE LINEAR
PERIODIZATION (RLP)
• Reverse sequence of LP
• Within and between cycles, training intensity decreases
as training volume increases.
The RLP configuration of the mesocycles and microcycles is as
follows: weeks 1 through 4, three sets at 80% 1-RM (8-RM); weeks 5
through 8, three sets at 75% 1-RM (10-RM); and weeks 9 through 12,
three sets at 70% 1-RM (12-RM). As you can see, the training
intensity decreases from 80% to 70% 1-RM (8-RM to 12-RM) as the
training volume increases (from 8 to 12 reps)
UNDULATING
PERIODIZATION (UP)
• Considerably shorter intervals as compared to LP and RLP
programs
• Compared to those in LP and RLP, the microcycles for
undulating periodization (UP) are considerably shorter
(biweekly, weekly, or even daily) so that they frequently
change the training stimulus (intensity and volume).
• Your client may progress from high volume–low intensity to
low volume–high intensity in the same week.
• One advantage of the UP program is that the training
volume and intensity change frequently, subjecting the
exercising muscles to a different training stimulus on a daily
or weekly basis.
CIRCUIT TRAINING
Circuit Training Programs: (Figure 7.1, p 163)
• 10 to 15 stations
• Designed to increase cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular
strength, and muscular endurance
• Circuit complete 2 to 3 times per exercise session
• Fatigue muscle group(s) in the 30-sec per station
• Short rest between stations
• Good for those with time limitations
• Super circuits = circuit program with cardio stations intermingled
with weight stations
CORE STABILITY
• Core stability is the ability to maintain the ideal
alignment of the neck, spine, scapulae, and pelvis
while performing an exercise or a sport skill.Improves
functional capacity
• Improves alignment of neck, spine, scapula, and pelvis
during exercise or sports
• Uses resistance training performed on unstable
surfaces
• Usually requires lighter load and slower velocity of
movement due to uneven surface
FUNCTIONAL
STABILITY
For years, functional training has been widely used in physical
rehabilitation programs to improve joint stability, neuromuscular
control, flexibility, and muscular fitness (strength and
endurance) of injured clients.
• Improves joint stability, neuromuscular control, flexibility, and
muscular fitness
• Trains and develops muscles to increase ease, safety, and
efficiency of ADL
• System of exercise progressions for specific muscle groups
that uses a six-step approach to increase difficulty and skill
(See Chart p. 164)
• Direct relationship between level of difficulty and core
stability requirement
FUNCTIONAL STABILITY
(CONTINUED)
Progressions develop strength and function of all, not just core,
muscle groups.
As exercise difficulty progresses, greater strength, balance, core
stability, and coordination are required.
Four types of exercises:
• Spinal stabilization
• Proprioception and balance
• Resistance exercises
• Flexibility exercises
Because core stability is dynamic, changing with body position during
exercise, isolated core strengthening does not automatically increase
core stability unless it is accompanied by motor skill training
ISOKINETIC TRAINING
• Isokinetic exercise combines the advantages of
dynamic (full range of motion) and static (maximum
force exerted) exercise
• Uses an accommodating resistance that matches force
exerted
• Reduces likelihood of muscle soreness—no eccentric
component
• Limited in ability to produce muscle hypertrophy—no
eccentric component
DEVELOPING
RESISTANCE TRAINING
PROGRAMS
• Know the client’s goals, availability, and access to
equipment.
• Assess client; identify any additional specific target
areas.
• Review training principles; determine how each can be
incorporated into the individualized program.
• Follow standard guidelines and recommendations (see
tables 7.2-7.5 in text).
• Be mindful of precautions and specific guidelines when
programming for older clients and children.
DEVELOPING FUNCTIONAL
TRAINING PROGRAMS
Follow the six-step approach:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Isolate and educate
Add resistance
Add functional training positions
Combine increased function and resistance
Exercise multiple muscle groups with increased
resistance and core challenge
6. Add balance, increased function, speed, or rotation
APPLICATION OF
TRAINING PROGRAMS
Specificity requires an exercise be specific to
• the muscle group that is exercised,
• the type of contraction, and
• training intensity.
