Punnett Square Middle School Science Teacher Notes Insight 360™ is eInstruction’s classroom instruction system that allows you to interact with your students as they learn, quickly gaining insight into student understanding during class so you can adjust instruction in real-time during a single class session. Use this content, designed specifically for use with Insight 360™, to interact with your class. This content includes brief instructional material and two types of activities: Constructed Response Activity for students to complete as an individual or a group assignment. Send each Constructed Response Activity to the Insight 360 iPad Student App. Assessment Item with CueTag™ for students to respond to via student response devices. Receive instant real-time feedback and longitudinal reports. Punnett Square In 1905, English scientist Reginald Punnett, devised a method for finding the probabilities of possible genotypes of offspring of a cross or breeding experiment. This diagram method is known as the Punnett Square. • The alleles, or alternative gene forms, from each parent are listed on the top and the left side of the square. • Each square represents 25% of the offspring. • A heterozygous parent has two different alleles for a single trait (Tt). • A homozygous parent has the same two alleles for a single trait (TT or tt). t t T Tt Tt T Tt Tt Dominant and Recessive A dominant gene takes precedent over a recessive gene. • Dominant genes are denoted by capital letters in the Punnett square. • Recessive genes are denoted by lowercase letters in the Punnett square. In a laboratory, a scientist is crossing a plant with yellow berries and a plant with red berries. Both plants are homozygous. The red trait is dominant. c c C Cc Cc C Cc Cc The offspring in this experiment will all appear to be red. However, 100% of the offspring will be heterozygous since they will contain an allele for red and one for yellow. Click here for video Punnett Square Activity A scientist working in a lab is crossing a heterozygous tall pea plant with a homozygous short pea plant. Tall is the dominant trait. • Draw a Punnett square to model this experiment. • Describe the probabilities of the resulting population. Punnett Square Activity A scientist working in a lab is crossing a heterozygous tall pea plant with a homozygous short pea plant. Tall is the dominant trait. • Draw a Punnett square to model this experiment. • Describe the probabilities of the resulting population. t t T Tt Tt t tt tt 50% of the offspring will be heterozygous (Tt). These offspring will be tall since tall is the dominant trait. 50% of the offspring will be homozygous (tt). These offspring will be short since they contain only the allele for the short trait. A scientist is doing crosses on silkworms. These silkworms are known to produce yellow (dominant) or white (recessive) cocoons. She crosses two silkworms that both have yellow cocoons. In the offspring about 25% of them appear to have white cocoons. The most reasonable explanation is the silkworms she crossed were a. both heterozygous. b. both homozygous. c. a combination of one heterozygous and one homozygous. For information about Insight 360™, visit http://www.einstruction.com. For additional content samples, click here.