Demand Approach in TVET

Report
First steps towards an appropriate
curriculum design
Dr. Stefan Wolf, The Need Approach for TVET Transfer,
Symposium Sustainability for New Neighbourhoods & Buildings, El Gouna, Egypt, 6th to 9th may 2012
www.web-tt.org
Need Approach for TVET Transfer
Overview
• Demand approach in TVET Transfer
• Concepts of curricula design in international TVETcooperation
• Characteristics of knowledge and ability of
practice
• Limits of current concepts for designing curricula
in TVET-cooperation
• Procedures of the project WEB-TT
Dr. Stefan Wolf, The Need Approach for TVET Transfer,
Symposium Sustainability for New Neighbourhoods & Buildings, El Gouna, Egypt, 6th to 9th may 2012
www.web-tt.org
Topics
Demand Orientation
• Since the mid 1950th Germany is active in policy transfer in
TVET and international TVET cooperation
• The base is always a demand from a taker-country for advice
or support in TVET to a giver-country
– Mostly the results of German TVET are requested, not the
prerequisite of the German success
– From the German side the policy transfer in TVET has
focused for a long time on the transfer of the dual
apprenticeship system with its very complex institutional
order
Dr. Stefan Wolf, The Need Approach for TVET Transfer,
Symposium Sustainability for New Neighbourhoods & Buildings, El Gouna, Egypt, 6th to 9th may 2012
www.web-tt.org
Demand Approach in TVET -Transfer
Demand Orientation
• Since the 1950th the German side has conducted only little
adaptation of the TVET activities to fit to the foreign
condition
• The importance of policy transfer in TVET from Germany
decrease dramatically since the late 1990th
• Therefore the activities to develop an appropriate curricula
design were stopped
• The multiple strengths of the German TVET elements are
not sufficiently adapted to well fitting the foreign conditions
Dr. Stefan Wolf, The Need Approach for TVET Transfer,
Symposium Sustainability for New Neighbourhoods & Buildings, El Gouna, Egypt, 6th to 9th may 2012
www.web-tt.org
Little adaption of German TVET to foreign countries
Demand Orientation
• The English concept of CBET/ DACUM dominate the
international cooperation in TVET
• Better fitting by modular structure and orientation on
small professional activities, based on the demands of
companies by a functional perspective
• Curricula for trainings, systems of certification and
national qualification frameworks could be developed
• Since the early 2000th the German policy transfers in
TVET are obliged to follow the CBET/ DACUM concept
Dr. Stefan Wolf, The Need Approach for TVET Transfer,
Symposium Sustainability for New Neighbourhoods & Buildings, El Gouna, Egypt, 6th to 9th may 2012
www.web-tt.org
Adaption from the German’s rivals in international
TVET transfer
Competence based Education and Training - CBET
• Key method is the moderated group discussion (committee)
of Expert-Workers
• External functional analysis of companies to identify the
core work or business process could be done
• With additional steps a full training system could be
arranged and implemented
• With the gained information from the analysis and the
implemented training system it will be possible to derive a
certification system with three up to five TVET levels
Dr. Stefan Wolf, The Need Approach for TVET Transfer,
Symposium Sustainability for New Neighbourhoods & Buildings, El Gouna, Egypt, 6th to 9th may 2012
www.web-tt.org
Curricula Design
Curricula Design
Analytic framework of CBET/ DACUM
1. Description of the job/ occupation by the expert-worker
2. Description and explanation of the duties of a specific job/ occupation
3. Collection of enablers during the group discussion
Result of DACUM-Analysis
General
Naming of occupation or job
Task
Task
Duty
Task
Different elements of tasks
have to identify and
additionally enablers, i. e.