Overload: Muscle group must be exercised at workloads that are greater than
normal.
• For strength: ≥60% 1RM; faster gains at higher loads
• For endurance: 30% 1RM ≤ load < 60% 1RM, but with reps to fatigue
Progression: systematic, periodic, and gradual increase of the training volume,
or total amount of work by manipulating
•
•
•
•
•
resistance or load,
reps (number or velocity),
sets,
number of exercises, and
rest periods.
APPLICATION OF TRAINING
PROGRAMS (CONTINUED)
Initial values: The client with the lowest starting value
(strength, endurance, power) will show greatest
improvement.
Diminishing returns: As the client gets closer to the
goal, the fewer and smaller the improvements will be.
Individuality: No two clients will respond to the same
exercises the same way.
Reversibility: Injury or discontinuation will result in loss
of previous gains.
RESISTANCE TRAINING
FOR CHILDREN
Resistance training is safe and beneficial for youth.
Closely follow special precautions and recommended
guidelines; initially focus on technique. (see pg. 168, “Youth
Resistance Training Programs”)
Keep intensity less than 80% 1RM.
A high rep, moderate intensity program is more effective than
low rep, high intensity program for improving strength and
endurance.
At this age gains in strength are due to neuromuscular factors,
not hypertrophy.
Increases in bone density during childhood confer many
benefits in adult years.
RESISTANCE TRAINING
FOR OLDER ADULTS
• Closely follow special precautions and recommended
guidelines.
• Resistance training is safe and beneficial for seniors.
• Primary goal is to develop sufficient muscular fitness to
allow safe, independent performance of ADLs.
• Prescribe ≥1 set of 10 to 15 reps for 8 to 10 different
exercises each workout.
• Set intensity in RPE range (on 10-point scale) of 5-6
for moderate or 7-8 for vigorous workout.
• Initially, keep loads light and focus on technique!
EFFECTS AND BENEFITS OF
RESISTANCE TRAINING PROGRAMS
Morphological adaptations:
• Muscle hypertrophy through increased cross-sectional area
• Improvements in ligamentous and tendinous integrity
• Increased bone density and bone strength
• Increased capillarization of muscle
Neural adaptations:
• Enhanced motor unit activation and recruitment (depends on
training specificity)
• Increased frequency of neurotransmitter release by motor
neurons
• Enhanced neural inhibition of antagonists
(continue
d)
EFFECTS AND BENEFITS OF
RESISTANCE TRAINING PROGRAMS
(CONTINUED)
Biochemical adaptations:
• Enhanced anabolic and fat-burning profile
• Reduction in mitochondrial density with muscle hypertrophy
• Minimal alteration of phosphagenic energy stores (ATP/CP)
• Minimal alteration in ATP-synthesizing enzyme activity
Body composition adaptations:
• Increased fat-free mass (inclusive of bone mineral)
• Decreased fat mass
• Decreased %BF
(continue
d)
MUSCLE SORENESS
Acute muscle soreness: immediate response to reduction of
blood flow and local metabolic by-products in exercised muscle
Delayed-Onset of Muscle Soreness (DOMS): appears 24 to
48 hours after exercise
Muscle soreness decreases tension development and force
production.
Cause unknown but believed to be related to eccentric
contractions
Major theories suggest that unaccustomed or eccentric
exercise damages skeletal muscle cells and connective
tissues, producing an acute inflammation.
PREVENTION AND TREATMENT
OF MUSCLE SORENESS
Many approaches and combinations thereof may prevent or lessen
muscle soreness:
•
•
•
•
Nutrition
Pharmacology
Manual massage or icing
Mechanical manipulation of area (electrical vibration,
ultrasound)
• Exercise (single bout of low-volume, high-intensity
eccentric exercise)
• Slower or more conservative progression through program
• Warm-up prior to exercise

similar documents