JOURNAL QUESTION 14 Jan 2013 Which form of reproduction is most likely to give a population of organisms genetic variety? Why? Vocabulary Allele Segregation Activity JOURNAL QUESTION 16 Jan 2013 How is an allele related to a gene? Explain and give an example. TODAY’S APPS Nearpod Student Funny2018 Student PIN: FGOJO Set up Google Drive Science Folder 5-Lastname,FirstName JOURNAL QUESTION Male alleles are both brown. Female alleles are brown and white. Show the possible outcomes for the offspring. GENOTYPE VS. PHENOTYPE LEARNING TARGET I can differentiate and make connections between phenotypes and genotypes of organisms. GENE The instructions for a specific inherited trait that are found on one section of a chromosome of DNA. For example, you have a gene(s) for each of the following traits: Hair color Eye color Hitchhiker’s thumb Tongue rolling Hairline Earlobes ALLELE The different forms of a gene. Each gene is made up of at least two alleles, one inherited from the male parent and one from the female parent. For example: Gene for hair color: Blonde hair OR Black hair Gene for eye color: Blue eyes OR Brown eyes Gene for thumb shape: Hitchhiker’s thumb OR Straight thumb Gene for tongue rolling ability: Can roll tongue OR Can’t roll tongue Gene for hairline: Widow’s Peak OR Straight hairline PUNNETT SQUARES HOW CAN IT BE DETERMINED WHICH ALLELES AN OFFSPRING WILL INHERIT? DOMINANT ALLELES Alleles that cover up, hide, mask, or over-power other alleles. The trait associated with the dominant allele always shows up when it is present (it dominates!). Writing convention: UPPERCASE letters. For example: H = Dominant (Straight thumb) h = Recessive (Hitchhiker’s thumb) Hh = Straight thumb HH = Straight thumb hh = Hitchhiker’s thumb RECESSIVE ALLELES Alleles that are covered up or hidden. The recessive trait will only show up if a dominant allele is NOT present. Writing convention: lowercase letters For example: W = Dominant (Widow’s peak) w = Recessive (Straight hairline) Ww = Widow’s peak ww = Straight hairline HOMOZYGOUS Both alleles are the SAME as each other. Homo = same For example: TT = homozygous DOMINANT (both alleles are dominant) tt = homozygous RECESSVIE (both alleles are recessive) HETEROZYGOUS Each allele is DIFFERENT from each other. Hetero = different For example: Hh Ss Ww Tt GENOTYPE The genes that an organism has in their DNA Genotype = Genes Represented by letters Examples: Hh BB tt Dd PHENOTYPE The traits or characteristics of an organism (What it looks like) Phenotype = “Features” Examples: Brown or blonde hair color Brown or blue eye color Hitchhiker’s or straight thumb Tongue rolling ability or not Widow’s peak or straight hairline PUNNETT SQUARE Female Alleles Male Alleles EYE COLOR BROWN IS DOMINANT TO BLUE . Use the letter “B” B = BROWN allele (dominant) b = blue allele (recessive) RIHANNA Brown is dominant to blue. Rihanna has brown eyes. What is her PHENOTYPE? What is her GENOTYPE? RIHANNA Brown is dominant to blue. PHENOTYPE: brown eyes GENOTYPE: BB or Bb BRAD PITT Brown is dominant to blue. Brad has blue eyes. What is his PHENOTYPE? What is his GENOTYPE? BRAD PITT Brown is dominant to blue. PHENOTYPE: blue eyes GENOTYPE: bb HAIRLINE HAVING A WIDOW’S PEAK IS DOMINANT TO HAVING A STRAIGHT HAIRLINE Use the letter “W” W = WIDOW’S PEAK allele (dominant) w = straight hairline allele (recessive) Widow’s peak is dominant to normal hairline. JOHN TRAVOLTA John has a widow’s peak. What is his PHENOTYPE? What is his GENOTYPE? Widow’s peak is dominant to normal hairline. JOHN TRAVOLTA PHENOTYPE: widow’s peak GENOTYPE: WW or Ww LEBRON JAMES Widow’s peak is dominant to normal hairline. LeBron has a normal hairline. What is his PHENOTYPE? What is his GENOTYPE? LEBRON JAMES Widow’s peak is dominant to normal hairline. PHENOTYPE: normal hairline GENOTYPE: ww DO YOU HAVE A WIDOW’S PEAK? If yes, what is your genotype? If no, what is your genotype? Which geneotype has could possibly be heterozygous? Why? SKIN FRECKLES ARE DOMINANT TO NO FRECKLES (use the letter “F”) JENNIFER LOPEZ Freckles are dominant to no freckles. JLo has no freckles. What is her PHENOTYPE? What is her GENOTYPE? JENNIFER LOPEZ Freckles are dominant to no freckles. PHENOTYPE: no freckles GENOTYPE: ff LINDSAY LOHAN Lindsay has freckles. What is her PHENOTYPE? What is her GENOTYPE? Freckles are dominant to no freckles. LINDSAY LOHAN PHENOTYPE: freckles GENOTYPE: FF or Ff Freckles are dominant to no freckles. LADY GAGA Freckles are dominant to no freckles. Lady Gaga has no freckles. What is her PHENOTYPE? What is her GENOTYPE? LADY GAGA Freckles are dominant to no freckles. Lady Gaga has no freckles. PHENOTYPE: no freckles GENOTYPE: ff DIGITS (FINGERS AND TOES) POLYDACTYLY IS DOMINANT TO 5 DIGITS (use the letter “D”) “NORMAL” 5 DIGITS Polydactyly is dominant to 5 digits. These people have 5 digits. What is the PHENOTYPE? What is the GENOTYPE? “NORMAL” 5 DIGITS Polydactyly is dominant to 5 digits. PHENOTYPE: 5 digits GENOTYPE: dd Polydactyly is dominant to 5 digits POLYDACTYLY (EXTRA DIGITS) These people have Polydactyly. What is the PHENOTYPE? What is the GENOTYPE? Polydactyly is dominant to 5 digits POLYDACTYLY (EXTRA DIGITS) PHENOTYPE: Polydactyly GENOTYPE: Dd or DD ALBINISM Lack of pigmentation Recessive trait Use the letter “P” What is the genotype of this family? What is the phenotype?