knowledge, skills, tools
and activities and
behaviour
Task
Task
…
…
Duty
Task
…
…
…
…
Particular
Dr. Stefan Wolf, The Need Approach for TVET Transfer,
Symposium Sustainability for New Neighbourhoods & Buildings, El Gouna, Egypt, 6th to 9th may 2012
www.web-tt.org
Duty
Curricula Design
• Expert-Worker-Workshops to identify the core tasks of any
occupation
• Conduct sector analysis of the concerned industrial or
business field in advance
• Work process analysis with accompanied observation
• With the results the formulating of a curriculum with four
classification levels - from novice to expert - will be possible
• It needs some supplementary steps to succeed
Dr. Stefan Wolf, The Need Approach for TVET Transfer,
Symposium Sustainability for New Neighbourhoods & Buildings, El Gouna, Egypt, 6th to 9th may 2012
www.web-tt.org
Work Process oriented Curricula Design
Curricula Design
Work Process oriented Curicula Design
Work Process oriented Curricula Design
Developing of a learn field approach
curricula design* with four qualification
levels by analysing the professional task
analysis
* The partition is in four qualification levels from novice
to the expert, each of them are subdivided into up to 12
different learn fields
Sector analysis of occupational field
Round table to communicative
validation of the results
Check of the draft of the
didactical transmission and the
settings of the sequences
Expert-Worker-Workshops
Identification of core tasks
and skills
Professional task analysis
Draft of a didactical
transmission of of the
core tasks
Workprocess-Analysis
Detailed description of core
tasks and skills and its
sequencing
Dr. Stefan Wolf, The Need Approach for TVET Transfer,
Symposium Sustainability for New Neighbourhoods & Buildings, El Gouna, Egypt, 6th to 9th may 2012
www.web-tt.org
Preselection of occupational
profiles
Comparison of both
concepts
Cheap, Quick and easy to handle
Group discussion as basis
Quick results
Functional fit to the demands of
companies
• Only simple professional
activities
• Behaviourism as the theoretical
ground
• Certification oriented, the
learning process, the input and
the didactical methodological
arrangements don’t matter to
Work process oriented
Curricula Design
• Costly, mixture of methods
• Group discussion on
biographical basis
• Accompanied observation,
• Communicative validation
• Work or business process as
core orientation of the concept
• Complex activities to identify
• Constructivism as theoretical
ground, action oriented learning
• Importance of learning
processes and results
Dr. Stefan Wolf, The Need Approach for TVET Transfer,
Symposium Sustainability for New Neighbourhoods & Buildings, El Gouna, Egypt, 6th to 9th may 2012
www.web-tt.org
•
•
•
•
CBET/ DACUM Concept
Specifics of knowledge
of practice
– It secures successful results and activities
– It is always under the oppression of obligation to act and
under the oppression of results
– The logic of practice is frugal and use the same pattern for
different situation, e.g. the meaning of the expression
that metal sheet is living or the meaning of the nouns
hot/could
Dr. Stefan Wolf, The Need Approach for TVET Transfer,
Symposium Sustainability for New Neighbourhoods & Buildings, El Gouna, Egypt, 6th to 9th may 2012
www.web-tt.org
• Craft knowledge and ability are very often
incorporated and not easy to articulate
• The logic of practice (Bourdieu) differs substantially
from the logic of understanding and order
• Self-articulation of practice dissociate of “the truth of
every own practice” (Bourdieu 1993), because the
necessary theoretical distance distort the articulation
of practice
• The articulations are blurred and difficult to decode
• Use of heuristics and simple, but experience based
schemes, reduction of the quantity of knowledge,
activation of no-knowledge
• And the knowledge of practice is an influential factor
in the inner-company shaping of the work regime
and therefore connected with inner-company power
Dr. Stefan Wolf, The Need Approach for TVET Transfer,
Symposium Sustainability for New Neighbourhoods & Buildings, El Gouna, Egypt, 6th to 9th may 2012
www.web-tt.org
Specifics of knowledge
of practice
• Normally the knowledge of practice is called into
question from outside, e.g. the results are bad, new
requirements defined, etc.
• Cognitive knowledge is the foundation of any
reflective abilities of a practitioner about his/her
knowledge of practice
• Trainings and work practice determined by
planning, carry out and check (complete action) will
facilitate a modification of knowledge of practice
 Generally we can state some problems of decoding
the knowledge of practice
Dr. Stefan Wolf, The Need Approach for TVET Transfer,
Symposium Sustainability for New Neighbourhoods & Buildings, El Gouna, Egypt, 6th to 9th may 2012
www.web-tt.org
Specifics of
knowledge of practice
Decoding the
knowledge of practice
–
–
–
–
In advance sector analysis,
Group discussion,
Accompanied observation,
Work process documentation by photo analysis, analysis of
document from site work or production work,
– Analysis of failure by photo documentation and expert
interviews
Dr. Stefan Wolf, The Need Approach for TVET Transfer,
Symposium Sustainability for New Neighbourhoods & Buildings, El Gouna, Egypt, 6th to 9th may 2012
www.web-tt.org
• Only group discussion is insufficient, to little
information to gain
• Necessity to communicate with the practitioner with
confidence
• Professional knowledge, and at the same time
professional distance needed
• Obligatory mixture of research methods, e.g.
The project WEB-TT
• Appropriate qualification for the on-site work of Egyptian
construction companies delivered by German TVET supplier
• Combination of qualification with innovative technologies in
the construction field
• Coordinated qualification modules so a German TVET
certificate will be possible
• Need approach means: (1) Adaptation to the contexts on
location in Egypt, (2) Adaptation to the existing conditions of
the participants and (3) Adaptation to the demands of the
companies
Dr. Stefan Wolf, The Need Approach for TVET Transfer,
Symposium Sustainability for New Neighbourhoods & Buildings, El Gouna, Egypt, 6th to 9th may 2012
www.web-tt.org
Objectives
build infrastructure
and
check framework
II
Conception
development of
components
III
Inventory analysis
component related
market analysis
Dr. Stefanidentify
Wolf, The Need
Approach
for TVET
the
need
of Transfer,
Symposium Sustainability for New Neighbourhoods & Buildings, El Gouna, Egypt, 6th to 9th may
vocational training
2012
www.web-tt.org
IV
Testing
exportable training
modules for egypt
(for Vocational and
further training)
Identify the demand and offer
of technology and the demand
for qualification
Ientify the target group in
the cultural context
I
Procedure
• On-site visits with photo documentation
• Expert interviews with field excursion on location
• Analysis of the structure of the Egyptian TVET system and
the certification system
• Structured interviews with German civil engineers with
experiences in Egypt
• Comparative analysis of German company based training
curricula (AVO) with Egyptian training curricula (EVQ)
• Analysis of documents given by the company
• Conduct of a structured survey of the participants of the
training measurements
Dr. Stefan Wolf, The Need Approach for TVET Transfer,
Symposium Sustainability for New Neighbourhoods & Buildings, El Gouna, Egypt, 6th to 9th may 2012
www.web-tt.org
The project WEB-TT
The project WEB-TT
• In the first step selected executive from the workmanship
level of the on-site work will be trained in short courses
• Six different trades of on-site work are commonly selected
to train
• Support by multi-media sequences specifically build for the
on-site training
• The training will be organised by problem oriented learnand-work-assignments, not by an instruction approach
• The general structure of the training is lead by didactic
approach of complete action
Dr. Stefan Wolf, The Need Approach for TVET Transfer,
Symposium Sustainability for New Neighbourhoods & Buildings, El Gouna, Egypt, 6th to 9th may 2012
www.web-tt.org
Didactic-methodical concept
• Demand Approach vs. Need Approach
• Both CBET/ DACUM and Work Process oriented
Curricula Development work mainly with group
discussions
• The specifics of the knowledge of practice impede
the understanding of knowledge and ability of the
workmanship level or of crafts level
• The project WEB-TT procedures pragmatically to
develop need adapted qualification modules for
the on-site work
• It uses a mixture of inquiring methods
Dr. Stefan Wolf, The Need Approach for TVET Transfer,
Symposium Sustainability for New Neighbourhoods & Buildings, El Gouna, Egypt, 6th to 9th may 2012
www.web-tt.org
Résumé
Questions and more
Dr. Stefan Wolf, The Need Approach for TVET Transfer,
Symposium Sustainability for New Neighbourhoods & Buildings, El Gouna, Egypt, 6th to 9th may 2012
www.web-tt.org
Thank you for your attention

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